Matakuliah : G0332/English Phonology Tahun : 2007 Phonetic Process Pertemuan 13 Phonetic Process • • Assimilation: A phonetic process by which one speech sound comes to resemble or become identical with a neighboring sound between words or within a word. For example, in words like letter, butter, there is a tendency to to voice /t/ as /d/. Metathesis : a transposition of speech sound. For example: if a person says tradegy instead of tragedy. Metathesis has been responsible for changing pronunciations and spelling. As examples, look up the etymology of these words: bird, third, grass, dirt. 3 Bina Nusantara Phonetic Process • • • • Epenthesis: the insertion of an extra consonant within a word, such as the /p/ in something or /t/ in sense. - after /m/ , the sound /p/ may occur before voiceless consonant /t/,/f/,/s/,/ɵ /, /ʃ / . Epithesis: the addition of an extra consonant to the end of a word. It occurs after a final /n/ or /s/. Exercise: find the etymology of these words: lend, bound, against, midst, amongst. 4 Bina Nusantara Phonetic process • • • Bina Nusantara Syncope: the loss of sound at the middle of a word. Apocope: the loss of sound at the end of a word. Often, the loss of sound occurs in unstressed syllables, and frequently involves a vowel next to /r/.