Standards Alignment-Doha.ppt: uploaded 3 May 2010 at 5:33 am

Standards Alignment
A study of alignment between state
standards and the ACM K-12
ACM Ed Policy Committee
• Our charge:
– “persuading” federal & state governments to
adopt standards and assessments that are aligned
to a well-defined and accepted Computer Science
curriculum leading to a secondary (high school)
graduation requirement
ACM Ed Policy Committee
• The good news?
– The curriculum guidelines exist:
• The bad news?
– The rest (standards, assessments, graduation)
CS in the Education Policy
• Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
(STEM) != Computing
• Often in the T, but a poor fit
– Doesn’t technology literacy, technology IN education =
computer science knowledge?
– Computing in T often focused on the use of technology
(e.g., word processing/spread sheets)
– Definition of technology is slippery at best
– T courses are often focused on vocational ed, not collegebound students
Standards in US Education
• What are standards?
– Defined competencies that provide
• According to the National Academies Press
– “Point towards a destination, and give us a road
map of how to get there.”
National Academies Press, National Science Education Standards, 1996
What are the ACM Standards?
• 55 Standards for grades K-12
• Broken out into Levels
– Level 1: Foundations of CS (K-8: 35)
• (K-2: 12; 3-5: 11; 6-8: 12)
– Level 2: CS in Modern World (9-10: 10)
– Level 3: CS Analysis & Design (10-11: 10)
Data Collection/Methodology
• State Departments of Education
• Math/Science/Technology Standards
– Includes CTE, business, or other standards as well
• Aligned with ACM K-12 Curriculum
• Light implementation judgment
Overall Results
Implementation of Computer Science Standards
Why is this optimistic?
Fluency Report Division
• Contemporary Skills: The abilities necessary to use
today's computer applications in one's own work (set
up a computer, use a word processor).
• Intellectual Capabilities: The fundamental abilities
necessary for using IT to solve a problem (reason
abstractly, manage complexity, anticipate change).
• Foundational Concepts: The basic ideas that underlie
modern computers, networks and information
(modeling & abstraction, algorithmic thinking).
National Academies Press, Being Fluent with Information Technologies, 1999
Understand the graph as a tool for representing
problem states and solutions to complex problems ([LI]
Examples (like programming a telephone answering system) that
identify the broad interdisciplinary utility of computers and
algorithmic problem solving in the modern world. (L2.8)
Fundamental ideas about the process of
program design and problem solving, including style, abstraction,
and initial discussions of correctness and efficiency as part of the
software design process. (L3.1)
Landscape is Changing..
States with Technology Requirement
for Graduation
How Does CS Count for
Where does this leave us?
• According to the picture created by the standards,
Computer Science is mostly being taught as a series of
skills and capabilities where using computers and
computer technology are emphasized.
• There is little consistency between implementations.
• Only about 1/3 of states require some form of
technology literacy for graduation, and often that is an
applications course and not a computer science course.
• Level I, Foundations of CS (grades K-2)
K2.1 Use Standard I/O
K2.2 Use a computer for learning
K2.3 Communicate about technology
K2.4 Use multimedia to support learning
K2.5 Work cooperatively while using technology
K2.6 Positive social and ethical behaviors
K2.7 Responsible Use
K2.8 Create/Develop appropriate multimedia with support
K2.9 Use Technology resources for problem solving
K2.10 Gather information and communicate with others using
– K2.11 Understand how 0's and 1's can represent information
– K2.12 Understand how to arrange/sort information
• Level I, Foundations of CS (grades 3-5)
35.1 Use I/O and Keyboarding Skills
35.2 Discuss common uses of technology in daily life
35.3 Discuss issues about responsible use
35.4 Use productivity tools
35.5 Use technology tools (digital cameras, presentation, web,
scanner, multimedia)
35.6 Use telecommunications to get remote information
35.7 Use online resources for problem solving
35.8 Use technology resources (calculators, digital probes, videos) for
problem solving
35.9 Select technology tools appropriate for problems
35.10 Evaluate accuracy, relevance, of electronic information
35.11 Develop an understanding of an algorithm
• Level I, Foundations of CS (grades 6-8)
68.1 Identify and solve routine HW and SW problems
68.2 Understand changes in IT and their effects
68.3 Legal and ethical Behaviors
68.4 Use content-specific tools (calculators, digital probes, web) to
support learning
68.5 Apply productivity and multimedia tools
68.6 Make products including video, web pages, etc. using technology
68.7 Collaborate using telecommunications and develop solutions
68.8 Select appropriate tools and technologies to solve problems
68.9 Understand hardware, software and algorithms
68.10 Evaluate accuracy of electronic information sources
68.11 Understand graphs
68.12 Fundamentals of Logic
• Level II, CS in the Modern World (grades 9-10)
L2.1 Principles of computer organization (I/O, memory, OS, software)
L2.2 Basic Steps in algorithmic problem solving
L2.3 Components of computer networks
L2.4 Organization of Internet elements, web design, search engines
L2.5 Hierarchy and abstraction in CS
L2.6 Connections between CS and Math
L2.7 Computers modeling intelligent behavior and difference between
humans and computers
– L2.8 Examples of interdisciplinary CS
– L2.9 Ethical issues relating to networks, IP and public domain
– L2.10 Identification of careers in CS
• Level III, CS as Analysis & Design (grades 10-11)
L3.1 Software design process
L3.2 Simple Data Structures and their uses
L3.3 Discrete Mathematics
L3.4 Design for Usability
L3.5 Hardware Design
L3.6 Characteristics of compilers/OS/Networks
L3.7 Limits of Computing
L3.8 Principles of Software Engineering
L3.9 Social Issues
L3.10 Careers in Computing