Document 15059554

: L0302 / Analisa Transaksional
: 2010
Pertemuan 01
Learning Objective
Mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan
tentang dasar-dasar
teori transaksional analysis
Definition of
Transactional Analysis.. part 1
• Transactional Analysis (TA) is a theory of
communication which is applicable in a range of
personal, professional and social contexts.
• TA also provides a core structure for
understanding human behaviours and
personality functions.
• Transactional analysis (TA) is both a theory of
personality and an organized system of
interactional therapy
Definition of
Transactional Analysis …part 2
• It is grounded on the assumption that we make
current decisions based on past premises
• TA emphasizes the cognitive and behavioral
aspects of the therapeutic process
• The goal of transactional analysis is autonomy,
which is defined as awareness, spontaneity, and
the capacity for intimacy
• As a part of the process of TA therapy, clients
learn how to recognize the three ego states;
Parent, Adult, and Child in which they function
Philosophical Assumptions
• People are OK.
• Everyone has the capacity to think.
• People decide their own destiny, and these decisions
can be changed.
• From these assumptions follow two basic principles of
transactional analysis practice:
• The contractual method: Emphasizes that the
transactional analysis practitioner and the client take
joint responsibility for achieving whatever change the
client wants to make, and
• Open communication: Means that the client as well as
the practitioner should have full information about what is
going on in their work together.
Contractual Method
• Since both the therapist and the client are OK, contracts
are used to keep the process open, clear and flexible.
• If I want to change, it's me that makes the change.
• Unlike a business contract a TA contract is open to renegotiation
Some Features of TA … part 1
• Ego-States
An ego-state is a consistent pattern of feeling and experience
directly related to a corresponding consistent pattern of behaviour.
• Transactions
In a transaction I can talk from any ego-state, and you can respond
from any ego-state. When I say what I mean and mean what I say, it
is a straight transaction. When I say one thing but really mean
something else, that is an ulterior transaction.
• Life Scripts
We decide on a life story very early on in childhood, and then live
the story out of awareness as an adult. This 'life script' causes us to
selectively redefine some events and discount others as we attempt
to make reality fit our story.
Some Features of TA … part 2
• Games
In TA the word 'game' has a very different
meaning to the usual one. People use games to
confirm their life script. Perhaps the best way to
describe a game is to give an example.
• Autonomy
The idea of TA is to make it easy to become
aware of the decisions we made in childhood
and to change the bits that don't work so well,
and so realise our full potential.
Areas of Application … part. 1
• Transactional analysis is a social psychology developed
by Eric Berne
• Over the past four decades Eric Berne's theory has
evolved to include applications to psychotherapy,
counseling, education, and organizational development.
Areas of Application … part. 2
• In the area of applications, transactional analysis offers a system of
psychotherapy that can be used with individuals, groups, couples,
and families to treat all types of psychological disorders, from
everyday problems of living to severe psychosis.
• It is also used in educational settings to help teachers and learners
stay in clear communication and avoid setting up unproductive
• It is further used in management, communications training, and
organizational analysis to improve working relationships, problemsolving, and organizational efficiency.
• In fact, transactional analysis can used in any field in which there is
a need for understanding individuals, relationships, and
communication. It is one of the clearest conceptual frameworks for
understanding psychological issues and how those can be changed.