Special Issues for Systems of Systems Kelly Schlegel and Kelly Kim Boeing October 29th, 2007 BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company. Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Systems of Systems – Lead System Integrator (LSI) Issues • Issue 1: Expansive scale of Systems of Systems (SoS) present challenges to traditional requirement development approaches • Issue 2: Organizational hurdles arise from many (nearly 100) separate participating companies, all with different expectations, processes, interests, skills, terminologies, capabilities, different (and sometimes competing) business interests and needs • Issue 3: Technical challenges arise within the final product from integrating many millions of lines of software code – much pre- existing or COTS – and resolving interface issues after supplier delivery Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Systems of Systems Interrelationships Environments Transportability/ Deployability etc. RAM T- Complementary Sys Training and Logistics Systems UGV System/Platform3 NLOS - LS System/Platform4 Safety Man Print Memory Sustainment System/Platform2 Networked Systems Networked /Interoperability Comm Communications Networked Battle Command Networked Lethality Networked Lethality Training Survivability Training Transportability Survivability Human Factors / MANPRINT Maneuver Sustainment System/Platform1 Distributed Systems Functional Areas “The cube” can be interpreted as representing a set of integrated requirements to be fulfilled by the SoS Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Issue 1: Expansive scale of Systems of Systems (SoS) present challenges to traditional requirements approaches • Disciplined approach to balance requirements and product development • Leadership discipline to control risk • Create a synchronized schedule for top-level requirements development and flow down • Even if systems/platforms are on different development schedules, plan to create a set of common requirements for all systems/platforms to a certain level of detail (usually the prime item specification level) on an integrated schedule to ensure SoS-level coordination is timely. • Upside: Allows supplier work to progress while requirements being definitized • Downside: Causes interface issues, testing and traceability issues later Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Issue 1: continued • Provide explicit decomposition and allocation of requirements • Supports traceability analysis and change impact analysis • Especially important when customer requirements are expressed at an integrated level • Provide a way to clearly track performance expectations and tradeoffs (TPMs) • Traces from previous spec revs must be “saved” • Set up a common requirements Database structure to provide a single source and decomposition environment for common and unique requirements • Address interoperability through integrated requirements sets • When platforms interact, their interoperability is managed through Interface Control Documents • LSI can manage interoperability through integrated common requirements and “matched pair” requirements in addition to the ICDs Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Issue 1 : continued • Ensure that the multiple stakeholders in SoS programs participate in the signature / baselining of requirements • “The cube” shows that each requirement has three stakeholders that should have signature authority – the functional requirements developer, the distributed systems team, and the system/platform team • Development challenges require identifying appropriate degree of abstraction and completeness applicable at multiple levels from full SOS down to individual software items • Involve test team to check for understandability & testability • Support desired configuration for Production delivery – Capability Phasing, build checkpoints, threads and sub-threads, configuration matrices, traces for major events • Involve suppliers in build checkpoints & establish checklists and exit criteria • Spirals and spinouts designed to identify issues before SoS PDR • Tiger teams may need to be established to address gaps and loose ends Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Issue 1 : continued • Rigorous Application of Systems Engineering Methods applied to Spec Tree • Minimize the number of levels in order to minimize the number of specifications • Provide consistent level of detail within each level in the specification structure • Provide specifications to support verification at the planned levels and groupings of items • Provide specifications to support each item procured from a supplier Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Issue 2: Organizational hurdles arise from many separate participating companies • Virtual Co-location Enables Communication • Optimize on commonality through multi-site standard • Common Program SDP • SDP for each supplier that is consistent with Program SDP • Identification of multiple parallel views & decompositions is key to achieving SoS design scalability • Identify Key Software Design concepts of SoS and manage APIs • Common Middleware — Sustainable COTS-based middleware providing common and critical run-time services across multiple target platforms • Application Layer — Distributed, multi-site development and delivery of required services via loosely coupled, composable application services hosted on middleware • Workflow Engine — Integrates application services into user/application functions. Evolves with maturing tactics, techniques and procedures. Supports service-level replacement of software components • Service Oriented Architecture — Conformance to architectural rules that describe build able service definitions, interface types, behavior management, performance, and sustainment of individual services • Application of independent and non-advocate reviews to ensure mission assurance Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Issue 2: Coordination a challenge across geographic locations Land Systems Redbank, NJ Minneapolis, MN Ft. Wayne, IN Santa Clara, CA Philadelphia, PA Bloomington, MN Huntington Beach, CA Albuquerque, NM St. Louis Westminster, MD Plano, Texas San Diego, CA McLean, VA Mesa, AZ San Diego, CA Austin, TX Scottsdale, AZ Orlando, FL States with software Virtual Co-location Enables Communication Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Issue 3: Technical challenges arise within the final product from integrating many millions of lines of software code • LSI test bed should provide white box testing as well as black box testing • LSI should plan to develop early models/simulations (Matrix-X, Simulink) that drive and test interface requirements • Big bang integration introduces risk • Planning and enforcing incremental integration of the software itself • Set up Source Code CM structures where suppliers can put their interfaces (e.g. source code for header files, IDL) and have other suppliers actually compile and build against them. • Develop and enforce Incremental integration process: 1. model services and interfaces 2. code up draft (detailed) interfaces, put them in publicly accessible area of CM 3. have them reviewed by interface users 4. have interface users compile against those interfaces 5. have providers create test stubs for those interfaces 6. have users test their code using these test stubs 7. providers create real implementations and release them 8. users build against real services and test against them prior to delivery to SWIT • System/Software Integration labs should have a build-up of hardware in the loop • API, IDL and COTS (make/buy) decisions must be controlled by the change board Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved. Conclusion: Key Elements for Successful Systems of Systems • Disciplined approach to balance requirements and product development • Strong SE trade space and CM during design phase • Need concurrent vs. sequential processes • Leadership discipline to control risk • Fully vetted and defined ICD’s • Complete and thorough interface management • Incremental integration of the software and interfaces • Clear TPM that gage the distributed performance across program elements • Tracking performance at the decomposed level of system • Staged (gated) performance and design reviews • Technical oversight, application of independent and non-advocate mission assurance reviews • Spirals and Spinouts find issues before SoS PDR • Seamless information and data exchange systems • Virtual co-location • Incremental risk reduction / verification plan • Test at every level of integration/development Copyright © 2006 Boeing. All rights reserved.