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Exponential and Logarithmic
Functions
3.5
Exponential and
Logarithmic Models
What You Should Learn
•
•
Recognize the five most common types of
models involving exponential or logarithmic
functions.
Use exponential growth and decay functions to
model and solve real-life problems.
3
What You Should Learn
•
•
Use logistic growth functions to model and
solve real-life problems.
Use logarithmic functions to model and solve
real-life problems.
4
Introduction
5
Introduction
There are many examples of exponential and logarithmic
models in real life.
The five most common types of mathematical models
involving exponential functions or logarithmic functions are
as follows.
1. Exponential growth model: y = aebx, b &gt; 0
2. Exponential decay model:
y = ae–bx, b &gt; 0
6
Introduction
3. Gaussian model:
y = ae
4. Logistic growth model:
5. Logarithmic models:
y = a + b ln x,
y = a + b log10x
7
Introduction
The basic shapes of these graphs are shown in Figure
3.32.
Figure 3.32
8
Introduction
Figure 3.32
9
Exponential Growth and Decay
copy them down.
10
Example 1 – Demography
Estimates of the world population (in millions) from 2003
through 2009 are shown in the table. A scatter plot of the
data is shown in Figure 3.33. (Source: U.S. Census
Bureau)
Figure 3.33
11
Example 1 – Demography
cont’d
An exponential growth model that approximates these data
is given by
P = 6097e0.0116t, 3  t  9
where P is the population (in millions) and t = 3 represents
2003. Compare the values given by the model with the
estimates shown in the table. According to this model,
when will the world population reach 7.1 billion?
12
Example 1 – Solution
The following table compares the two sets of population
figures.
From the table, it appears that the model is a good fit for
the data. To find when the world population will reach
7.1 billion, let
P = 7100
in the model and solve for t.
13
Example 1 – Solution
cont’d
6097e0.0116t = P
Write original equation.
6097e0.0116t = 7100
Substitute 7100 for P.
e0.0116t  1.16451
Ine0.0116t  In1.16451
0.0116t  0.15230
t  13.1
Divide each side by 6097.
Take natural log of each side.
Inverse Property
Divide each side by 0.0116.
According to the model, the world population will reach
7.1 billion in 2013.
14
Gaussian Models
copy them down.
15
Gaussian Models
The graph of a Gaussian model is called a bell-shaped
curve.
The average value for a population can be found from the
bell-shaped curve by observing where the maximum
y-value of the function occurs. The x-value corresponding
to the maximum y-value of the function represents the
average value of the independent variable—in this case, x.
16
Example 4 – SAT Scores
In 2009, the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) mathematics
scores for college-bound seniors roughly followed the
normal distribution
y = 0.0034e–(x – 515)226,912, 200  x  800
where x is the SAT score for mathematics. Use a graphing
utility to graph this function and estimate the average SAT
score. (Source: College Board)
17
Example 4 – Solution
The graph of the function is shown in Figure 3.37. On this
bell-shaped curve, the maximum value of the curve
represents the average score. Using the maximum feature
of the graphing utility, you can see that the average
mathematics score for college bound seniors in 2009 was
515.
Figure 3.37
18
Logistic Growth Models
19
Logistic Growth Models
Some populations initially have rapid growth, followed by a
declining rate of growth, as indicated by the graph in
Figure 3.39.
Logistic Curve
Figure 3.39
20
Logarithmic Models
21
Logarithmic Models
On the Richter scale, the magnitude R of an earthquake of
intensity I is given by
where I0 = 1 is the minimum intensity used for comparison.
Intensity is a measure of the wave energy of an
earthquake.
22
Example 6 – Magnitudes of Earthquakes
In 2009, Crete, Greece experienced an earthquake that
measured 6.4 on the Richter scale. Also in 2009, the north
coast of Indonesia experienced an earthquake that
measured 7.6 on the Richter scale. Find the intensity of
each earthquake.
Solution:
Because I0 = 1 and R = 6.4, you have
106.4 = 10 log10I
106.4 = I
23
Example 6 – Solution
cont’d
For R = 7.6 you have
107.6 = 10 log10I
107.6 = I
24
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