Portfolio for Ruby Student Name: Lucia Avalos Class: Child Development 34 Observation and Recording Children’s Behavior Portfolio Summary This portfolio is dedicated to Ruby, my focus child. I have observed her during the fall 2015 semester at Vaughn Next Century Learning Center. This portfolio is a record of my observations concerning Ruby’s learning process, and some of the activities in which Ruby was involved during the semester. This portfolio contains reports of different aspects of development that I have learned this semester, and the theories as they apply to Ruby. It also contains some pictures and sample projects. I hope that this portfolio will give the reader a better understanding of Ruby’s development during these few months. Introduction to Ruby The child is four years and ten months old girl who attends classes five days a week at Vaughn Early Education Learning Center. The child is an independent and friendly child who likes to play, read, and share with others. The child has many notable qualities. She is an outgoing girl with an appetite for reading, building, and physical activities. She interacts with teachers and peers, and is comfortable playing on her own. She is progressing well in all four aspects of development; physical, cognitive, personality, and social. Social Development Social Development Summary Ruby is competent in social skills. She is able to share the materials with her peers, seems to understand that everyone needs a chance to use them, she is able to communicate to the teacher that she is done with an activity and would like to play in another area. She is able to role play in the dramatic play area while elaborating on what she is doing. She is able to play cooperatively with other children and seems to be a leader. She appears to enjoy being in charge of certain things such as holding the door open and being a line leader. Ruby talks about what she likes to do and what her favorite things are; for example, she appears to enjoy playing puzzles with her peers and help her peers clean up. She is able to play alone or in small groups effectively, she uses kind words such as please and thank you with her peers and teachers. Lucia Avalos Child Development 34 Frequency Count October 7, 2015 Summary: The children were in two groups of 4 at two different tables doing two different activities, the other two children participated when one child of each table was done with the activity. Child one seemed to have trouble sharing the materials and space with the other children. Child two seemed to enjoy the group activity and share most of the time except when child one refused to share with her. Child three appeared to not be bothered by child one, she continued to share and talk about her work to child one. The other children in the activity table across seemed to be enjoying the guided activity and appeared to get along without incident. The children appeared to like to share their materials and talk a lot about what they were making. Recommendations: I would recommend pairing child one with other children that are good leaders and know how to share. Also, plan activities where the children take turns using a prop and/or leading, like ‘Simon says’ or ‘red light, green light.’ DAP Quotes: The preschool years are now seen as the key period for establishing positive attitudes and behaviors about learning. These Attitudes and behaviors are closely related to social and emotional development but affect virtually all aspects of children’s development and learning. (Page 120) Preschool children generally value their friendships. At this age, most children have friends, though not necessarily a best friend. Friendship skills are important: Children who have an easier time making friends are likely to be more self-regulated and to have a better understanding of others’ thoughts and feelings. (Page 121) Anecdotal or Running Record Center Name: Vaughn Next Century Learning Center Date: Monday, September 21, 2015 Time: 9:30 A.M. Target child’s Name: Ruby, 4 Years old Location (indoor/outdoor & room #) Observation Comments/Recommendations/2Quotes from DAP Block Center Recorder: Lucia Avalos 9:30 am, Child 1 is playing alone in the block area. She is lying on the floor while stacking the blocks. Child 2 joins and gets 2 cars to play with the blocks, he hands child 1 a car. Child shows she can play both alone and with others efficiently. Child 1 seems to enjoy his presence. Child 1 hurts herself with a block, she says, ‘Ouch’, child 2 leans in and asks, ‘You ok?’ D.A.P. Text: Preschoolers who have positive relationships with their teachers are likely to be more interested and engaged in school, and they are more likely to be socially competent in later years. Page 120 Pair Child 1 with children that seem to have Child 1 continues building while child 2 helps trouble playing with others. bring more blocks. D.A.P. Text: Children construct their Child 1 says to child 2, ‘No you don’t have to understanding of a concept in the course of pass, you have to pass this.’ interaction with others. Page 131 Tower falls and child 1 says, ‘Ooooooooh!’ and says, ‘I’m going to build something else, this is what I’m going to do.’ Child 2 says, ‘What?’ and child 1 responds, ‘I’m going to do a boat.’ Speaks in full sentences and uses good vocabulary. Recommendations: Bring books about boats to the classroom, circle time boat theme for a day. Summary: Child 1 seems to enjoy being a leader and treats her peers with respect and kindness. She can be a great role model for the children in the classroom. Lucia Avalos Leyanis MaJuan Ana Avendano Child Development 34 Anecdotal or Running Record Center Name: Los Angeles Mission College Date: October 1, 2015 Time: 9:30 am Target child’s Name: Johnny Location (indoor/outdoor & room #): Indoor block area Observation Child one said, ‘Ok guys there’s a special thing we have to know guys’ to the other children in the area. Child two says, ‘Alright guys we need to build a race track. Child one then says, ‘We have to break those apart’ he then walks over to the other children building a tower and tells them, ‘We have to mess up you guy’s things to make the race track.’ Summary: Child one seems to have an extensive vocabulary. He used lots of language when giving directions and letting the other children know what will be needed for building the race track. Child seems to be respectful of other children’s structure when asking for permission to knock it down. Child one seems to be the leader in the activity, he walks up and down the area who appears to tell the other children what to do. Comments/Recommendations/2Quotes from DAP Pair child with another child that is a leader. Create an activity that allows child to take turns leading. Recommendations: Make block area a bit larger to give children more space to play in small groups. Have a bigger selection of blocks with community workers and people from around the world. DAP Quotes: (social/emotional development) Children’s social interactions, relationships with teachers and peers, and friendships; development of prosocial behaviors; and sense of self relation to others. (page 120) Extensive involvement in sociodramatic play not only builds preschoolers social skills but also in associated with better language and literacy skills, self-regulation, and later school achievement. (page 121) Emotional Development Emotional Development Summary Ruby is competent in emotional skills. She is able to have self-control of feelings and behavior when faced with a problem, if she is unable to solve the problem she goes to a teacher and asks for help. She is able to communicate ideas about why one has a feeling or what will happen as a result of a feeling. She shows empathy for her peers when they get hurt or are sad. Ruby expresses joy and excitement for certain activities such as doing puzzles and painting on the easel. She has built relationships and social interactions with familiar adults and peers. She is able to show pleasure when immersed in symbolic and sociodramatic play, she appeared to enjoy making food and treats from playdough. She seems to enjoy responsibility and expresses pride when complies with the classroom rules. CLASS LIST LOG Observing: Arrivals Recorder: Lucia Avalos Date: 9/16/15 Child 1: Parent signed child in and child just walked in and put her things away in her cubby and went to the carpet to wait for the rest of the class. Child 2: Mother gave child a hug and kiss and child walked in, put her things away in her cubby and sat on the carpet as well. Child 3: Child’s father just gave child a push in the room and said bye, child did not look back and went directly to the carpet with the other children. Child 4: Child’s mother signed child in and child did not wait for his mother to say goodbye, he walked in the classroom very happy. Child 5: Child’s mother said bye and have him a push into the classroom, child went in and walked to the carpet. Child 6: Child and mother hugged for a while and said goodbye. Child walked in, mother watched her child go in and put her things away in her cubby, child then came back to her mother for another hug. Child then walked back in the classroom, mother waited to see her sit on the carpet. Child 7: Mother signed child in, child did not want to stay. Mother carried him in the room and hugged him for a while to calm him down. She then took him to the carpet with the rest of the children, he stayed crying. Child 8: Mother gave child a short hug and kiss, child walked in, put things away and sat on the carpet. Child 9: Child walked in while her mother talked to the teacher, child waited for her mother in the classroom. Mother then walked in and took her things and placed them in her cubby. Child walked to the carpet and sat down, mother continued talking to the teacher. Child 10: Father signed child in, child waited and father pushed child in the door without a goodbye. Physical Development Physical Development Summary Ruby is competent in physical skills. She is able to go up, around and under the apparatus, she is able to run with good speed, hop, skip and jump. She is able to hold writing tools to write her name, draw and paint. She is able to dress herself and the dolls in the dramatic play area. She is able to throw and catch a ball, jump rope and hula-hoop. She is able to balance on one foot while holding her arms out for stability. Ruby seems to enjoy going on the slide and under the apparatus with her peers. She is able to ride the tricycle well and at good speed, she appears to enjoy racing her peers in the bike path. She is able to climb the stairs using alternating feet and seems to enjoy going up and down the stairs in the apparatus. She is able to cut out pictures and paste them on construction paper using her fine motor skills. She is able to manipulate writing tools and playdough well. Lucia Avalos Child Development 34 September 30, 2015 Physical Check List Summary Child seems to be able to manipulate the scissors correctly when cutting the vegetables from the paper. She can hold the crayons in the pincer grasp when coloring the vegetables. Also, she can put her sweater on and off with no assistance. Child uses alternating feet when climbing the stairs in the apparatus; she can catch and throw a ball to her friend with minimal effort. She can run and jump with ease and able to hop over a foam block easily. Activities I would recommend for this child are the following: Tossing games for developing eye-hand coordination Simon says to imitate hopping, skipping, jumping and galloping Art activities that require fine motor skills to be used more DAP Quotes: They should spend at least a quarter of their school day in physical activity. This is an age when much learning in transmitted through the large muscles, when learning goes from the hand to the head, not the other way around. (Page 114) They make progress through opportunities for open-ended activities that develop their hand muscles and fine motor skills, such as exploring drawing and painting. (Page 117) Language & Speech Development Language & Speech Development Summary Ruby is competent in language and speech skills. She is able to follow directions and retell what she did at home the day before. She is able to have reciprocal communication and conversation with her peers and teachers. She shows interest in literacy and demonstrates knowledge and understanding of details in a story. She is able to identify most letters in the alphabet and is able to spell her name. Ruby is able to blend smaller units of language with the help of pictures or objects. She is able to identify most uppercase letters and most lowercase letters and shows understanding that letters correspond to the sounds in words. She is also able to write several two to three letter words or phrases. She appears to understand most information and concepts communicated in English for both instructional and social purposes. SPEECH AND LANGUAGE CHECKLIST Child: Ruby, 4 Years old Sounds: Date: 10/14/15 Underline the ones that you hear. Circle if there is difficulty. p, w, h, m, n, (usually by 3 years) b, k, g, d, y (usually by 4 years) f, ng, t, r, l (usually by 6 years) ch, sh, j, s, z, v, th, zh, br, tr (clear by 7–8 years) Language: Underline the ones that are present. Circle if there seems to be difficulty. Correct word order (by 2½) Uses pronouns (by 2½) Gives name (by 3) Uses plurals, some prepositions (by 3) Tells day’s schedule in sequence (by 4) Can tell an imaginative story about a picture (by 4) Speaks in adult like sentences (by 4) Note Language Behaviors: Turn taking—displays understanding of conversational shift Communication signals eye contact √ facial expression √ gestures √ tone of voice √ Meaning: What did the conversation tell you about the child? The conversation tells me that he child appears to be confident when speaking to another child or adult. It also tells me that the child seems to be integrated with the amount of language she uses. (Adapted from Machado, J. M.  and Breyen & Gallagher ) REPRODUCED WITH THE PERMISSION OF AUTHOR: Nilsen, B. (2008). Week by Week: Plans for Documenting Children’s Development, 4th ed. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Lucia Avalos Child Development 34 October 22, 2015 Literacy Rating Scale & Speech and Language Checklist Summary: As I observed the child I noticed many things. Child seems to know that she needs to speak in complete sentences to be understood and maintains good eye contact when speaking to another child or adult. She speaks in adult like sentences and shows interest in books. When asked to retell parts of the story in order like what happened first, second and third, she seems to be able to do so with minimal to no hesitation. Child can identify and write her name on her own. She seems to know most of the letters in the alphabet and their sounds. Child shows interests in book and literacy and is mostly a self-initiated activity. She ‘reads’ books to herself in the library during free-choice time and sometimes to another child when approached. She is able to hold a writing tool and write her name accurately and with no mistakes and can sometimes spell 2 to 3 letter words on her own. Recommendations: I would recommend to pair this child up with a child that does not show too much interest in books and/or has trouble writing and recognizing letters. Also, have more books that appeal to her interests. I would also recommend her parents to make a book with her at home so she can bring and ‘read’ to the class. For the dramatic play area, I can provide supplies to make it into a classroom and the child can pretend being the teacher and teach the children what she knows. DAP Quotes: To reach every child where she or he is, teachers need to bear in mind that while some children come from language-abundant households, others do not. In a stimulating classroom, every child will make important language gains in these years. (Page 144) Reading aloud to childrenindividually, in a small group, and as a whole group- and enhancing this experience by reading expressively and actively engaging children (e.g., asking them to predicts what happens next) is vital in fostering their enjoyment of books and interest in becoming readers. (Page 147) Cognitive Development Cognitive Development Summary Ruby is competent in cognitive skills. She is able to tell the sequence of the planting and understands that a seed needs soil, water and sun to grow. She is able to sort objects into groups based on their size and shape. She is able to solve simple everyday problems involving numbers by counting up to 10 objects using one-to-one correspondence. She is also able to tell the difference between more and less. She is able to use counting to add or subtract one or two objects to determine which one has more, less or make it equal. She is able to identify differences in size, length, weight or capacity between two objects using comparative words like ‘this one is smaller’ or ‘this one weighs more’. She is able to identify shapes in a picture and patterns. WORK SAMPLES CHECKLIST Student’s Name: Lucia Avalos Observation (mark yes or no) Self-Care Independently selects materials - Yes Makes preparations to work (Example: Puts on a smock) - No Uses materials independently - Yes Cleans up spills, messes - Yes Writes name on work - Yes Places finished product in proper place - Yes Washes and dries hands if necessary - No Physical Development Controls whole body movement during work -Yes Controls small muscles to hold tool - Yes Controls tool to form desired product - Yes Draws, prints, paints, pastes - Yes Squeezes glue bottle - Yes Picks up collage materials - Yes Manipulates clay or Play Dough - Yes Cuts with scissors - Yes Social Skills Represents important people in life and work Yes Desires and can work near other children – Yes Shares materials and supplies - Yes Engages in positive commentary on other children’s work - Yes Works cooperatively and collaboratively on a joint project – Yes Dates: Nov. 4, 2015 Comments Based on my observation the child appears to be very independent. She is able to select materials that are needed for an activity and effectively uses materials independently. During lunch time she spilled milk and without the teacher or anyone else having to tell her, she went to get a few paper towels and cleaned up the spilled milk. After completing her work she writes her name and places her finished work on the drying rack. During this activity child did not need to wash her hands. Based on my on my observation the child appears to be able to control her whole body movement during an activity. She is able to control her small muscles when holding writing utensils in the pincer grasp. She appears to be able to control the writing tool to write her name. When doing an activity about the letter U, she was able to color the letter completely, cut out the letter and paste it on another piece of paper. She was able to control how much she squeezed the glue bottle to get the desires glue to paste the letter. Child was able to clean up after herself without reminding. She is able to manipulate the play dough well when making balls to make people. Child appears to have good control of the scissors when cutting. During my observation I seen the child pretending to be her mom when setting the table in the dramatic play area. She asked the other girls to help her set the table and share the food that she placed at the center of the table. In the activity table child 1 was coloring while another child said, ‘hey look is this how you color it?’ and child 1 said, ‘yes, that’s good.’ Child 1 seems to enjoy playing with other children. Comments Observation (mark yes or no) Emotional Development Uses work emotions of happiness, anger, fear - No Verbalizes feelings about work - Yes Enjoys manipulation and creation - Yes Controls emotions of frustration when work meets difficulties - Yes Uses the media as a stress release, pounding clay, tearing paper, painting - No Speech and Language Development Names scribbles, buildings, creations - Yes Talks about work using vocabulary connected with materials and design - Yes Uses language to describe process, intent, and satisfaction with product - Yes Memory and Attention Span Includes details in work from memories of experiences - Yes Focuses attention on project to produce a finished work - Yes During my observation I noticed child 1 telling another child that she did the work good and that she liked it. The other child said, ‘yeah, it looks nice.’ On another activity, child 1 was playing with the playdough. She seemed to enjoy feeling the playdough and making different types of food. Child 1 is able to control her emotions when she is upset or angry; she usually walks away from the situation. Child is able to name her creations during an activity and can explain what she is doing and with what she’s doing it with. When I asked her, ‘what will you do first?’ she said, ‘I’m gonna lace it first, then I’m gonna color the animals, and then I’m gonna to cut them, and at the end I’m gonna stick the animals on the mitten.’ Child was able to describe in detail the process of her activity. Child seems to remember what she did the day before and even the week before in class. She is able to tell us that the letter they learned the week before was U and the letter for this weeks is Y. Child is able to focus on the activity until it is finished without getting distracted. Comments Observation (mark yes or no) Math and Science Knowledge Includes numerals and quantity in work Yes Shows perceptual awareness of color, space, shape - Yes Explores cause and effect and experimentation with variables in media (Example: Sees differences in paint when water and sand are added) - Yes Literacy Includes literacy in work - Yes Recognizes the difference between drawing and writing - Yes Work illustrates or connects with stories - Yes Gives attention to art in story books and knows the difference between text and illustrations Yes Creativity Uses materials in a novel way, displaying flexibility in - Yes Draws from experiences to create representations – Yes Incorporates creativity into other area of play, constructing with blocks, drawing and constructing in dramatic play, forming designs in sand and different medium - Yes Interaction with Adults Involves adults in work as (facilitator, participator, director) - Yes Based on my observation child seems to know one to one correspondence. She can put five cats and the number 5 together with minimal hesitation. She appears to know her colors and the shapes when asked about them. During a science activity I implemented, the child seemed to understand why we needed to put soil and water for the seeds to grow. She also seemed to understand that sun is also needed to help the plant grow. She asked if we were going to put the plants outside so they can get sun. I have observed that the child always writes her name on her work. She also seems to be able to tell the difference between drawing and writing. After reading a book in class and being asked to draw their favorite part, she is able to connect her drawing to the story when explaining what it is to the other children and the teachers. Based on my observation the child seems to be using a banana as a phone during lunch. During free choice time child goes to the blocks and begins building a boat, she asks the other children if they want to help her. One child says, ‘I will,’ and begins to help her build a boat. Child 1 says, ‘We need the big blocks because we’re gonna make a big boat.’ The other child agrees and they continue building the boat. The child seems to understand what boats are and where you keep them and that they belong in the water. Based on my observation the child seems to involve adults in her work to confirm that she is doing the activity right, for reassurance. 3 or more different child’s work samples (writing, painting, collage, and cutting) Setting Observation Name of Center: Vaughn Next Century Learning Center Date of Visit: November 16, 2015 Type of Program: C h i l d Care Center Head Start Kindergarten Age of children in classroom: 4 and 5 year olds 1. Describe the building(location, type of building, other uses): The building is located in a quiet residential area, it is a new building that is ecofriendly and is secure and safe for the children. Children’s work are displays outside the classrooms for parents and family to see without interrupting the class. 2. Describe the entry to the building(signs, decorations, security) To enter the building you need to sign in and then you get buzzed in to the building. There are signs at the front of what is not permitted in the building, for example strollers and cars. The school id decorated accordingly, right now it decorated for the fall season and the Thanksgiving holiday. 3. List and describe other areas used by class (gym, kitchen, bathrooms) There is a computer lab for the whole school and every classroom has a scheduled time and day they get to use it. The computer lab has plenty of computers to accommodate a whole classroom, they provide headphones for every child and interactive activities for the children to play. The bathrooms are separated by boys and girls and are child sized for easy to use. 4. At the conclusion of visiting this setting, write a paragraph about the “feeling” of this center. What attitudes, values, friendliness, safety, or enrichment did you experience while there? How do you think this environment affects the children, their families, and the staff who work there? While I was there I felt that all the staff and faculty were friendly and enjoyed working there. I felt that the environment was safe for the children and reminders of safety rules were posted throughout the school. I felt welcome in the school and in the classroom, they enjoy having volunteers at their school. I feels this environment affects the children in a positive way because of the values and attitudes the staff and faculty have. The children’s work is proudly displayed on the walls outside the classroom for parents and family to see. The families feel welcomed and part of the community because family pictures are also displayed. The staff seemed happy to be part of the environment, they are friendly and I feel that the school environment makes everyone feel like a community. 5. Complete the following chart on learning centers. Make detailed lists of the following: Learning Center Library Equipment and Furnishing Chair, sofa and shelf. Manipulatives and Math Shelf Blocks Shelf Dramatic Play Stove, cabinet, sink, refrigerator, clothes hanger, table and chairs. Table and fish tank Science Art and Sensory Easel, drying rack and shelf. Outdoors House, apparatus, table, and sand table. Materials Books, blankets, stuffed animals and pillows. Blocks, letters, puzzles, lacing and numbers. Variety of blocks, people of different cultures, traffic signs, cars and community buildings. Dishes, clothes, hats, food, toaster, tea pot, broom, mop, and place mats. Rocks, sea shells, plant, pumpkin, mirror, science viewer and different animals. Paint, brushes, scissors, glue, construction paper, sponges, markers, stencils and cups. Blocks, food, dishes, bikes, jump rope, toy cars, balls and measuring cups. 6. Classroom Setting Observation (include pictures of different learning centers –block, library, dramatic play, science, etc.) Dramatic Play Area Cubbies Sand and Water Computer Center Manipulatives and Math Center Art Center Library Area Block Area Science/Discovery DRDP Follow Up DRDP 2015 The desired result developmental profile – revised (DRDP-R) is an assessment tool that consists of seven domains of learning and development for young children. Each domain consists of the measures that focus on a specific competency. You will mark the developmental level of one focused child for each measure and write a follow-up plan. DRDP 2015 Follow Up Social/Emotional Development Child’s name: Ruby 1. What is the child’s observed strengths? (refer to scores) The child’s strengths include the following, social and emotional understanding, relationships and social interactions with familiar adults, relationships and social interactions with peers. 2. What areas have you observed that need strengthening? (refer to scores) Areas child needs to improve are identity of self in relation to others, symbolic and sociodramatic play. 3. What are your specific activity suggestions to support strengthening these areas? I will add more materials in the dramatic play area to expand her thinking. For symbolic play I can provide a variety of different blocks and one on one ask her, how can we use these materials we have here in different ways? What can we pretend it could be? This way her imaginations and thinking skills are expanded. DRDP 2015 The desired result developmental profile - revised (DRDP-R) is an assessment tool that consists of seven domains of learning and development for young children. Each domain consists of the measures that focus on a specific competency. You will mark the developmental level of one focused child for each measure and write a follow-up plan. DRDP 2015 Follow Up Cognitive/ Language & Speech Development Child’s name: Ruby 1. What is the child’s observed strengths? (refer to scores) Child’s strengths are concepts about print, phonological awareness, letter and word knowledge, emergent writing, comprehension of English, special relationships, imitation, classification and number sense of quantity. Child is able to write her name and knows the name and sound of most letters. She is able to write 2 to 3 letter words and is able to organize blocks by size, shape and type. 2. What areas have you observed that need strengthening? (refer to scores) Areas child needs to improve are in measurement and patterning. 3. What are your specific activity suggestions to support strengthening these areas? I will provide more materials for measuring and patterning such as, measuring tape, straws, shapes of different colors and sizes and do an activity with her. I can have a lesson plan solely on measuring for example; using cups to put water in and ask her which one has more or less? Or an activity with a scale and weigh different things like a rock and a block and ask her which one weighs more or less? For patterning I can provide a learning plan on shapes and sizes or colors. For example I can provide different types of shapes and ask her to make me an ‘A and B’ patterns. She is familiar with this type of pattern, and we can work from there, slowly have her add more shapes to make the pattern more complex. DRDP 2015 The desired result developmental profile - revised (DRDP-R) is an assessment tool that consists of seven domains of learning and development for young children. Each domain consists of the measures that focus on a specific competency. You will mark the developmental level of one focused child for each measure and write a follow-up plan. DRDP 2015 Follow Up Physical Development Child’s name: Ruby 1. What is the child’s observed strengths? (refer to scores) The child’s strengths are gross locomotor movement skills, personal care routines: hygiene and personal care routines: dressing. Child is able to go from running to a complete stop without falling or bumping into someone. She knows that after a messy activity she needs to wash her hands and clean her area without being told. She does not need assistance with putting on her sweater or taking it off. 2. What areas have you observed that need strengthening? (refer to scores) Areas child needs improvement are gross locomotor manipulative skills, fine motor manipulative skills, personal care routines: self-feeding and active physical play. 3. What are your specific activity suggestions to support strengthening these areas? I will provide games like bean bag toss and fishing in the water table to strengthen her skill in gross motor manipulative. I can provide small Legos ask her to build me something she would like with the small pieces, I can also provide a cutting activity to sharpen her fine motor manipulative skills. I will have a discussion with her about how and why we use spoons and forks when we eat. This will help her understand that we don’t use our hands to eat our food. For active physical play I can remind her to watch her step when climbing the apparatus and to watch her head when she is going under it. That way she can be aware of her surroundings.