Natural Language and Speech (parts of Chapters 8 & 9)

Natural Language and Speech
(parts of Chapters 8 & 9)
Natural Language in
• Use of human languages
– Translation
– Commands to computer
– Queries
– Text Database Searching
– Text generation
– Games
Commands to Computer
• From computer-oriented to domain oriented
• May not be more efficient than selection
• Speech recognition may help
Natural Language Queries
• Limited form of commands to computer
• Actions able to be requested are database
queries (searches)
• Experienced users shorthand
• Things aren’t as grim as Shneiderman makes it
Text Database Searching
• DB contains text as main content
• Common goal is retrieval of relevant records using
natural language question
• Meaning vs matching
• Statistical
• Pre-processing
• Information retrieval contests
• Information Push, E-mail filtering
Natural Language Text
• Output in text, frequently from data
• Generation of poems and stories
• Conversational systems
• Command based games
Speech Recognition, Digitization
and Generation
• Speech recognition progress is slow
• Challenges – background noise, speaker
• Drawbacks – human memory use
• Benefits – accommodation of disabilities,
environment/task requirements
• Growth – now many products
Discrete Word Recognition
• Sentences spoken is slow deliberate manner –
with words being discrete entities, rather than
run together (continuous)
• Not tolerable for most people
• Discrete word recognition is easy
• Continuous speech recognition is harder
Speech Store and Forward
• Store and forward spoken messages
• Could be used for groupware – computer
supported cooperative work
Speech Generation
• Very feasible – done all the time
• Can be annoying / noisy
• Valuable for handicapped
• Completely computer generated vs human
sounds pieced together vs stored words
When to Use Speech
Message is simple
Message is short
Message will not be referred to later
Message deals with events in time
Message requires an immediate response
Visual channels of communication are overloaded
Environment is unsuitable for transmission of visual info
User must be free to move around
Audio Tones and Music
End Speech and Natural