INTRO TO THE MIDDLE EAST WG.4 RHS-WORLD GEOGRAPHY HERE IS THE WORLD… …AND HERE IS NORTH AFRICA AND SOUTHWEST ASIA Due to the location, it’s called the Crossroads of Continents: Europe, Africa, and Asia NORTH AFRICA SOUTHWEST ASIA MIDDLE EAST SOUTHWEST ASIA IS MORE COMMONLY CALLED THE “MIDDLE EAST” SOME COUNTRIES IN NORTH AFRICA ARE (Sinai Peninsula) ALGERIA AND EGYPT LIBYA SOME COUNTRIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST ARE: AFGHANISTAN TURKEY IRAQ SAUDI ARABIA IRAN KUWAIT QATAR ISRAEL AND THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE) SEMI DESERT DESERT DESERT SAHEL Most of the climate is arid (dry) and semi-arid (partly dry) Some Physical Features you need to Bosporus know Straitare: & Dardanelles Strait BLACK SEA TAURUS MTS (SPLITS TURKEY FROM THE REST OF EUROPE) STRAIT OF HORMUZ SAHARA DESERT ARABIAN SEA NILE RIVER TIGRIS RIVER EUPHRATES RIVER •There is also a lot of seasonal flooding, alluvial soils (deposits from the river), and delta regions (like the Nile delta). •There are also natural water reservoirs likes oases and wadis. •An oasis is fertile land in a desert, usually fed by an underground spring •A wadi is a temporary watering hole when a gully gets filled up during Many cities are known for their influence on culture and trade BAGHDAD, IRAQ ISTANBUL, TURKEY TEHRAN, IRAN CASABLANCA, MOROCCO TRIPOLI, LIBYA CAIRO, EGYPT JERUSALEM, ISRAEL MECCA, SAUDI ARABIA Many Areas around the Middle East and North Africa are world famous. Follow these cultural landmarks. Do you recognize any? The Pyramids at Giza http://www.fgsd.winnipeg.mb.ca/vmc/swaweb/cc/ccswow6.htm The ancient Egyptians used manual labor and wooden tools to build these magnificent tombs for pharoahs. MINARETS MOSQUES: places of worship for Muslims. Typical features are domes and minarets DOME The Hagia Sofia in Istanbul, Turkey. Built between 532 and 537 by the Christian Emperor Justinian I as a Byzantine church, which it functioned as for the next 900 years. In 1453, the Islamic-faithed Ottomans took over Constantinople (now Istanbul). They wasted little time in converting the Hagia Sophia into a mosque. It served the Muslims for almost 500 years. The Ottomans painted over the Christian mosaics - and erected the four defining minarets we see today. In 1934, Turkey changed the Hagia Sofia's status from mosque to museum and uncovered the priceless Byzantine mosaics. The Dome of the Rock http://www.sacredsites.com/1st30/domeof.html Jerusalem: This Muslim holy site was built on the remains of the Temple of Solomon, a holy site for Jews The Kaaba http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~brvs/kaaba.html Located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Kaaba is the most sacred site for Muslims. A Muslim must take the haj (pilgrimage) to Mecca at least once in his/her life. The Church of the Holy Sepulcher http://www.israel-mfa.gov.il/mfa/go-visual.asp?MFAJ01wh0 Jerusalem: This church was built on the site where Christians believe that Jesus Christ was crucified. The Western Wall in Jerusalem: Also known as the Wailing Wall http://www.sacredsites.com/1st30/domeof.html http://www.igc.apc.org/ddickerson/western-wall.gif Other notable cultural landmarks: A “Bazaar” is an open-air market, usually in the center of a Middle eastern town. This bazaar specializes in woven Arabian carpets- verrrrrrry popular!!!! Bazaars are also called “suqs” Cultural Landscapes are old…. Like the many walled cities around the Arab World… …and new Like the oil rigs around the Middle East Around the world, people recognize places and culture reflecting the Middle East. How many of these did you already know?