Reading Guide: Pratt & Cornely, Chapter 10.3-10.4 1. Describe the overall structure of the insulin receptor. What is the function of the subunit? What is the function of the subunit? 2. What is autophosphorylation? What is the name of the protein that phosphorylates itself in this pathway? What activity does the autophosphorylation cause? 3. Draw a simple diagram of a receptor tyrosine kinase pathway leading to altered transcription factors. Label points at which the pathway can be turned off. 4. How can the receptor tyrosine kinase pathway lead to cellular change on both the shorter and longer time frame? 5. What is an oncogene? Give examples of how oncogenes are related to signal transduction pathways. 6. Why do lipid hormones not require a membrane receptor? What is binding target of a lipid hormone within the nuclear DNA called? How does they function to give a cellular response? 7. Why are eiconasoids sometimes referred to as local mediators rather than hormones? 8. Hormones such as glucocorticoids can decrease inflammation response. What is their molecular mechanism of action? 9. Drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen are called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). They all have what target? How does this elicit reduction in pain and inflammation? Why are these drugs all slightly different in their effects? How does a drug like Celebrex attempt to minimize the side effects typically observed in NSAIDS?