outline chapter 6

CD 44
Chapter 6
Curriculum for Young children with special needs
Developmental Domains:
Motor development
Legislative and historical influences:
Theoretical Influences ( are these beneficial for children with disabilities?)
a) Developmental Approach: acquire skills in a predictable sequence. For children with disabilities
may not be possible/instead need to focus on skills needed to access their environment.
b) Developmental-Cognitive approach: acquire skills in a predictable sequence with an emphasis
in cognitive development. For children with disabilities need to focus on functional skills needed
to access their environment ( greeting, taking turns, independent skills).
c) Pre-academic or Academic approach: teaching core group of skills ( literacy, math, science).
For children with disabilities instead need to focus on social skills, self-care skills, fine motor and
communication skills.
d) Behavioral approach: emphasis in direct instruction through a prescribed sequence of
instructional activities. ABC data is analyzed and instruction is modified and applied to change
behavior. Too structured in some cases for children with disabilities and difficult to blend with
general early childhood programs.
e) Functional Approach: functional daily skills useful for children to adapt to environment are
identified and adapted. Geared towards daily living activities. It lacks a clear organizational
Curriculum Models
Creative Curriculum
Bank Street Curriculum
High/Scope Curriculum
Montessori Curriculum
Reggio Emilia Model
Theme-Based Model
Developmentally Appropriate Practice(DAP) Promotes high-quality programs for children and
families. Best practice model. It is described based in 3 components:
1- Age appropriateness
2- Individual appropriateness
3- Social and cultural appropriateness
Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council of Exceptional Children (CEC) (1993)
1) Educational experiences should be family-based
2) Educational experiences should be evidence-based
3) Educational experiences should provide for cultural responsiveness
4) Educational experiences should provide for multidisciplinary input
5) Educational experiences should be developmentally, individually, and culturally appropriate
6) Educational experiences should be normalized
Similarities between DAP and DEC
Importance placed on individualization
de-emphasis of standardized assessment
integration of assessment and curriculum
importance of child-initiated activities
importance of children’s active engagement with the environment
emphasis on social interaction
importance of responsiveness to cultural diversity
Comprehensive Curriculum for Early Intervention
Should have 4 specific elements:
1) Assessment to identify curriculum content assessing child’s strengths, needs and interests.
2) Content includes scope of what is taught, sequence in which it is taught
3) Activities and intervention strategies
4) Progress monitoring to determine if planned activities produce desired outcomes