2 2 Daily Quote &Question (DQ ) “Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" –Ronald Reagan “ SONG FOR THE DAY: 1. Winds of Change How did the Civil Rights movement change in the late sixties? Daily Comment & Card JUNE 17, 1972 WATERGATE SCANDAL “Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" -CREEP (Committee for the Re-election of the President attempted to spy on Democrats at the Watergate Hotel (their headquarters) -Men connected to CREEP were arrested -Nixon stated they had no connection to the Whitehouse -The investigation uncovered tapes and evidence of espionage -reporters Woodward and Bernstein helped reveal the details -Nixon resigns, administration members go to jail, many Americans distrust government SONG FOR THE DAY: WINDS OF CHANGE –Ronald Reagan Daily Comment & Card 1972 & 1979 SALT I & II -Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty -SALT I: Agreement signed by the US and Soviets to stop building nuclear ballistic missiles for 5 years. -SALT II: Signed by Carter and Brezhnev; it reduced and limited number of missile launchers and bombers -These treaties helped to reduce tensions between the US and U.S.S.R “Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" –Ronald Reagan SONG FOR THE DAY: WE DIDN’T START THE FIRE Daily Comment & Card JUNE 17, 1972 1972 & 1979 WATERGATE SCANDAL -CREEP (Committee for the Re-election of the President) attempted to spy on Democrats at the Watergate Hotel (their headquarters) -Men connected to CREEP were arrested -Nixon stated they had no connection to the Whitehouse -The investigation uncovered tapes and evidence of espionage -reporters Woodward and Bernstein helped reveal the details -Nixon resigns, administration members go to jail, many Americans distrust government SALT I & II “Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" -Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty -SALT I: Agreement signed by the US and Soviets to stop building nuclear ballistic missiles for 5 years. -SALT II: Signed by Carter and Brezhnev; it reduced and limited number of missile launchers and bombers -These treaties helped to reduce tensions between the US and U.S.S.R SONG FOR THE DAY: WINDS OF CHANGE –Ronald Reagan JOHN F. KENNEDY “ASK NOT WHAT YOUR COUNTRY CAN DO FOR YOU, ASK WHAT YOU CAN DO FOR YOUR COUNTRY…” -“New Frontier” -PEACE CORPS -BAY OF PIGS -BERLIN WALL (JUNE/AUG 1961) -CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (OCT 22-26, 1963) -SPACE RACE ASSASSINATED BY LEE HARVEY OSWALD NOVEMBER 22, 1963, WHO WAS LATER KILLED BY JACK RUBY. LYNDON B. JOHNSON WANTED TO HELP AMERICANS. DECLARED “WAR ON POVERTY.” HIS PROGRAM WAS KNOWN AS THE GREAT SOCIETY. HIS ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY ACT (64) CREATED THE JOB CORPS TO HELP STUDENTS. THE MEDICARE ACT PASSED IN 1965. THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 WERE PASSED TO HELP ENSURE THE RIGHTS OF AFRICANAMERICANS. THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 1965 FOCUSED ON BEING LESS BIASED THAN THE MCCAREN-WALTER ACT OF 1952 WHICH HAD KEPT QUOTAS AT THE LEVELS FOR THE 1920s. PREFERENCE WAS ALSO GIVEN TO IMMIGRANTS WITH RELATIVES ALREADY IN THE U.S. AND TO THOSE WITH VALUABLE SKILLS. IT RESTRICTED IMMIGRATION FROM LATIN AMERICA FOR THE FIRST TIME. JOHNSON WON ELECTION IN 1964 OVER REPUBLICAN BARRY GOLDWATER (MANY FEARED GOLDWATER WOULD INVOLVE US IN WAR WITH THE SOVIETS…) -25TH AMENDMENT PASSED TO MAKE IT POSSIBLE FOR THE VP TO TAKE OVER IF THE PRESIDENT WERE INCAPACITATED, BUT NOT DEAD. ALLOWED THE PRESIDENT TO APPOINT A VICE PRESIDENT IF THE JOB WERE VACANT. -26TH AMENDMENT-- 18 YEAR OLDS VOTE JFK & RFK TURMOIL!!! JOHNSON FACED PROTESTERS, HIPPIES AND THE COUNTER CULTURE, HE HAD TO DEAL WITH VIETNAM, THE DEATH OF ROBERT KENNEDY IN 1968 (SIRHAN SIRHAN), AND VIOLENCE AT THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION… While President, Lyndon Johnson had gall bladder surgery. Afterwards, he displayed his scar for the press. In this David Levine cartoon, the scar takes on the shape of a country whose conflict had caused lots of trouble for the Johnson administration… RICHARD M. NIXON IS KNOWN FOR OPENING UP RELATIONS WITH COMMUNIST CHINA AND FOR BEGINNING A POLICY OF DÉTENTE WITH THE SOVIET UNION. HE WITHDREW TROOPS FROM VIETNAM IN 1973. HE SIGNED A LAW CREATING THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) AND THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT. THE GREATEST SCANDAL IN PRESIDENTIAL HISTORY DESTROYED HIS ADMINISTRATION. BEFORE IT WAS OVER, HE RESIGNED AND 25 MEMBERS OF HIS STAFF WOUND UP IN PRISON! WATERGATE BEGAN WHEN MEN WERE DISCOVERED TRYING TO BREAK INTO DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL HEADQUATERS WITH BUGGING DEVICES AND NIXON SAID NO ONE AT THE WHITE HOUSE WAS INVOLVED. NIXON TOLD HIS CHIEF OF STAFF (HALDEMAN) TO TELL THE CIA TO TELL THE FBI NOT TO INVESTIGATE. THIS WAS OBSTRUCTION OF JUSTICE… FIRED WHITE HOUSE COUNCIL JOHN DEAN SAID NIXON KNEW AND COVERED IT UP. NIXON WAS ORDERED (IN UNITED STATES V. NIXON) TO HAND OVER SECRET TAPE RECORDINGS, BUT WHEN HE DID, 18 MINUTES WERE MISSING AND THERE WAS LOTS OF PROFANITY!! NIXON RESIGNED IN AUGUST OF 1974 AND WAS REPLACED WITH THE MAN HE HAD APPOINTED TO THE VICE PRESIDENCIAL POSITION… GERALD FORD FORD GRANTED NIXON A “FREE AND FULL” PARDON. AMERICA SUFFERED FROM “STAGFLATION” AND HIGH OIL PRICES FROM OPEC… JIMMY CARTER WON THE ELECTION OF 1976 BECAUSE HE WAS SEEN AS A WASHINGTON OUTSIDER AND WAS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH THE SCANDAL. HE HAD BEEN THE GOVERNOR OF GEORGIA HE CREATED THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TO DEAL WITH THE ENERGY CRISIS. HE PUSHED THE COMMUNITY REINVESTMENT ACT (1977) THROUGH CONGRESS TO REQUIRE BANKS TO MAKE CREDIT AVAILABLE IN POOR COMMUNITIES, PREVENTING THE DECAY OF LOW-INCOME NEIGHBORHOODS IN THE INNER CITIES. IN FOREIGN POLICY HE PUSHED FOR THE U.S. TO SET A MORAL EXAMPLE. HE SIGNED THE PANAMA CANAL TREATY (1977) RETURNING CONTROL OF ALL OF THE CANAL ZONE EXCEPT THE CANAL ITSELF TO PANAMA. THE CANAL WAS LATER RETURNED TO PANAMA. HE IS CREDITED WITH WORKING OUT A PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN EGYPT AND ISRAEL IN THE CAMP DAVID ACCORDS… INITIALLY HE CONTINUED THE POLICY OF DENTENTE, HOWEVER, WHEN THE SOVIETS INVADED AFGHANISTAN, THIS ENDED. HE STOPPED THE GRAIN SALES AND BOYCOTTED THE 1980 OLYMPICS. DURING CARTER’S PRESIDENCY, THE AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI TOOK OVER IRAN AND THE SHAH FLED TO AMERICA WHERE HE RECEIVED CANCER TREATMENTS. IN RETALIATION, IRANIANS TOOK OVER THE AMERICAN EMBASSY AND HELD 52 AMERICANS PRISONER FOR 444 DAYS. WE TRIED TO RESCUE THEM, BUT WE FAILED… THEY WERE NOT RELEASED UNTIL RONALD REAGAN WAS SWORN IN AS PRESIDENT. RONALD REAGAN -FORMER ACTOR AND GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA WAS KNOWN AS THE “TEFLON PRESIDENT” -HE WON THE ELECTION OF 1980 WITH THE SUPPORT OF THE NRA AND JERRY FALLWELL’S MORAL MAJORITY -SURVIVED AN ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT. -HE USED “REAGANOMICS” OR “SUPPLYSIDE SPENDING” TO SOLVED THE ECONOMIC ISSUES—INCREASED SPENDING. HE APPOINTED SANDRA DAY O’CONNOR, THE FIRST FEMALE ON THE SUPREME COURT -HE INTRODUCED CHANGES TO IMMIGRATION LAWS TO DEAL WITH ILLEGAL IMMIGATION. THE MAZZOLISIMPSON ACT OF 1986 “LEGALIZED” ILLEGAL ALIENS WHO HAD LIVED CONTINUOUSLY IN THE UNITED STATES SINCE 1981. LAUNCHED THE INVASION OF GRENADA TO PROTECT AMERICANS AFTER A COMMUNIST TAKE OVER ON THE ISLAND. -HE ANNOUNCED THE REAGAN DOCTRINE THAT SAID THE U.S. WOULD NOT ONLY CONTAIN COMMUNISM, BUT ATTEMPT TO “ROLL-BACK” COMMUNISM BY HELPING FEEDOM FIGHTERS. -TESTIFIED THAT HE “COULD NOT RECALL” AT THE IRAN-CONTRA HEARINGS WHERE OLIVER NORTH BECAME WELL KNOWN (INVOLVED USING PROFITS FROM SALES OF ARMS TO IRAN TO HELP REBELS FIGHTING COMMUNISM IN NICARAGUA… HE BELIEVED IN “PEACE THROUGH STRENGTH” AND PROPOSED RESEARCH FOR AN ANTI-BALLISTIC DEFENSE SYSTEM—THE STRATEGIC DEFENSE INTITIATIVE KNOWN AS “STAR WARS” THAT WOULD SHOOT DOWN MISSILES TO PREVENT NUCLEAR ATTACKS. REAGAN IS CREDITED WITH THE END OF THE COLD WAR. IT ENDED WHEN MIKHAIL GORBACHEV (SOVIET UNION) INTRODUCED NEW REFORMS: GLASNOST (ALLOWED SOME FREEDOM OF SPEECH— CRITICISM OF THE GOVERNMENT, FREEDOM OF PRESS) ”OPENESS” PERISTOIKA (RESTRUCTURING THE ECONOMY TO ALLOW MORE TRADE AND PRIVATE ENTERPRISE THE IRON CURTAIN WAS LIFTED IN 1989 AND THE BERLIN WALL WAS TAKEN DOWN. EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS ELECTED DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS. THE COMMUNIST PARTY LOST ITS MONOPOLY ON SOVIET POWER AND SPLIT INTO SEPARATE STATES IN 1991. GEORGE H.W. BUSH AND NEW RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN ANNOUNCED THE COLD WAR’S END IN 1992.