Matakuliah Tahun : L0302 / Analisa Transaksional : 2010 DEFINITION AND PHILOSOPHY OF TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS AND ITS AREAS OF APPLICATION Pertemuan 01 Learning Objective Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan tentang dasar-dasar teori transaksional analysis Definition of Transactional Analysis.. part 1 • Transactional Analysis (TA) is a theory of communication which is applicable in a range of personal, professional and social contexts. • TA also provides a core structure for understanding human behaviours and personality functions. • Transactional analysis (TA) is both a theory of personality and an organized system of interactional therapy Definition of Transactional Analysis …part 2 • It is grounded on the assumption that we make current decisions based on past premises • TA emphasizes the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the therapeutic process • The goal of transactional analysis is autonomy, which is defined as awareness, spontaneity, and the capacity for intimacy • As a part of the process of TA therapy, clients learn how to recognize the three ego states; Parent, Adult, and Child in which they function Philosophical Assumptions • People are OK. • Everyone has the capacity to think. • People decide their own destiny, and these decisions can be changed. • From these assumptions follow two basic principles of transactional analysis practice: • The contractual method: Emphasizes that the transactional analysis practitioner and the client take joint responsibility for achieving whatever change the client wants to make, and • Open communication: Means that the client as well as the practitioner should have full information about what is going on in their work together. Contractual Method • Since both the therapist and the client are OK, contracts are used to keep the process open, clear and flexible. • If I want to change, it's me that makes the change. • Unlike a business contract a TA contract is open to renegotiation Some Features of TA … part 1 • Ego-States An ego-state is a consistent pattern of feeling and experience directly related to a corresponding consistent pattern of behaviour. • Transactions In a transaction I can talk from any ego-state, and you can respond from any ego-state. When I say what I mean and mean what I say, it is a straight transaction. When I say one thing but really mean something else, that is an ulterior transaction. • Life Scripts We decide on a life story very early on in childhood, and then live the story out of awareness as an adult. This 'life script' causes us to selectively redefine some events and discount others as we attempt to make reality fit our story. Some Features of TA … part 2 • Games In TA the word 'game' has a very different meaning to the usual one. People use games to confirm their life script. Perhaps the best way to describe a game is to give an example. • Autonomy The idea of TA is to make it easy to become aware of the decisions we made in childhood and to change the bits that don't work so well, and so realise our full potential. Areas of Application … part. 1 • Transactional analysis is a social psychology developed by Eric Berne • Over the past four decades Eric Berne's theory has evolved to include applications to psychotherapy, counseling, education, and organizational development. Areas of Application … part. 2 • In the area of applications, transactional analysis offers a system of psychotherapy that can be used with individuals, groups, couples, and families to treat all types of psychological disorders, from everyday problems of living to severe psychosis. • It is also used in educational settings to help teachers and learners stay in clear communication and avoid setting up unproductive confrontation. • It is further used in management, communications training, and organizational analysis to improve working relationships, problemsolving, and organizational efficiency. • In fact, transactional analysis can used in any field in which there is a need for understanding individuals, relationships, and communication. It is one of the clearest conceptual frameworks for understanding psychological issues and how those can be changed.