Loading process of an O.S

The operating system may be loaded into
the computers memory in two ways.
it is already present in ROM (so is 
permanent, immediately accessible and
difficult to update)
it is loaded from disk when the computer 
is turned on.
If the operating system is already present in 
ROM (for systems like industrial controllers,
petrol pumps etc), it will gain control
immediately the processor is powered on.
This method is best suited for small
appliances and hand held devices where
the operating system is relatively simple and
For more complex systems, the operating 
system is usually stored on secondary media
(such as disk), and is loaded into the
computer memory (RAM) when the
computer is powered on. Advantages of
this type of system are that changes to the
operating system are easier to make and
The bootstrap process describes the task of
initially loading the operating system from
disk into RAM. A small routine stored in
(Initial Program Loader).
The earliest type, allowed only one
program to run at a time. The program was
entered into the computer, then run till
completed. The data used by the program
could not be modified whilst the program
was running. Any errors in the program or
data mean starting all over again.
These allow the modification and entry of
data whilst the program is running. Typical
systems are airline reservations and
languages such as BASIC.
These share the computer system amongst
more than one user, and employ preemptive scheduling techniques.
More than one process may be executed
at once. The processor is switched rapidly
between the processes. A user may run
more than one process at a time.
Primarily used in process control,
telecommunications, etc. The OS monitors
various inputs which affect the execution
of processes, changing the computers
model of the environment, thus affecting
the outputs.
A computer that has more than one
processor dedicated to running processes.
An embedded operating system means
the operating system is self-contained in
the device and resident in ROM. Typical
systems that use embedded operating
systems are household appliances, car
management systems, traffic control
systems and energy management systems.
These are examples of embedded systems:
Embedded systems are also known as
dedicated systems. This is because they
only perform a specific task, and cannot
run a wide variety of programs like a home
computer (which we previously identified
as a general purpose system).
Windows NT workstation is an interactive,
multitasking multiprocessor operating
Windows 98 is an interactive, multitasking
operating system.
Linux is an interactive, multitasking,
multiprocessor, multi-user operating system.
A shell is a program that handles user input and output.
It provides routines for handling user input from a
keyboard or mouse, as well as routines for displaying
information on the terminal screen.
A shell also provides a mechanism to interpret user
commands and run additional programs that users
In program called command.com was the shell in MSDOS. In Windows 98 and NT workstation this shell is still
present (it is called the command prompt and you run it
by accessing the command prompt icon).
The UNIX shell is called the bourne shell, and is a
program called sh. There are other UNIX shell programs.