Chapters 1 & 2 Summary Notes


Theorists and Practices

Chapter 1

Overview  Profile of the Young Child  Theories, Theorists, & Curriculum models  Misconceptions  Developmentally Appropriate Practices  Curriculum

Young Children

Development and Learning Theories and Theorists (Cantron &Allen, 1999;Taylor,1999)  Cognitive Development Theory – Jean Piaget  Sociocultural Theory – Lev Vygotsky  Psychodynamic Theory (psychosocial) -Erik Erikson Sigmund Freud  Behavioral Theory – B.F. Skinner  Multiple Intelligence – Howard Gardner

Curriculum Models and Developers (Catron & Allen, 1999; Taylor, 1999)  Montessori – Maria Montessori  Reggio Emilia – Loris Malaguzzi  Bank Street – Mitchell, Pratt & Johnson  High reach  High/scope Cognitively Oriented Curriculum

Cognitive Development Theory   Jean Piaget (1896-1980)  Stage 1- Sensorimotor Four stages of (0-24months ) intellectual Development 

Stage 2 Preoperational (2 years to 7 years)

Emphasize first and second stage in this course  Stage 3- Concrete Operational (7 years to 11 years)  Stage 4-Formal Operational (11years and older)

Sensorimotor (0-24 months)  Learning through senses  Gaining control of body movements  Mouthing & touching objects  Intense listening  Acute sense of smell  Acute observation  Intense exploration

Preoperational Stage (2-7yrs)  Focus on self    Learn through senses Difficulty with abstract thought Lack of conservation skills  Focus of learning through real life experiences

Instructional Techniques  Hands-on experiences  Concrete experience  during instruction Age appropriate and challenging activities  High/Scope  Creative Play  Play is important in intellectual development  Child primary influence in knowledge

Sociocultural Theory-Lev Vygotsky(1896-1934)  Influence of society and culture on – child’s development – Language – Higher order thinking skills – Play and environment  Zone of proximal development  Scaffolding

Psychosocial Theory-Erik Erikson(1902-19994)  Extension of Sigmund Freud-id, ego, superego  Eight stages of psychosocial development   Trust vs mistrust – (0-1yr) Autonomy vs shame and doubt – (1-3yrs)  

Inititative vs guilt


Industry vs. inferiority – (7-11yrs)  Identity vs. role confusion – (adolescence) Others page 4 in text

Key Concepts Psychosocial  Early development of good work habits  Child takes initiative   Intrinsic rewards Develop confidence in child  Praise attempts than final outcomes  Play as mastery over situations

Behavioral Theory B.F.Skinner-(1904-1990)  Objective observable principles influence behavior   Operant conditioning Child is “conditioned” through consequences, reinforcement and punishment

Montessori  Self correcting toys and materials  Personal care/hygiene  Children choose materials  Intrinsic rewards and motivation  Prepared environment  Humility  Individualism  Children are – Self directed – Self-disciplined – independent

Reggio Emilia  Children learn from children about children    Aesthetic aspects of curriculum Children’s ideas are priority Use of child’s natural language  Constructivist view

Misconceptions  Negativism  Children are like adults  Children learn best when sitting and listening  Children learn according to rules   Fast pace is better that further explanation Child’s IQ can be increased by parents and teachers

Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP) and Developmentally Inappropriate Practices (DIP)

Developmentally Appropriate Practices – Coined by NAEYC – Traditional approaches to teaching young children


Misconceptions about DAP  right vs wrong  Prior knowledge is eliminated  Unstructured classes  Meets needs of certain children  Fad  Watered down curriculum

Curriculum  Include all areas of development (cognitive, physical, social etc)  Exploration of materials  Outdoor/indoor activities  Interaction with others (adults and children)   Real world experiences Child’s view  active play and quiet-restful periods

Curriculum should meet the needs of children not children meeting the needs of the curriculum

Teacher Environments

Teacher Environments  Training – DAP – Participation in Professional organizations

Code of Ethics  Safe, healthy, nurturing, and responsive settings  Collaboration between home and school  Relationships between colleagues that supports productive work and meet professional standards  Meets needs of agencies and professions for the welfare of children  See page 28 in text

Teacher-Child Relationships  Warm positive  Providing emotional security  Make relationship priority  Increase involvement with children  Strive for positive relationship with parents and others  Plan activities about relationships

Factors to Consider  Kindergartners see conflict in present, physical terms, egocentrically  Negotiation is difficult for young children  Praise should be personal, honest, specific, valued and behavior reinforcing  More nurturing caregiver; more positive children relate to social interactions

Guidance  Proactive Guidance – Teacher anticipate problem and consider acceptable solutions  Reactive Guidance – Lack of thought process and planning, leads to negativity and one-sidedness  Indirect Guidance – Reduction of behavior problems through organization of materials, areas, traffic patterns Sequencing of events, use of space and time.

Working with Parents and Families

The Child and the Family The Developing Child The family (Parents, Siblings, Extended family, Home culture)

The Preschool Child The Developing Child The family and home culture School And teaching staff

Influences Affecting Child’s Environment Community Extra curricula activities Timing The Developing Child The school culture The family and home culture

Timing-- Elkind (1984)  Clock energy-used in daily activities – Rest and food replenish this energy – Symptoms of loss include fatigue, loss of appetite and less productivity – Child will draw on calendar energy when clock energy is not replenished adequately  Calendar energy- growth and development energy – Symptoms of loss headaches, stomachaches and lead to injuries and shorter life span

Family and School

Three types of child-rearing patterns (Greenberg-1992)  Authoritarian – values obedience – External control  Permissive – Lacks limits – Laissez-faire  Democratic – DAP – Discussion of rules with children – Proactive parents

Techniques for home and school    Discussion techniques – Instead of “I like the way… Listen to children and talk to them – Eye contact – stoop and kneel – Speak normally Plan challenging and successful activities – 80% of time for confidence   Send clear messages – Reasonable, simple requests think request and follow through Reinforce Actions you want repeated – Behavior not child is unacceptable – reinforcement should closely follow the action – Identify appropriate action specifically

Inappropriate Behavior  Ignore it – Child will continue behavior to get attention child then sees attention is not rewarded and will discontinue it  Assertive approach to discipline – Positive statements – Setting limits – Avoid negative statements – Guidelines for behavior

Guidelines for Behavior  Child is not allowed to: – Hurt himself – Hurt someone else – Destroy property

More Techniques  Respect children – Self-confidence – Personal belongings  Guide with love – Explain caution with love appropriately  Be a role model – Happy attitude – Actions speak   Be aware of warning signals – Verbal then physical if necessary – Observant Avoid Power Struggles  Offer choices and accept decisions – consider child’s health and factors in decision making process

More Techniques   Encourage independence – Guide not control – Honest praise Provide acceptable avenues of feeling of release (clay, pillow, punching bag) – Younger children release more physically  Learn through participation – First hand experiences  Appropriate discipline

Communication/contact with parent  Assess  Build trust  Communicate  Encourage visits  Articulate program philosophy  Orient parent  Learning cards  Learning packets  Newsletter  Tapes for parents with visual impairments  Information in native language when possible