More OOP Design Patterns

More OOP Design Patterns
Chapter 15
The Idea of a Design Pattern
A design pattern is simply a standard
solution for solving a common
• This solution is standard because all
programmers are trying to balance a
common set of forces that occur
when we try to solve that class of
Decorator Pattern
• Decorator design pattern solves the problem of
adding a behavior to every class in a hierarchy.
• This is a remarkably common problem. Among
the forces that a decorator balances are:
– Programmers should not have to write the same code
to do exactly the same thing in two different places.
– Client code should not have to know that it is using an
instance of a particular class. If it does, then we have
to write new client code each time.
• The solution is to use a common interface for all
classes, and to write a class that delegates the
real work to an instance that implements the
same interface.
MVC Design Patterns
• Model-View-Controller (MVC)
• A collection of simpler patterns that are
incredibly useful.
• Using MVC, you think of the application
in terms of these three modules – Model : The core of the application. This
maintains the state and data that the
application represents. When significant
changes occur in the model, it notifies all of
its views
– Controller : The user interface presented to
the user to manipulate the application.
– View : The user interface which displays
information about the model to the user. Any
object that needs information about the
model needs to be a registered view with the
MVC Design Patterns
• MVC decouples views and model by
establishing a subscribe/notify protocol which
is an example of the Observer design pattern.
Observer Design Pattern:
– Problem: How do you allow two or more
independent and loosely coupled objects to
change in synchrony with each other?
– Solution: Maintain a list of objects that are tied,
or dependent, on another object. When the target
object changes, the dependents, or observers,
are notified that they should update themselves.
Observer Design Pattern
• Examples:
– MVC Heart Beat example
– User interface components that permit interaction
(buttons, scrollbar, etc.) maintain a collection of
listener objects.
• We can dynamically add or remove listener objects as
long as they satisfy an interface.
• When the state of the GUI component changes, each
of the listeners is notified of a change.
Observer Design Pattern
• The class library Observable represents objects that can be
– the equivalent of the GUI component in AWT
– What would be observed in the MVC architecture?
• Objects wishing to be observed can either
– subclass Observable, or
– have an Observable instance variable
• Other objects can implement the Observer interface which
correspond to the listeners
• An Observer registers itself with the object being observed.
• The Observable object invokes notifyObservers() at any
time to indicate that it has changed state.
• notifyObservers() causes each observer to be sent a
message update(Observable, Object), where
– first argument is the observable that changed
– second argument is optional, but usually provides additional information
MVC Design Patterns
• MVC also lets you change the way a view
responds to user input without changing its
visual presentation
– A view uses an instance of a Controller subclass
to implement a particular response strategy
– To implement a different strategy, simply replace
the instance with a different kind of controller
• e.g., a view can be “disabled” so that it does not accept
input simply by giving it a controller that ignores input
– The view-controller relationship is an example of
the Strategy design pattern.
Strategy Design Pattern
• Problem: How do you allow the algorithm
that is used to solve a particular problem to be
easily and dynamically changed by the client?
• Solution: Define a family of algorithms with a
similar interface. Each algorithm provides a
different strategy for solving the problem at
hand. Encapsulate each algorithm, and let
the client select the strategy to be used in any
Strategy Design Pattern
• Example: the creation of layout managers in the
– rather that coding in the component library (e.g., frame,
panel, etc.) the details of how items are laid out on the
screen, these decisions are left to the layout manager.
– an interface for LayoutManager is defined
– the activities of the GUI components (e.g., frame,
panel, etc.) are independent of the layout manager
being used.
MVC Design Patterns
• MVC – views can be nested
• Nested views is supported with the
CompositeView class which is a subclass of
the View class
• CompositeView objects act just like View
objects, except they also contain and manage
nested views.
• This is a specific example of the Composite
design pattern using Views.
Composite Design Patterns
• Problem: How do you permit the creation of
complex objects using only simple parts?
• Solution: Provide simple components, but allow
them to be nested arbitrarily.
• Example: Creation of design layouts through the
interaction of Components and Containers.
– Containers hold a layout manager (border, grid, etc.)
– Each item in a layout is a Component.
– Composition occurs because Containers are also
Components (Containers are a direct subclass of
Adapter Design Pattern
• Problem: How do you use an object that
provides appropriate behavior but uses a
different interface than is required in some
• Solution: Define an adapter class that acts as
an intermediary. The adapter merely translates
commands from one form into another
• Example: InputStreamRead and OutputStream
Writer translate from input/output stream
interface into the required reader/writer interface
Flyweight Design Pattern
• Problem: How can one reduce the storage costs
associated with a large number of objects that
have a similar state?
• Solution: Share state in common with similar
objects, thereby reducing the storage required
by any single object.
• Example: the way Java maintains type
information about classes, e.g., type name,
description of the interface, etc.
– e.g., one Class object for all Strings
Abstract Factory Design Pattern
• Problem: How to provide a mechanism for creating
instances of families of related objects without specifying
their concrete representations.
• Solution: Provide a method that returns a new value that
is characterized only by an interface or parent class, not
by the actual type produced.
• Example: Collection classes (e.g., Vector) define a
method named elements() that is described as returning
a value of type Enumeration.
– Enumeration is only an interface, not a class
– the client is only interested in the behavior common to all values
that satisfy the Enumeration interface
Factory Design Pattern
• Problem: You have a method that returns a
newly created object, but you want subclasses
to have the ability to return different types of
• Solution: Allow the subclass to override the
creation method and return a different type of
• Examples
– the clone() method returns a copy of an object
– In abstract class ProjectileWorld we used a
makeProjectile factory method
RevisedCannonWorld extends ProjectileWorld
public class RevisedCannonWorld extends ProjectileWorld
public RevisedCannonWorld()
setTitle( "Like the Original CannonWorld" );
Projectile makeProjectile( int startAngle )
radianAngle = startAngle * Math.PI / 180.0;
= Math.sin( radianAngle );
= Math.cos( radianAngle );
return new CannonBall (20 + (int) (30 * cosAngle),
dy(5+(int) (30 * sinAngle)),
5, 12 * cosAngle, -12 * sinAngle );
Iterator Design Pattern
• Problem: How to provide a way to access
elements of an aggregate object
sequentially without exposing the
underlying representation.
• Solution: Provide a mediator object for the
sole purpose of sequential access.
• Example: The Enumeration interface
includes methods for hasMoreElements()
and nextElement().
Proxy Design Pattern
• Problem: How do you hide details such as
transmission protocols to remote objects?
• Solution: Provide a proxy that acts as a
surrogate or placeholder for another object.
• Example: Remote Method Invocation (RMI)
system coordinates Java programs running
on two or more machines.
RMI Proxy Example
1. RMI creates a proxy object that runs on the same
machine as the client.
2. The client invokes methods on the proxy.
3. The proxy transmits the method across the
network to the server on another computer.
4. The server handles the request, then transmits the
results back to the proxy.
5. The proxy hands the result back to the client.
Details of the network transmission are hidden from
the client.
Bridge Design Pattern
• Problem: How to decouple an abstraction from
its implementation so that the latter can vary
• Solution: Remove implementation details from
the abstraction, placing them instead in an
object that is held as a component in the
• Example: Most of the component classes in the
AWT make use of the bridge pattern.
Bridge Example: AWT Window
• Actions necessary to implement graphical
components vary from platform: Windows, Macs,
X-Windows, etc.
• Instead of placing platform specific details in the
class Window, each window maintains a
component of type WindowPeer interface.
• The WindowPeer has different implementations
depending for each platform.
• This separation allows a Java program to be
executed on an environment for which a peer is