Psikologi Anak Pertemuan 3 Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development

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Psikologi Anak
Pertemuan 3
Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual
Development
Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development
• Motor Development
• Sensory and Perceptual Development
• Perceptual-Motor Coupling
Dynamic Systems View
• Seeks to explain how motor behaviors are
assembled for perceiving and acting
• Motivation leads to new motor behavior; a
convergence of
– Nervous system development
– Body’s physical properties
– Child’s motivation to reach goal
– Environmental support for the skill
Sample Reflexes
Sucking reflex
Automatic sucking object
placed in newborn’s mouth
Rooting reflex
Reaction when infant’s cheek is
stroked or side of mouth touched
Moro reflex
Startle response in reaction to
sudden, intense noise or movement
Grasping reflex
Occurs when something touches
infant’s palms; infant response
is to grasp tightly
Gross Motor Skills
• Motor skills that involve large-muscle activities
– Infancy
• Development of posture
• Locomotion and crawling
• Learning to walk
• No set sequence of development; help
of caregivers important
• more skilled and mobile in second year
– Childhood
• Improved walking, running, jumping,
climbing, learn organized sports’ skills
• Positive and negative sport outcomes
– Adolescence - Skills continue to improve
Milestones in
Gross Motor Development
Fine Motor Skills
• Involves more finely tuned movements, such as
finger dexterity
– Infancy: Reaching and grasping
• Size and shape of object matters
• Experience affects perceptions and vision
– Early Childhood: Pick up small objects
• Some difficulty building towers
• Age 5: hand, arm, fingers move together
– Childhood and adolescence
• Writing and drawing skills emerge, improve
• Steadier at age 7; more precise movements
• By 10-12, can do quality crafts, master difficult
piece on musical instrument
What Are Sensation and Perception?
• Sensation — occurs when information
contacts sensory receptors
• Perception — interpretation of sensation
The Ecological View
• People directly perceive information in the
world around them
– Perception brings people in contact with the
environment to interact with it and adapt to it
– All objects have affordances; opportunities for
interaction offered by objects necessary to
perform activities
Infants’ Visual Perception
Visual Acuity
20/600 at birth, near adult levels
by 1 year
Color
Sees green and red at birth, all
colors by 2 months
Perceiving Patterns
Depth Perception
Visual
Expectations
Prefer patterns at birth; face
scanning improves by 2 months
Developed by 7-8 months
Begins by 4 months;
expect gravity by 6-8 months
Perceptual Constancy
Size constancy
Shape constancy
Recognition that
object remains
the same even
though the retinal
image changes
Recognition that
object remains the
same even though
its orientation
changes
Vision in Childhood
• Improved color detection, visual expectations,
controlling eye movements (for reading)
• Preschoolers may be farsighted
• Signs of vision problems
– Rubbing eyes, blinking, squinting
– Irritability at games requiring distance vision
– Closing one eye, tilting head to see, thrusting
head forward to see
Hearing
Prenatal
• Can hear before birth
Infancy
• Improve sensitivity to soft sounds,
pitches • Ability to localize
Childhood
• Hearing usually fine
• Danger of otitis media
Adolescence • Most have excellent hearing
• Danger from loud music
Adulthood
• Few changes until middle adulthood
• Hearing impairment increases with age
Hearing
• Fetus hears in last 2 months of pregnancy
• Newborns
– cannot hear soft sounds well
– display auditory preferences
– sensitive to human speech
• Infants less sensitive to sound pitch
• Most children’s hearing is inadequate
– otitis media: middle ear infection
Intermodal Perception
• Ability to relate and integrate
information about two or more
sensory modalities, such as vision
and hearing
• Exists in newborns
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