Dietary Guidelines for Americans Evaluation by Ivet Bazikyan; Dorothy Dixon; Valerie Fredickson; Janice Velazquez The purpose of this project is to examine different aspects of your diet and see if you are getting the proper nutrition needed in order to either maintain a healthy lifestyle or to make modifications to improve your health. You will need your textbook and the Diet Analysis program (code comes with your book or available at Building E-7 LRC Lab 2nd floor) to complete this project. Take the time to answer each question completely. Your project must be typed. Every question needs to be answered. Blank sections will be marked as incorrect. If a question does not apply to you then write “N/A” next to it. You will need the following print outs in order to complete this project. 1. Profile 2. Intake vs. Goals (3 day averages only) 3. 3 day intake spreadsheets 4. My Plate Analysis I. Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol. 1. Highlight on your printout for the 3-day average (Intake vs. Goals report) the following. Basic components (Percent based on your personal profile): o o o o o o o o o o Calories below 80% or above 120% Protein below 100% or above 200% Carbohydrate below 130 grams Fiber less than 80% Fat and saturated fat above 100% Mono and polyunsaturated fat below 80% Cholesterol above 100% Vitamins and minerals (except sodium and potassium) below 80% or above 200% Potassium below 100% Sodium above 100% You have just highlighted the areas of your diet that are above or below the recommendations established in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). II. Weight Management To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories spent. Your Energy Requirements 2. ______________: Use the calorie recomendation that is on your computer printout. To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity. Evaluate Your Weight The higher your BMI, the greater the risk for health problems. BMI measures weight in relation to height. The BMI ranges shown are for adults. They are not exact ranges of healthy and unhealthy weights. However, they show that health risk increases at higher levels of overweight and obesity. Even within the healthy BMI range, weight gains can carry health risks for adults. 3. My BMI is and I am classified as . Measure around your waist, just above your hip bones, while standing. Health risks increase as waist measurement increases, particularly if your waist is greater than 35 inches for women or 40 inches for men. Excess abdominal fat may place you at greater risk of health problems, even if your BMI is about right. Your Other Risk Factors for Chronic Disease o o Do you have a personal or family history of heart disease? Yes/No Are you a male older than 45 years or a postmenopausal female? Yes/No o Do you smoke cigarettes? o Do you have a sedentary lifestyle? o Has your doctor told you that you have High blood pressure? o Abnormal blood lipids (high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No triglycerides? o Diabetes? Yes/No The higher your BMI and waist measurement, and the more risk factors you have, the more you are likely to benefit from weight loss. III. Physical Activity Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy body weight. Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance. Record your physical activity for one week; include whether the activity was aerobic, anaerobic or both. Current recommendations suggest that you engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most, preferably all, days of the week. Use only activities lasting more than 15 minutes: Day Activity Number of Minutes Aerobic Anaerobic Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Weight management and physical activity summary: Be prepared to discuss these in your report summary. Indicate "strength" or "weakness" below and answer why you chose this answer. 4. Is your calorie intake a strength or a weakness? Why? 5. Is your BMI a strength or a weakness? Why? 6. Is your waist measurement a strength or a weakness? Why? 7. Do you have other risk factors? If so, which? 8. Is your activity level a strength or a weakness? Why? IV. Food Groups to Encourage Different foods contain different nutrients and other healthful substances. No single food can supply all the nutrients in the amounts you need. To make sure you get all the nutrients and other substances you need for health, adopt a balanced eating pattern. 9. Grain Group My Plate Goal Actual 10. Fiber intake from 3-day average = Percentage of Goal g, % goal 11. Look up fiber on your daily spreadsheets and record your 2 highest foods for each day. Day 1: Day 2: Day 3: 12. Is the majority of fiber coming from soluble or insoluble fiber? 13. Describe the benefits of both types of fiber (soluble and insoluble) and give 2 examples of each type of fiber that you are currently consuming or that you can add to your diet. 14. If you were below 80% of your goal, what specific foods would you add to increase your fiber intake? 15. Vegetable Group My Plate Goal Actual Percentage of Goal Actual Percentage of Goal 16. Fruit Group Goal Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. 17. Vitamin C intake from 3-day average = mg, % goal 18. Look up vitamin C on your daily spreadsheets and record your 2 highest foods for each day. Day 1: Day 2: Day 3: 19. If you were below 80% of your goal, what specific foods would you add to increase your vitamin C intake? = 20. Vitamin A (retinol & beta-carotene) intake from 3-day average RAE, % goal 21. Look up Vitamin A on your daily spreadsheets and record your 2 highest foods for each day. Day 1: Day 2: Day 3: 22. If you were below 80% of your goal, what specific foods would you add to increase your vitamin A intake? 23. Vitamin E intake from 3-day average = mg, % goal 24. Look up Vitamin E on your daily spreadsheets and record your 2 highest foods for each day. Day 1: Day 2: Day 3: 25. If you were below 80% of your goal, what specific foods would you add to increase your vitamin E intake? 26. Folate intake from 3-day average = mcg, % goal 27. Look up folate on your daily spreadsheets and record your 2 highest foods for each day. Day 1: Day 2: Day 3: 28. If you were below 80% of your goal, what specific foods would you add to increase your folate intake? 29. Protein Group My Plate Goal Actual Percentage of Goal Choose a variety of proteins; always select the ones with less fat content. 30. Protein intake from 3-day average = grams, 31. Iron intake 3-day average = milligrams, % goal % goal Calculate the amount of this iron actually absorbed by multiplying the amount of iron consumed by .10 (10%). 32. Iron Intake = milligrams x .10 = milligrams absorbed If you are a man over 18 or a woman over age 50 you need to absorb 1 mg per day. If you are a woman between 11 and 50 years old you need to absorb 1.5 mg per day. Review the sections on trace minerals in your textbook and answer the following questions. 33. What effect will consumption of 3 ounces of meat/fish/or poultry (MFP Factor) have on your iron absorption? 34. What effect will being a vegetarian have on iron absorption? 35. What effect will consumption of 75 mg of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) or more at the meal including iron each day have on iron absorption? 36. List 3 iron absorption-inhibiting factors: 37. If your iron intake is below 80% of your requirement, how might this affect you? What foods could you add to your diet? 38. If your iron intake is above 200% of your requirement, how might this affect you? What foods could you remove from your diet? 39. Dairy Group My Plate Goal Actual Percentage of Goal Consume fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products. Adolescents and adults over age 50 have an especially high need for calcium, but most people need to eat plenty of good sources of calcium for healthy bones throughout life. 40. Calcium 3-day average = milligrams, % goal 41. Your gender: What is the significance of gender as a predictor of osteoporosis? 42. Are you younger than 30? What is the importance of age? 43. Do you regularly participate in weight-bearing exercise? Why is weightbearing exercise so important? 44. Do you have a family history of osteoporosis? What is the significance of genetics and ethnicity as a risk factor? 45. Females, have you reached middle age or are you post menopausal? Why is this important? 46. Do you smoke and/or drink alcohol (more than 2 alcoholic drinks per day for males or 1 drink per day for females)? What are the associated bone risks for those who smoke or drink alcohol? 47. Do you take calcium supplements? Based on your calcium intake, do you need supplements? 48. If you consume less than 80% of your goal, what specific foods could you add to your diet to increase your calcium intake. V. Category Recommendations 49. Fats List 3 of your highest food sources of fat for each day on the chart below. Mark the highest source of fat for each food. Food Source Day 1 1 2 3 Day 2 1 2 Sat Mono Poly 3 Day 3 1 2 3 When selecting and preparing meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk or milk products, make choices that are lean, low fat, or fat free. Consume less than 10% of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol. Keep total fat intake between 20-35% of calories, with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Fats supply energy and essential fatty acids, and they help absorb the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K and carotenoids. You need some fat in the food you eat but choose sensibly. 50. If your saturated fat intake is above 10%, what foods might you reduce or replace to change this? 51. Cholesterol 52. Cholesterol 3-day average = milligrams, % of goal 53. List cholesterol-containing foods you consume and the number of milligrams each contains. Food Cholesterol Food (mg) Cholesterol (mg) Limit intake of fats and oils high in saturated and/or trans fatty acids, and choose products low in such fats and oils. 54. Trans Fatty Acids Trans fatty acids are not included in your printouts. Trans fats mimic the negative health effects of saturated fats. How many foods do you consume that contain trans fatty acids? Highlight those foods on the list below. Margarine (hard, stick, soft, Rolls tub) Other fried snacks Shortening Cakes Cookies Peanut butter Pastries Doughnuts Pizza Imitation cheeses French fries Fried fast foods Crackers Deep-fried chicken Salad dressings Corn snacks Deep-fried fish Mayonnaise Corn chips Pies Biscuits Potato chips Coffee creamers 55. If you highlighted 3 or more foods on the list above, what foods might you replace, decrease or eliminate to improve your diet? 56. Read the sections of your textbooks on the health effects and recommended intakes of lipids and on heart disease and strokes. What are the major risk factors for CHD (Coronary Heart Disease)? List any you might have. 57. Carbohydrates/Sugar The Dietary Guidelines urge people to choose beverages and foods that limit added sugar intake. Specifically, sugars should account for only 10 percent or less of the day's total energy intake. Food labels list the total grams of sugar a food provides. This total reflects both added sugars and those occurring naturally in foods. You can tell which foods are high in added sugar by checking the ingredient list on the food; if it starts with several types of sugar then the food is high in added sugar. Recommendations suggest that "added sugars" as listed above should comprise less than 10 percent of the day's total calories, based on studies that show a lower intake of essential nutrients in diets high in added sugar. Compute the number of calories this would represent in your diet. 58. Total kcalories from 3-day intake average = kcalories x .10 = % of total 59. Review each day and highlight the foods consumed that are high in added sugar on the chart below. Products high in added sugar Approximate grams of sugar # of teaspoons kcal from sugar Sweetened fruit drinks, carbonated and noncarbonated (12 ounces 48 9 192 Cola (12 ounces) 36 7 144 Sherbet (1/2 cup) 28 5 112 Lemonade (8 ounces) 24 5 96 Fruit punch (8 ounces) 24 5 96 Candy (assorted, 1 ounce) 20 4 80 Cookies, commercial (4-5 small) 20 4 80 Donuts, yeast, glazed (1) 20 4 80 Gelatin desserts (1 cup) 20 4 80 Pastries, pan dulce (1) 20 4 80 Pie (1/6 of 9" pie) 20 4 80 Popcorn, caramelized (1 cup) 20 4 80 Tang (6 ounces) 20 4 80 Ice Cream (1 cup) 20 4 80 Popsicle (1) 16 3 64 Granola bar (1) 16 3 64 Fruit rolls (1 fruit leather roll) 12 2 48 Brown sugar (1 tsp) 5 1 20 Candy (1 tsp) 5 1 20 Honey (1 tsp) 5 1 20 Jam or jelly (1 tsp) 5 1 20 Maple sugar or maple syrup 5 1 20 Molasses (1 tsp) 5 1 20 Catsup (1 Tbsp) 5 1 20 Review the sections on health effects and recommended intakes of sugars in your textbook and answer the following questions: 60. Does your intake of sugar create nutrient deficiencies in your diet? 61. Does your intake of sugar contribute to other problems such as obesity, dental caries or heart disease? 62. What foods would you replace or remove because of this exercise? Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains often. Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners, such as amounts suggested by the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan. Reduce the incidence of dental caries by practicing good oral hygiene and consuming sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently. 63. Sodium and Potassium In the body, sodium -- which you mainly get from salt -- plays an essential role in regulating fluids and blood pressure. Many studies in diverse populations have shown that a high sodium intake is associated with higher blood pressure. Salt (sodium chloride) is the main source of sodium in foods. Only small amounts of salt occur naturally in foods. Most of the salt you eat comes from foods that have salt added during food processing or during preparation in a restaurant or at home. 64. Your intake of sodium is mg, % of goal 65. Complete the table with the 4 foods that contributed the most sodium to your diet for each day. Food Source Milligrams Day 1 1 2 3 4 Day 2 1 2 3 4 Day 3 1 2 3 4 66. If your sodium intake is high (greater than 100% of goal), read about sodium in your textbook and discuss the possible implications for your health. 67. In what ways can you reduce your sodium intake? List specific foods you could reduce, replace or eliminate. Consume less than 2,300 mg (approximately 1 teaspoon of salt) of sodium per day. Choose and prepare foods with little salt. At the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables. 68. Your intake of potassium is mg, % of goal 69. Look up potassium on your daily spreadsheets and record your 2 highest food sources for each day. Day 1: Day 2: Day 3: 70. If your potassium intake is less than 100% of goal, in what ways could you increase intake? List specific foods you could replace or add. 71. Alcoholic Beverages Moderation is defined as no more than one drink per day for women and no more than two drinks per day for men. This limit is based on differences between the sexes in both weight and metabolism. One drink is equal to: o o o 12 ounces of regular beer (150 calories) 5 ounces of wine (100 calories) 1.5 ounces of 80 proof distilled spirits (100 calories) 72. Do you usually exceed this recommendation? If so, comment on the effect alcohol may have on your health. Those who choose to drink alcoholic beverages should do so sensibly and in moderation. VI Written summary of your diet strengths and weaknesses 72. Food groups to encourage summary: Highlight the word strength or weakness below to use in your summary. Include a short answer about why you think this is a strength or weakness. Is the variety of foods you consume a strength or weakness? Why? Do you consume whole grains? Strength or weakness? Do you consume a variety of fruits and vegetables? Strength or weakness? Is your calcium intake a strength or weakness? Why? Is your iron intake a strength or weakness? Why? Is your protein intake a strength or weakness? Why? 73. Summary for fats, carbohydrates, sodium and potassium, and alcoholic beverages: Review these sections and answer the following questions. Be sure to include an explanation for each question. Is your fat, saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol intake a strength or weakness? Why? Is your sugar intake a strength or weakness? Why? Is your sodium intake a strength or weakness? Why? Is your alcoholic intake a strength or weakness? Why? 74. Close with a plan you will implement for the improvement of your diet. Make sure your plans list at least 3 specific goals you will implement to improve your diet and health. Thank you! We hope you found this exercise useful and we hope your nutritional status benefits from this evaluation of your current food choices.