Corporate Services Division Assurance and Forensic Department The Measurement and Verification Guideline:

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Corporate Services Division
Assurance and Forensic Department
Contracted North-West University to execute this project
The Measurement and Verification Guideline:
CFL Distribution Projects
Project Name:
Measurement and Verification Guideline: CFL
Distribution
Project Number:
N/A
Report Type:
M&V CFL Guideline (Version 4, Revision 2)
Reporting Period:
N/A
Report Issue Date:
1 OCTOBER 2010
Report Number:
PM/M&V/NWU – 10/11
Revision Number:
M&V CFL Guideline v4r2.doc
Compiled by:
………………………………………………
Date:
28 Sep 2010
Date:
28 Sep 2010
Caren Coetzee
M&V Team member
North-West University
Authorized by:
………………………………………………
Christo van der Merwe
M&V Team
North-West University
Submitted to:
Corporate Services Division
Assurance and Forensic Department
Eskom
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Table of Contents
1
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................... 1
2
OVERVIEW OF CFL DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS ................................................................ 1
2.1
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 1
2.2
TYPES OF CFL DISTRIBUTION PROGRAMMES ........................................................................... 1
2.2.1
Door-to-door programmes ......................................................................................... 1
2.2.2
Exchange programmes .............................................................................................. 1
2.2.3
RLM-accompanied CFL programmes ....................................................................... 2
2.2.4
Sales campaigns......................................................................................................... 2
2.3
CLASSIFICATION OF CFL PROJECTS........................................................................................ 2
2.3.1
Data acquisitioning through data loggers ............................................................... 2
2.3.2
Data acquisitioning through questionnaires ........................................................... 3
2.3.3
Classification 1 – Low-income urban areas ............................................................. 5
2.3.4
Classification 2 – Low-income rural areas ............................................................... 7
2.3.5
Classification 3 – Middle to high income RLM project ........................................... 8
2.3.6
Classification 4 – Exchange programmes ............................................................... 9
3
MEASUREMENT AND VERIFICATION OF CFL DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS .................. 10
3.1
SCOPE AND BASELINE .......................................................................................................... 11
3.1.1
3.1
Classification of CFL Project ................................................................................... 11
IMPACT CALCULATION METHODOLOGY .................................................................................. 14
3.1.2
Demand ...................................................................................................................... 14
3.1.3
Electricity consumption ........................................................................................... 14
3.1.4
Emissions .................................................................................................................. 15
3.2
POST-IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT .................................................... 16
3.3
PERFORMANCE TRACKING AND SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENTS ............................................. 16
3.1.5
Performance Tracking .............................................................................................. 16
3.1.6
Sustainability Assessments .................................................................................... 16
4
M&V CFL APPLICATION ...................................................................................................... 18
4.1
M&V CFL APPLICATION INTERFACE AND INPUTS ................................................................... 18
4.2
M&V CFL APPLICATION REPORTING OUTPUT ....................................................................... 23
5
REFERENCES....................................................................................................................... 25
6
CONTACT DETAILS ............................................................................................................. 26
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Appendix A:
Standard Operational Profiles According to Project Classification
Appendix B:
M&V CFL Questionnaires
Appendix C:
Voltage Variations - A Study Conducted by Stellenbosch University
Appendix D:
Import Schedule Excel Format
Appendix E:
Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire
Page ii
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
NOMENCLATURE
c
Cent
CFL
Compact fluorescent light
DB
Distribution board
DSM
Demand side management
ESCo
Energy Service Company
kVA
Kilovolt-ampere
kW
Kilowatt
kWh
Kilowatt-hour
LUX
The metric unit of measure for luminance at a surface
M&V
Measurement and verification
MW
Megawatt
MWh
Megawatt-hour
R
Rand
RLM
Residential load management
V
Voltage
Page iii
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
1
INTRODUCTION
This is the measurement and verification CFL guideline that is developed and needs to be
approved by all the M&V teams before the finalisation of the guideline.
2
OVERVIEW OF CFL DISTRIBUTION PROJECTS
2.1
Introduction
Eskom have embarked on an Efficient Lighting Initiative which have
already made a substantial contribution to the demand-side
management (DSM) programme. Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL)
distribution projects are implemented all over South Africa to reduce
the energy consumed by residential lighting. Large energy savings
are achieved especially in the Eskom evening peak period (18h00 to
20h00 on weekdays).
This guideline describes how measurement and verification (M&V) is
performed on CFL distribution projects as well as the basic M&V
deliverables for these projects. A detailed description is provided on
the data that need to be gathered in order to develop the project
baselines as well as the procedures that are followed to develop
project baselines.
2.2
Types of CFL distribution programmes
There are four types of CFL distribution programmes, namely: Door-to-door programmes,
Exchange programmes, RLM-accompanied CFL programme and sales campaigns.
2.2.1
Door-to-door programmes
These programmes include the supplying of, as well as the installing of, CFLs. These types of
programmes usually consist of a CFL roll-out in low- to middle-income townships or urban
settlements. The advantage of these types of programmes is that the CFLs are immediately
implemented and optimum results are achieved.
2.2.2
Exchange programmes
These programmes require that consumers exchange their incandescent lights for CFLs at
designated exchange points e.g. Municipal offices, Eskom regional offices and shopping centres.
With this type of programme there is no certainty when, where, and if the CFLs will be installed
which complicates the saving calculations.
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
2.2.3
RLM-accompanied CFL programmes
These programmes include only the supplying of CFLs to the households where a geyser control
switch is installed and it is the responsibility of the household to install the CFLs.
These
programmes usually include middle- to high-income households in urban settlements. With this
type of programme there is no certainty when and if the CFLs will be installed which complicates
the saving calculations.
2.2.4
Sales campaigns
The programme promotes the sale of CFLs by subsidising the price of the CFLs. It is difficult to
track the purchaser as the details of the purchaser are not known. Extensive surveys may be
needed to eventually capture this type of information to calculate energy savings as seen by the
national electricity grid.
2.3
Classification of CFL Projects
CFL distribution projects involve thousands of households, each with a different profile for their
light usage. In order to keep M&V costs at acceptable levels, it was proposed that residential
areas should be classified according to certain characteristics, and that operational profiles and
typical lighting installed be determined for each classification. Then CFL projects only have to be
classified according to certain characteristics and the applicable operational profiles can be used
without measuring the operational profiles again.
2.3.1
Data acquisitioning through data loggers
Lighting usage profiles were obtained by installing light
on/off status loggers.
The status logger has a light
sensitive sensor that is triggered the moment the light is
switched on or off. The loggers were mounted close to
or onto the light source by making use of a magnet or
double-sided tape as seen in Figure 1. The light
sensitivity of the logger was adjusted so that the sensors
were triggered only by the light of the installed lamp.
Apparently the loggers give inaccurate readings in well-
Figure 1: M&V team member installing an
lit areas. This problem was minimised by installing the
on/off status logger.
loggers in rooms with small windows or in rooms that did
not receive much natural light. The loggers were also mounted with the sensor facing away from
any windows.
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Operational profiles of a number of CFL projects were obtained. The operational profiles obtained
were characterised and classified into four basic classifications:
Low-income urban areas;
Low-income rural areas;
Middle-to-high-income urban areas; and
Exchange programmes.
2.3.2
Data acquisitioning through questionnaires
Questionnaires were used to record the typical lighting replacement per type of room/area during
the CFL roll-out as well as the residence’s viewpoint of the typical operating hours of the lights.
The data collected through the questionnaires included the following:
Location, name and contact details of homeowner;
Income classification: low, middle or high income group according to monthly income per
household;
Type and amount of incandescent lights replaced and type of room/area where the lights
were removed from (development of baseline demand profiles);
Type and amount of CFLs as well as the type of room/area where the lights were installed
(post-implementation demand profiles); and
Type of rooms/areas which include: TV rooms, dining rooms, kitchens, bedrooms,
bathrooms and security lights.
The questionnaires were filled in by M&V team members that accompanied ESCo fieldworkers
during the CFL roll-out.
An M&V assessment team consisted of two members each; one
responsible for taking notes on the old lighting installed and the new installed CFLs while the other
member completed the questionnaire. An example of the questionnaires used is provided in
Figure 2 and Figure 3.
On the first page of the questionnaire detail such as the ESCo fieldworker’s name and contact
details, homeowner’s name, address and contact detail required as well as questions on the
typical light usage of the household is filled in.
Page 2 of the questionnaire requires information on the incandescent lights replaced (baseline
development) as well as the new CFLs installed (post-implementation) per type of room/area.
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
M&V CFL DATA COLLECTION FORM
Town/City:
(Please complete in block letters)
(One form per house)
Date:
dd / mm / yyyy
Esco Contractor's Name:
M&V Team Member 1:
Tel / Cell Number:
Homeowner's Details:
Homeowner's Name:
Street Address:
Tel Number:
Cell Number:
Hours of Use Questions:
Weekdays
Saturdays
Sundays
Bedroom 1
Bedroom 2
Kitchen
TV room
Other (spec)
Bedroom 1
Bedroom 2
Kitchen
TV room
Other (spec)
What time do you get up in the morning?
Which room(s) lights switched on? (mark with )
Time you leave for work / shop / church?
Time you get back from work / shop / church?
Which room(s) lights switched on? (mark with )
Time you prepare dinner:
Time of day you take a bath/shower:
Time going to sleep at night?
Figure 2: M&V CFL Questionnaire page 1 of 2.
Town/City:
M&V Team Member 2:
Street Address:
Lamp Installation Details:
Removed Incandescent Lamps
Power Rating
100 W
60 W
40 W
Other
Installed CFLs
11 W
14 W
15 W
20 W
Income Classification (mark with  )
21 W
22 W
TV room
Dining room
Kitchen
Bedroom 1
Bedroom 2
Bedroom 3
Bathroom 1
Bathroom 2
Security light (outside)
Other: (please specify)
Other: (please specify)
Other: (please specify)
Light level measured (LUX):
Voltage measured (V):
Figure 3: M&V CFL Questionnaire page 2 of 2.
Page 4
Low income
Middle income
High income
1 - 5 rooms
6 - 8 rooms
9 - 10 rooms
no car / garage
one car / garage
two cars / garages
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
By combining all of the findings through completing the questionnaires, as well as installing the
status loggers, CFL projects were characterised and classified. The aim is to minimise time spent
and costs involved when M&V is performed on CFL projects. The long-term objective is to only
use a project’s classification and representative operational demand profile to perform M&V on
CFL distribution projects.
A CFL distribution project can be classified according to certain characteristics associated with a
CFL distribution project which include the type of CFL project as well as the income classifications
of the households.
A household can be classified into a low, middle or high income group by examining the amount
of rooms in the household or externally by observing the number of cars or garages in a
household. The income classification is defined in Table 1 below:
Table 1: Income classification of households
Income classification
Low income
Middle income
High income
1 – 5 rooms
no car / no garage
6 – 8 rooms
one car / one garage
9 – 10 rooms
two cars / two garages
The above income classification method enables the M&V team members to quickly analyse the
income group without interviewing the homeowner.
There are currently four classifications, defined as follows:
1. Classification 1 – Low-income urban areas;
2. Classification 2 – Low-income rural areas;
3. Classification 3 – Middle to high income residential load management (RLM) projects; and
4. Classification 4 – Exchange programmes.
2.3.3
Classification 1 – Low-income urban areas
Characteristics of this classification include:
CFL distribution projects that are done on their own; and
Project roll-out in low-income urban areas (i.e. townships).
The 30-minute normalised operational profile applicable, is given in Figure 4 for an average
weekday, Saturday and Sunday. The normalised operational profile values are available in Table
A1 in Appendix A – Classification 1
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Average Normalised Operational Profiles - Classification 1
120%
Normalised Profile (%)
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
AVE Weekday
AVE Saturday
23:00
22:00
21:00
20:00
19:00
18:00
17:00
16:00
15:00
14:00
13:00
12:00
11:00
10:00
09:00
08:00
07:00
06:00
05:00
04:00
03:00
02:00
01:00
00:00
0%
AVE Sunday
Figure 4: Operational profile of a Classification 1 type CFL distribution project.
According to the operational profiles in Figure 4 above, most of the lights are operational between
04h30 and 08h00 in the mornings and between 17h00 and 21h00 in the evening for an average
weekday. These periods fall within Eskom’s peak demand periods which are between 07h00 and
10h00 in the mornings and between 18h00 and 20h00 in the evenings. Also observed from the
figure is that during the daytime all lights are switched off, and that approximately 20% of the
lights (security lights) are switched on during the night. Note that during the weekdays, the lights
are switched on from 04h00. This makes sense if assumed that households get up early to get
ready for work or school and need to travel a far distance from townships to cities or other
workplaces. During weekends the households start later in the morning with their daily activities
and the lights are therefore switched on later in the mornings.
The typical lighting installed (before the CFL distribution) range between 40W and 100W
incandescent lights. The ratio of 100W incandescent, 60W incandescent and 40W incandescent
were determined from the data gathered in previous CFL projects (Soweto and Daveyton). The
percentage breakage of each type of incandescent light is determined from these areas’ gathered
data.
The typical ratio of incandescent lights installed before the CFL roll-out for low-income urban
areas in Table 2 below. The average percentage breakage per type of incandescent light is also
given in this table.
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Table 2: Ratio and % breakage per type of incandescent light before CFL roll-out
Light
Type
% Installed
per type
100 W
40%
60 W
57%
40 W
3%
% breakage
9%
Table 2 above is representative of a Classification 1 type CFL project. This ratio can be used as
default to determine the number of each type of incandescent lights installed in an area where no
site visits could be performed before the distribution and installation of CFLs.
2.3.4
Classification 2 – Low-income rural areas
Characteristics of this classification include:
CFL distribution projects that are done on their own; and
Project roll-out in low-income rural areas.
The 30-minute normalised operational profile applicable is given in Figure 5 for an average
weekday, Saturday and Sunday.
The normalised operational profile values are available in Table A2 in Appendix A – Classification
2
Average Normalised Operational Profiles - Classification 2
120%
80%
60%
40%
20%
AVE Weekday
AVE Saturday
AVE Sunday
Figure 5: Operational profile of a Classification 2 type CFL distribution project.
Page 7
23:00
22:00
21:00
20:00
19:00
18:00
17:00
16:00
15:00
14:00
13:00
12:00
11:00
10:00
09:00
08:00
07:00
06:00
05:00
04:00
03:00
02:00
01:00
0%
00:00
Normalised Profile (%)
100%
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
According to the operational profiles in Figure 5 above, most of the lights are operational between
03h30 and 08h00 in the mornings and between 18h00 and 21h00 in the evening for an average
weekday. These periods fall within Eskom’s morning and evening peak demand periods. Also
observed from the figure is that during the weekdays as well as weekends, the lights are switched
on from 03h00 in the mornings. Note that these profiles represent low-income households in rural
areas where workers usually work on nearby farms. The operating hours of a farm depends on
the type of farming, such as poultry and dairy farms, and typically operates 7 days a week which
corresponds with the similarity between the weekday and weekend operational profiles.
2.3.5
Classification 3 – Middle to high income RLM project
Characteristics of this classification include:
CFL distribution project that accompanies a RLM project where geyser control switches
are installed; and
Project roll-out in middle- to high-income households in urban areas.
The 30-minute normalised operational profile applicable is given in Figure 6 for an average
weekday, Saturday and Sunday.
The normalised operational profile values are available in Table A3 in Appendix A – Classification
3.
Average Normalised Operational Profiles - Classification 3
120%
Normalised Profile (%)
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
AVE Weekday
AVE Saturday
23:00
22:00
21:00
20:00
19:00
18:00
17:00
16:00
15:00
14:00
13:00
12:00
11:00
10:00
09:00
08:00
07:00
06:00
05:00
04:00
03:00
02:00
01:00
00:00
0%
AVE Sunday
Figure 6: Operational profile of a Classification 3 type CFL distribution project.
According to the operational profiles in Figure 6 above, most of the lights are operational between
05h00 and 08h00 in the mornings and between 17h00 and 22h00 in the evening for an average
Page 8
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
weekday. These periods fall within Eskom’s morning and evening peak demand periods. Note
that during the weekdays, the lights are switched on from 04h00 in the morning as the households
get ready for their daily activities. During weekends the household activities start later and the
lights are therefore switched on later in the mornings.
The ratio of 100W incandescent, 60W incandescent and 40W incandescent were determined from
the data gathered in previous CFL projects (Klerksdorp, Stilfontein and Orkney area).
The
percentage breakage of each type of incandescent light is determined from these area’s gathered
data.
Table 3 gives the ratio of the incandescent lights installed as well as the percentage breakage per
type of light. This is representative of a Classification 3 type CFL project.
Table 3: Ratio and % breakage per type of incandescent light before CFL roll-out
Light
Type
% Installed
per type
% breakage
100 W
60 W
40 W
25%
40%
35%
3%
Table 3 above is representative of a Classification 3 type CFL project. This ratio can be used as
default for Classification 3 in order to determine the number of each type of incandescent lights
installed in an area where no site visits could be performed before the distribution of the CFLs.
2.3.6
Classification 4 – Exchange programmes
Characteristics of this classification include:
CFL distribution programmes through exchange points. Households can exchange their
incandescent lamps for CFLs at designated exchange points situated at shopping
centres.
The 30-minute normalised operational profiles applicable are provided in Figure 7 below for an
average weekday and weekend. These operational profiles were developed by installing profile
meters at a sample of houses (20 houses) during one of the CFL roll-out programmes. Due to
time constraints these profile meters were only installed at the houses for a period of one week.
The normalised operational profile values are available in Table A-4 in Appendix A – Classification
4 - Exchange.
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Average Normalised Operational Profiles - Classification 4 (Exchange)
120%
Normalised Profile (%)
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
AVE Weekday
AVE Saturday
23:00
22:00
21:00
20:00
19:00
18:00
17:00
16:00
15:00
14:00
13:00
12:00
11:00
10:00
09:00
08:00
07:00
06:00
05:00
04:00
03:00
02:00
01:00
00:00
0%
AVE Sunday
Figure 7: Operational profile of an Exchange CFL distribution project (Classification 4).
According to the operational profiles in Figure 7, most of the lights are operational between 17h30
and 22h00 in the evening for an average weekday. This period falls within Eskom’s evening peak
demand period.
The normalised profiles provided for each of the four classifications as discussed in the previous
sections, are used together with the lighting ratios provided to determine the baseline demand
profiles that represent the lighting demand profile before the CFL distribution programme. It is
assumed that the operational profiles of the households’ lighting systems are not altered as a
result of the CFL programme and is therefore applicable to develop the actual demand profiles
after the CFL programme.
3
MEASUREMENT
AND
VERIFICATION
OF
CFL
DISTRIBUTION
PROJECTS
The M&V process is designed to provide an impartial quantification and assessment of project
impacts and savings that result from energy-efficiency and DSM activities. M&V also provide
continuous feedback to the various stakeholders (Eskom, ESCo and Client) regarding the impacts
achieved.
M&V consequently makes a substantial contribution towards the sustainable
implementation of DSM and energy-efficiency in South Africa
[1]
.
The following sections describe the process on how to perform M&V on CFL projects. A number
of standardised deliverables have been designed by the M&V teams to achieve the objectives of
this type of M&V project:
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Scoping and Baseline report; (which must be signed off by the ESCo);
Post-implementation and performance assessment report; and
Performance tracking and sustainability assessment reports (annually).
The M&V plan is omitted, since the prescribed methodology is given in this guideline.
3.1
3.1.1
Scope and Baseline
Classification of CFL Project
The following steps are used to make the classification of the CFL project:
Step 1: The scoping study is the first stage in the M&V process after receiving the request to
perform M&V on a CFL project. The purpose of the scoping study is to enable the
M&V team to gather all relevant and available information on the project. The required
data can be collected via the standard questionnaire in Appendix B – M&V
Classification Questionnaire. The M&V team members should walk with the ESCo
fieldworkers for at least two days during the CFL roll-out while collecting the data. The
following information should be filled in on the questionnaire:
Location, name and contact details of homeowner;
Income classification: low, middle or high income group;
Type and number of incandescent lights replaced as well as the type and
number of CFLs installed;
Type of rooms/areas which include: TV rooms, dining rooms, kitchens,
bedrooms etc;
Voltage measurements of the installed CFLs.
The information gathered will determine whether the project is a classification 1, 2, 3, 4
or new classification.
Step 2: In this step the project classification is made. There are two basic questions to be
answered to classify the project, namely:
1. Is this a RLM project accompanied by a CFL project or a CFL distribution
project on its own? and
2. What is the households’ income classification?
If the project falls into classification 1, 2, 3 or 4, baseline development method 1 applies. This
means the standard developed operational profiles can be applied via the CFL Application (Figure
8). However if the project does not fall into one of the above-mentioned classifications, baseline
development method 2 applies implying that a new classification is established.
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Please note: The CFL Application
will be discussed in detail in
Chapter 4.
The purpose of the CFL Application
is to develop baseline and actual
demand profiles according to a
project's classification, number and
type of lights.
Monthly savings reports can be
generated which include MW and
MWh savings, emission savings as
well as cost savings.
Figure 8: Screenshot of CFL Application.
3.1.1.1
Baseline Development Method 1
Baseline Development Method 1 involves the use of the CFL Application together with the
available operational profiles of Classification 1, 2, 3 or 4. The data required to develop the
baselines through the application is discussed in the section below.
Data requirements
The data required for the development of the baselines are the following:
The number and type of incandescent lights installed before CFL roll-out should be
obtained from the ESCo or the classification lighting ratio can be used;
Percentage breakage of the installed incandescent lights – this is necessary to calculate
the operational capacity of the lights before CFL roll-out;
Number and type of CFLs installed after CFL roll-out;
Voltage measurements at the installation sites – Supply voltage variations have an impact
on the power consumed by CFLs. Laboratory measurements were done by the University
of Stellenbosch to determine the effects of supply voltage variations on the supply current
and active power consumed by CFLs. CFLs with different ratings were tested which
include: 11W, 14W, 15W, 20W, 21W and 22W CFLs
[2]
. The results obtained from the
tests can be used to determine the actual power consumption of a specific rated CFL.
Once the supply voltage is measured, the actual power consumed by the CFLs can be
derived from the results obtained.
The results tables and graphs can be found in
Appendix C – Voltage Variation.
Baseline development
Once the project classification is made and the relevant data analysed, the baselines are
developed by following these basic steps:
Step 1:
Use the applicable standard operational profile according to the project classification.
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Because the operating hours of the lighting system is not affected by the DSM project,
the operational hours of the lighting system does not vary. Therefore the operational
profile before the roll-out can be used to determine the demand profile after the CFL
roll-out. However, directly after the CFL roll-out the percentage breakage of the CFLs
will be zero.
Step 2:
Determine the installed capacity by multiplying the number of each type of old light
with its applicable baseline power demand for that lighting type.
Step 3:
Determine the operational capacity of the site with the % breakage super-imposed on
the installed capacity.
Step 4:
Determine the baseline demand profile by imposing the operational capacity on the
operational profile.
3.1.1.2 Baseline development Method 2
This method is followed when the project does not fall in one of the classifications. A detailed
study is needed in order to develop a new classification together with the applicable operational
profiles. These classifications need to be updated and added into the CFL Application.
Data requirements
The data required for the development of the baselines are the following:
The number and type of incandescent lights installed before CFL roll-out from ESCo;
Percentage breakage of the installed incandescent lights – this is necessary to calculate
the operational capacity of the lights before CFL roll-out;
Normalised profiles that represent the operational hours of the lighting system for an
average weekday, Saturday and Sunday (either by installing status loggers in the houses
or by completing the questionnaires);
Amount and type of CFLs installed after CFL roll-out;
Baseline development
The difference between this baseline development method and the previous baseline
development method is that new operational profiles are developed from data gathered through
the questionnaires and data loggers.
Step 1:
Develop the normalised profiles that represent the operational hours of the lighting
system for an average weekday, Saturday and Sunday per type of room/area.
Because the operating hours of the lighting system is not affected by the DSM project,
the operational hours of the lighting system does not vary. Therefore the operational
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Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
profile before the roll-out can be used to determine the demand profile after the CFL
roll-out. However, directly after the CFL roll-out the percentage breakage of the CFLs
will be zero.
Step 2:
Determine the installed capacity by multiplying the number of each type of installed
CFL with its applicable power demand for that lighting type. Note that the percentage
breakage will be zero after project roll-out; therefore the installed capacity and the
operational capacity will be the same.
Step 3:
Determine the actual demand profile after project roll-out by super-imposing the
operational capacity on the operational profiles.
3.1
Impact Calculation Methodology
This section describes the methodology, models and/or equations that will be used to determine
the savings and impacts for CFL distribution projects.
3.1.2
Demand
After the baseline and actual demand profiles have been developed, the savings are calculated
with Equation 1 by subtracting the actual kW demand from the Baseline kW demand.
Demand Impact [kW] = Baseline [kW] – Actual [kW]
(Eq. 4)
Where:
3.1.3
Demand Impact
=
The demand savings (kW).
Baseline
=
The baseline demand profile (kW).
Actual
=
The actual demand profile (kW).
Electricity consumption
The reduction in energy consumption will be calculated using engineering calculation methods
incorporating the metered data.
Using the baseline and actual demand profiles, the
impact/reduction in monthly electricity consumption can be calculated. As previously stated the
baseline is an equation which would calculate the load of the system for any time of day. By
subtracting the actual electricity consumption from the baseline electricity consumption the
savings impact of the DSM intervention can be calculated. The savings is calculated in kilowatthours (kWh) on a monthly and annual basis for the savings reports.
Page 14
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
3.1.4
Emissions
The emission reductions due to reduced energy consumption are calculated by the use of
established and trusted emission factors linked to energy consumption savings. The emission
reductions will be calculated for carbon dioxide (CO 2), Nitrogen oxides (NOX), Sulphur oxides
(SOX) and particulate matter.
Emission Impact
X
kWh savings, annual
(EFX )
(
)
1000
(Eq. 5)
Where:
Emission Impact X
=
The reduction of emission X (in kg/year), which can be CO 2, NOX,
SOX, particulate matter or water.
EFX
=
Emission factor for emission X (in kg/MWh) for CO 2, NOX, SOX,
particulate matter or water (provided below).
kWhsavings, annual
=
Annual energy consumption savings (in kWh/year) calculated and
added for all the months of the year.
In order to calculate the reductions in the above emissions, one needs to know the total number of
megawatt-hours that have been saved due to the implementation of the DSM option. The actual
emission factors should be obtained annually from Eskom’s annual report.
Page 15
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
3.2
Post-implementation and Performance Assessment
The performance assessment is done over a period of one month. The purpose of the
performance assessment is to allow the ESCo to make adjustments to their DSM intervention to
ensure that it delivers what was contracted to Eskom.
The inputs to the CFL Application are the following:
Start and end date of performance assessment period;
Applicable tariff structure;
Emission factors of the following: CO2, H2O, NOx, SOx;
Decay rate (discussed in section 3.3).
The output is a Performance Assessment report in MS Excel format, containing the following:
Summary of the average monthly demand savings per Megaflex billing period;
Monthly energy, cost, CO2, H2O, NOx, SOx and particulate impacts.
This performance assessment report is send to all project stakeholders.
3.3
3.1.5
Performance Tracking and Sustainability Assessments
Performance Tracking
The Performance tracking reports provide a tracking of the savings that have been achieved after
the performance assessment stage. These reports are submitted on an annual basis to all the
DSM stakeholders. The purpose of this report is to provide verified savings to the stakeholders.
This report has the same basic structure and sections as the performance assessment report.
The only difference is the first part of the report that provides the project impacts for the month for
which the report is compiled. The accumulated section provides the impacts obtained over the
total period to the date of the report for which the project delivered was active.
3.1.6
Sustainability Assessments
The sustainability of CFL programmes is dependent on whether households will buy CFLs to
replace those that have failed since the CFL roll-out or whether Eskom provides replacements to
the affected households timeously. Low-income households often cannot afford or do not have
the possibility (CFLs are not sold in stores close to the home) of purchasing CFLs. Sustainability
roll-outs which are currently planned seem to be a way forward to maintain the initial savings
effected.
Page 16
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Sustainability assessments are done three years after the CFL roll-out to determine the
sustainability of a CFL distribution project. This is done either telephonically or through site visits.
The purpose of the telephonic conversation or site visit check-up is to determine how many CFLs
are still in place and in a good working condition. However, if this is not the case, it should be
noted whether or not the CFL is replaced and with what type of light (a CFL or an incandescent
lamp). These findings will then be used to determine the breakage and the decay rate of the
project over a certain period of time.
Breakage is the percentage of CFLs failed during a certain period and that was not replaced again
with CFL or an incandescent light.
Decay rate is the percentage of CFLs that failed during a certain period and that was replaced
again with an incandescent light.
An example of the sustainability questionnaire used during the sustainability assessment is
provided in Figure 9 below. {Appendix E – Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire}
Township
Homeowner
name
Contact
number
Did they receive
How many Are the CFLs
and did they
installed? still working?
install?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
How
If failed, did they
many
replace it?
failed?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
If yes, with what
type of light?
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Figure 9: Sustainability assessment questionnaire.
Page 17
Type of
Incandescent
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
100W
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
4 M&V CFL APPLICATION
This section describes the final outcome of the CFL Application. A short description, together with
a screenshot, is provided for the different functions/fields of the application.
4.1
M&V CFL Application Interface and inputs
In Figure 10 below, a screenshot is provided of the Project Properties field.
Complete the Project Properties form by supplying:
1. A unique project number, preferably the DSM project number;
2. A unique project name, preferably the DSM project name;
3. A self explanatory description;
4. Analyst name;
5. Project start date & estimated project end date;
6. Select an emission set; and
7. Select a public holiday set.
8. Select
to complete this process.
Figure 10: Project properties field.
Page 18
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Once the project is created and loaded, continue to the Targets field.
In the Targets field the project’s intended target is set for each TOU period as shown in Figure 11
below.
Figure 11: Target field.
Once the project targets have been set, continue to the Schedules field (Figure 12 below).
Figure 12: Schedules field.
Page 19
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Select the applicable operational profiles for the baseline (before retrofit) and actual (after retrofit)
scenarios respectively.
Different schedules can be selected for each month of the year (by
selecting: Individual) or one schedule can be selected representing the entire year (by selecting:
Same for each).
Once the applicable schedules have been selected, continue to the Lights field (Figure 13 below).
Figure 13: Lights field.
In the Project Light Properties window, select or type:
9. Light Type (i.e. INC = incandescent);
10. Code (i.e. 100W);
11. Quantity;
12. Add the light set by selecting the add button
.
13. The shape of the selected operational profiles can be viewed in the graphs
provided.
Repeat the procedure for the “After fit” scenario and continue to the Periods field.
Page 20
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Figure 14: Project Periods field.
In the Periods field a single/multiple reporting period can be created where the following should
be specified for each period:
14. End date (The start date are determined by using the previous period’s end date
or project start date);
15. Decay start value;
16. Decay end value;
17. A breakage percentage for this period;
18. Tariff applicable to the period;
19. Select
to add the period to the project.
Once all the above steps have been completed and ticked with a
Reports field (Figure 15 below).
Page 21
, you can commence to the
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Figure 15: Reports field.
20. The output folder for reports can be altered with the destination of preference by
using the
button;
21. Select the report types to be generated;
22. Confirm that all report variables in the Report Options are correct and select the
start and end dates of the custom period;
23. The report filename is automatically generated which includes the project name,
report
type
and
date
of
report
(format:
Project
name_AssessmentReport_yyyymmdd.xls). The report filename can be altered by
typing the required name in the filename field.
24. Select
to start the report generation process.
Figure 16: Report being generated.
Page 22
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
The output of the reporting of the application is discussed in the following section.
4.2
M&V CFL Application Reporting Output
After the above steps have been completed and the assessment options have been completed,
the demand profiles for the project will be generated and the output will be available as an MS
Excel file for use in savings reports or for additional calculations is needed.
The output of the project profiles when generated is available as a Microsoft Excel file as provided
in Figure 17 below:
Table 1 in this figure gives the average Weekday MW demand impact for the TOU periods;
Table 2 gives the average Weekend MW demand impact for the TOU periods;
Table 3 gives the total electricity consumption in MWh for the selected report period;
Table 4 gives the financial impacts of the period under evaluation; and
Table 5 gives the emissions impact of the project.
Year-to-date (YTD)
Latest calendar month
Project name:
Report Analyst:
Reporting Period:
Reporting Period Dates:
Report Generation Date:
Table 1:
New Project
Caren Engelbrecht
Custom Period
2009-08-01 to 2009-08-31
2009/10/05
Project name:
Report Analyst:
Reporting Period:
Reporting Period Dates:
Report Generation Date:
Average Weekday Impact
Table 1:
Weekday (MW)
Midday
Evening
Morning Peak Standard
Evening Peak Standard
Morning Off- Morning
peak
Standard
Evening Offpeak
Baseline Demand
Actual Demand
Actual Impact
Intended Impact
Over / underperformance
Table 2:
Project name:
Report Analyst:
Reporting Period:
Reporting Period Dates:
Report Generation Date:
Average Weekday Impact
Table 1:
Weekday (MW)
Midday
Evening
Morning Peak Standard
Evening Peak Standard
Morning Off- Morning
peak
Standard
Evening Offpeak
Baseline Demand
Actual Demand
Actual Impact
Intended Impact
Over / underperformance
Table 2:
Average Weekend Impact
Saturday (MW)
Midday OffEvening
peak
Standard
Morning Off- Morning
Peak
Standard
Evening Offpeak
Sunday (MW)
Sunday Offpeak
Baseline Demand
Actual Demand
Actual Impact
Intended Impact
Over / underperformance
Table 3:
Inception-to-date (ITD)
New Project
Caren Engelbrecht
Custom Period
2009-08-01 to 2009-08-31
2009/10/05
Total
Weekday (MW)
Midday
Evening
Morning Peak Standard
Evening Peak Standard
Morning Off- Morning
peak
Standard
Table 2:
Average Weekend Impact
Saturday (MW)
Midday OffEvening
peak
Standard
Morning Off- Morning
Peak
Standard
Table 3:
Total Electricity Consumption (MWh)
Weekday
Saturdays
Sundays
Average Weekday Impact
Evening Offpeak
Sunday (MW)
Sunday Offpeak
Average Weekend Impact
Saturday (MW)
Midday OffEvening
peak
Standard
Morning Off- Morning
Peak
Standard
Table 3:
Total Electricity Consumption (MWh)
Weekday
Saturdays
Sundays
Total
Total Electricity Consumption (MWh)
Weekday
Saturdays
Sundays
Load Factor based on savings profile
Table 4:
Load Factor
Load Factor based on savings profile
Table 4:
Load Factor
Load Factor based on savings profile
Table 5:
Financial Impact (c/kWh)
Total Rand
Table 5:
Financial Impact (c/kWh)
Total Rand
Table 5:
Financial Impact (c/kWh)
Total Rand
Table 6:
Total Emissions Impacts
CO 2 (Tons)
Emission Conversion
Values
Baseline Emissions
Actual Imissions
Actual Impact
1
4.39
Emissions
SO x (kg)
Particles
8.69
0.23
Water (kl)
1.44
Note that the cost impact is only valid if M&V metering is done
at the point where billing metering is installed. Otherwise, the
energy part of the tarif is used to estimate the financial impact
of the project.
Baseline cost
Actual cost
Actual Impact
Table 6:
NO x (kg)
Total Emissions Impacts
CO 2 (Tons)
Emission Conversion
Values
Baseline Emissions
Actual Imissions
Actual Impact
Sunday (MW)
Sunday Offpeak
Total
Baseline Energy
Actual Energy
Actual Impact
Table 4:
Load Factor
Note that the cost impact is only valid if M&V metering is done
at the point where billing metering is installed. Otherwise, the
energy part of the tarif is used to estimate the financial impact
of the project.
Evening Offpeak
Baseline Demand
Actual Demand
Actual Impact
Intended Impact
Over / underperformance
Baseline Energy
Actual Energy
Actual Impact
Baseline cost
Actual cost
Actual Impact
Evening Offpeak
Baseline Demand
Actual Demand
Actual Impact
Intended Impact
Over / underperformance
Baseline Demand
Actual Demand
Actual Impact
Intended Impact
Over / underperformance
Baseline Energy
Actual Energy
Actual Impact
New Project
Caren Engelbrecht
Custom Period
2009-08-01 to 2009-08-31
2009/10/05
1
Table 6:
Emissions
SO x (kg)
NO x (kg)
4.39
8.69
Particles
0.23
Water (kl)
1.44
Note that the cost impact is only valid if M&V metering is done
at the point where billing metering is installed. Otherwise, the
energy part of the tarif is used to estimate the financial impact
of the project.
Baseline cost
Actual cost
Actual Impact
Total Emissions Impacts
CO 2 (Tons)
Emission Conversion
Values
Baseline Emissions
Actual Imissions
Actual Impact
1
NO x (kg)
4.39
Emissions
SO x (kg)
8.69
Particles
0.23
Water (kl)
1.44
Figure 17: Example of Eskom reporting periods.
A report (as shown in Figure 17 above) is generated for each of the periods as required by Eskom
which includes the savings for: the latest calendar month, year-to-date (YTD) and inception-todate (ITD) periods.
Page 23
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
Project name:
Report Analyst:
Reporting Period:
Reporting Period Dates:
Report Generation Date:
Table 1:
New Project
Caren Engelbrecht
Custom Period
2009-08-01 to 2009-08-31
2009/10/05
Average Weekday Impact
Weekday (MW)
Midday
Evening
Morning Peak Standard
Evening Peak Standard
Morning Off- Morning
peak
Standard
Evening Offpeak
Baseline Demand
Actual Demand
Actual Impact
Intended Impact
Over / underperformance
Table 2:
Average Weekend Impact
Saturday (MW)
Midday OffEvening
peak
Standard
Morning Off- Morning
Peak
Standard
Evening Offpeak
Sunday (MW)
Sunday Offpeak
Baseline Demand
Actual Demand
Actual Impact
Intended Impact
Over / underperformance
Table 3:
Total Electricity Consumption (MWh)
Weekday
Saturdays
Sundays
Total
Baseline Energy
Actual Energy
Actual Impact
Table 4:
Financial Impact (c/kWh)
Total Rand
Note that the cost impact is only valid if M&V metering is done
at the point where billing metering is installed. Otherwise, the
energy part of the tarif is used to estimate the financial impact
of the project.
Baseline cost
Actual cost
Actual Impact
Table 5:
Total Emissions Impacts
CO 2 (Tons)
Emission Conversion
Values
Baseline Emissions
Actual Imissions
Actual Impact
1
NO x (kg)
Emissions
SO x (kg)
4.39
8.69
Particles
Water (kl)
0.23
Figure 18: M&V CFL Application output format.
.
Page 24
1.44
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
5 REFERENCES
[1]
Den Heijer, W.L.R, Grobler, L.J.
The Measurement and Verification Guideline for
Demand-Side Management Projects. March 2011.
[2]
Bekker, M., Jakoef, A., Vermeulen, H.J. An Investigation into the Voltage Dependency of
the Active Power Consumption of Compact Fluorescent Lamps. November 2006.
Data were received from the following M&V team leaders and institutions:
[1]
H.J. Vermeulen – University of Stellenbosch.
[2]
O.D. Dintchev – Tswane University of Technology.
[3]
Denis van ES – University of Cape Town.
[4]
L.J. Grobler – North West University.
Page 25
Measurement & Verification Guideline: CFL Distribution Projects
6
CONTACT DETAILS
The draft Measurement and Verification Guideline for CFL Distribution Projects document has
been developed by the North-West University’s (Potchefstroom Campus) M&V Team. Please feel
free to contact the authors for more information on measurement and verification:
Prof. LJ Grobler
Tel. Int.:
(+27) 018 299 1328
Cell:
(+27) 082 452 9279
Fax:
(+27) 018 299 1320
Email:
[email protected]
Christo van der Merwe
Tel. Int.:
(+27) 018 297 5908
Cell:
(+27) 082 440 8420
Fax:
(+27) 018 293 2721
Email:
[email protected]
Caren Coetzee
Tel. Int.:
(+27) 018 297 5908
Cell:
(+27) 083 555 6371
Fax:
(+27) 018 293 2721
Email:
[email protected]
Page 26
Appendix A
Standard Operational Profiles According to Project Classifications
Page A1
1. Normalised Operational Profile Values – Classification 1
Table A1: Classification 1 – Low-income urban areas
Average Normalised Operational Profiles - Classification 1
120%
Page A2
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
AVE Weekday
AVE Saturday
AVE Sunday
23:00
22:00
21:00
20:00
19:00
18:00
17:00
16:00
15:00
14:00
13:00
12:00
11:00
10:00
09:00
08:00
07:00
06:00
05:00
04:00
03:00
02:00
01:00
0%
00:00
AVE
Sunday
26%
27%
11%
16%
16%
10%
11%
6%
19%
20%
16%
24%
44%
48%
48%
37%
27%
27%
25%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
12%
17%
32%
73%
88%
90%
96%
94%
100%
75%
56%
45%
24%
17%
11%
Normalised Profile (%)
00:00
00:30
01:00
01:30
02:00
02:30
03:00
03:30
04:00
04:30
05:00
05:30
06:00
06:30
07:00
07:30
08:00
08:30
09:00
09:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
18:00
18:30
19:00
19:30
20:00
20:30
21:00
21:30
22:00
22:30
23:00
23:30
Classification 1
AVE
AVE
Weekday
Saturday
19%
28%
21%
23%
16%
23%
20%
22%
15%
14%
6%
20%
7%
20%
22%
7%
31%
9%
45%
13%
59%
15%
68%
21%
70%
29%
65%
30%
53%
27%
43%
24%
25%
13%
24%
8%
24%
8%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
21%
0%
29%
0%
37%
10%
80%
25%
87%
32%
96%
38%
99%
40%
99%
42%
100%
42%
82%
32%
85%
36%
72%
36%
60%
41%
46%
35%
48%
35%
2. Normalised Operational Profile Values – Classification 2
Table A2: Classification 2 – Low-income rural areas
Average Normalised Operational Profiles - Classification 2
AVE
Sunday
20%
AVE Weekday
Page A3
AVE Saturday
AVE Sunday
23:00
22:00
21:00
20:00
19:00
18:00
17:00
16:00
15:00
14:00
13:00
12:00
11:00
10:00
09:00
08:00
0%
07:00
27%
40%
06:00
34%
60%
05:00
28%
80%
04:00
23:30
100%
03:00
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
22%
27%
34%
42%
48%
58%
64%
64%
48%
41%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
51%
61%
88%
95%
95%
86%
78%
60%
53%
44%
34%
02:00
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
23%
28%
35%
47%
53%
64%
71%
71%
53%
45%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
52%
62%
89%
96%
98%
89%
80%
62%
54%
45%
43%
01:00
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
23%
28%
36%
47%
54%
64%
72%
72%
54%
46%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
54%
64%
93%
100%
100%
91%
82%
63%
55%
46%
36%
00:00
00:00
00:30
01:00
01:30
02:00
02:30
03:00
03:30
04:00
04:30
05:00
05:30
06:00
06:30
07:00
07:30
08:00
08:30
09:00
09:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
18:00
18:30
19:00
19:30
20:00
20:30
21:00
21:30
22:00
22:30
23:00
120%
Normalised Profile (%)
Classification 2
AVE
AVE
Weekday
Saturday
3. Normalised Operational Profile Values – Classification 3
Table A3: Classification 3 – Middle to high income RLM project
Average Normalised Operational Profiles - Classification 3
AVE
Sunday
AVE Weekday
Page A4
AVE Saturday
AVE Sunday
23:00
22:00
21:00
20:00
19:00
18:00
17:00
16:00
15:00
14:00
13:00
12:00
11:00
10:00
09:00
08:00
0%
07:00
5%
20%
06:00
19%
40%
05:00
28%
60%
04:00
23:30
80%
03:00
3%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
9%
1%
7%
37%
32%
20%
32%
38%
37%
37%
31%
21%
14%
5%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
5%
17%
29%
44%
76%
98%
97%
90%
86%
75%
69%
28%
9%
02:00
1%
1%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
1%
3%
11%
26%
58%
35%
14%
16%
5%
8%
7%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
1%
0%
0%
2%
13%
35%
40%
63%
58%
68%
75%
81%
64%
41%
32%
23%
01:00
25%
12%
3%
0%
0%
13%
3%
3%
10%
47%
58%
79%
79%
58%
56%
55%
37%
23%
18%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
4%
45%
66%
65%
96%
94%
99%
94%
100%
76%
60%
56%
41%
100%
00:00
00:00
00:30
01:00
01:30
02:00
02:30
03:00
03:30
04:00
04:30
05:00
05:30
06:00
06:30
07:00
07:30
08:00
08:30
09:00
09:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
18:00
18:30
19:00
19:30
20:00
20:30
21:00
21:30
22:00
22:30
23:00
120%
Normalised Profile (%)
Classification 3
AVE
AVE
Weekday
Saturday
4. Normalised Operational Profile Values – Classification 4 - Exchange
Table A4: Classification 4 – Exchange programmes
Average Normalised Operational Profiles - Classification 4 (Exchange)
AVE
Sunday
20%
AVE Weekday
Page A5
AVE Saturday
AVE Sunday
23:00
22:00
21:00
20:00
19:00
18:00
17:00
16:00
15:00
14:00
13:00
12:00
11:00
10:00
09:00
08:00
0%
07:00
46%
40%
06:00
46%
60%
05:00
32%
80%
04:00
23:30
100%
03:00
27%
27%
27%
26%
27%
26%
26%
26%
26%
28%
26%
26%
25%
26%
26%
26%
27%
27%
27%
27%
27%
25%
18%
18%
17%
18%
18%
18%
17%
17%
17%
17%
17%
18%
36%
37%
60%
61%
76%
72%
71%
67%
65%
50%
46%
47%
47%
02:00
27%
27%
27%
26%
27%
26%
26%
26%
26%
28%
26%
26%
25%
26%
26%
26%
27%
27%
27%
27%
27%
25%
18%
18%
17%
18%
18%
18%
17%
17%
17%
17%
17%
18%
36%
37%
60%
61%
76%
72%
71%
67%
65%
50%
46%
47%
47%
01:00
27%
26%
26%
27%
27%
26%
27%
26%
26%
28%
36%
38%
36%
32%
27%
25%
27%
25%
26%
26%
28%
26%
26%
27%
27%
30%
30%
27%
27%
26%
27%
27%
27%
34%
43%
44%
46%
70%
74%
72%
69%
69%
66%
65%
48%
48%
41%
00:00
00:00
00:30
01:00
01:30
02:00
02:30
03:00
03:30
04:00
04:30
05:00
05:30
06:00
06:30
07:00
07:30
08:00
08:30
09:00
09:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
18:00
18:30
19:00
19:30
20:00
20:30
21:00
21:30
22:00
22:30
23:00
120%
Normalised Profile (%)
Classification 4 - Exchange
AVE
AVE
Weekday
Saturday
Appendix B
M&V CFL Questionnaires
Page B1
M&V CFL DATA COLLECTION FORM
Town/City:
(Please complete in block letters)
(One form per house)
Date:
dd / mm / yyyy
Esco Contractor's Name:
M&V Team Member 1:
Tel / Cell Number:
Homeowner's Details:
Homeowner's Name:
Street Address:
Tel Number:
Cell Number:
Hours of Use Questions:
Weekdays
Saturdays
Sundays
Bedroom 1
Bedroom 2
Kitchen
TV room
Other (spec)
Bedroom 1
Bedroom 2
Kitchen
TV room
Other (spec)
What time do you get up in the morning?
Which room(s) lights switched on? (mark with )
Time you leave for work / shop / church?
Time you get back from work / shop / church?
Which room(s) lights switched on? (mark with )
Time you prepare dinner:
Time of day you take a bath/shower:
Time going to sleep at night?
Page B3
Figure B1: M&V CFL Form Questionnaire – page 1 of 2.
Town/City:
M&V Team Member 2:
Street Address:
Lamp Installation Details:
Removed Incandescent Lamps
Power Rating
100 W
60 W
40 W
Other
Installed CFLs
11 W
14 W
15 W
20 W
TV room
Dining room
Kitchen
Bedroom 1
Bedroom 2
Bedroom 3
Bathroom 1
Bathroom 2
Security light (outside)
Other: (please specify)
Other: (please specify)
Other: (please specify)
Light level measured (LUX):
Voltage measured (V):
.
Page B4
Income Classification (mark with  )
21 W
22 W
Low income
Middle income
High income
1 - 5 rooms
6 - 8 rooms
9 - 10 rooms
no car / garage
one car / garage
two cars / garages
Figure B2: M&V CFL Questionnaire – page 2 of 2.
Page B5
Appendix C
Voltage Variations
A Study Conducted by Stellenbosch University
Page C1
1. Eskom 11W cool white CFL
Table C1: Measured data for an Eskom 11W cool white CFL
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
Active power
Active power
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
[W]
[W]
207.1
73.6
8.5
229.8
76.3
9.7
209.6
73.8
8.6
232.4
76.6
9.8
211.1
74.5
8.7
234.5
77.5
9.9
214.0
73.8
8.9
236.9
77.7
10.0
216.8
74.0
9.0
239.2
77.7
10.1
218.5
75.2
9.1
241.1
78.1
10.2
220.8
75.7
9.3
243.8
78.2
10.3
223.3
75.8
9.4
245.8
78.0
10.4
225.2
75.4
9.4
248.1
78.4
10.5
227.5
76.0
9.6
250.3
78.9
10.6
252.8
79.0
10.8
Eskom 11W cool white CFL: active power vs. voltage
12.0
Active Power [W]
10.0
y = 0.1109x + 8.4371
R2 = 0.9958
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
Voltage [V]
Figure C3: Eskom 11W cool white CFL: Measured active power versus voltage relationship.
Page C2
252.8
250.3
248.1
245.8
243.8
241.1
239.2
236.9
234.5
232.4
229.8
227.5
225.2
223.3
220.8
218.5
216.8
214.0
211.1
209.6
207.1
0.0
2. Osram 14 Duluxstar CFL
Table C2: Measured data for an Osram 14W Duluxstar CFL
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
Active power
Active power
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
[W]
[W]
207.1
96.9
11.9
230.2
98.3
12.8
209.5
96.9
12.0
232.4
97.4
12.9
211.5
97.0
12.1
234.6
100.4
13.0
213.7
98.5
12.1
236.5
101.5
13.1
216.3
97.5
12.2
239.6
97.5
13.3
218.2
96.2
12.2
241.4
97.6
13.4
221.0
96.1
12.3
243.7
98.3
13.6
223.2
98.3
12.4
246.1
101.6
13.7
225.4
96.5
12.5
248.0
99.9
13.8
227.7
101.1
12.6
250.7
106.2
14.0
253.1
104.2
14.1
Osram 14W Duluxstar CFL: active power vs. voltage
16.0
14.0
y = 0.1125x + 11.62
R2 = 0.9787
Active Power [W]
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
Voltage [V]
Figure C4: Osram 14W Duluxstar CFL: Measured active power versus voltage relationship.
Page C3
253.1
250.7
248.0
246.1
243.7
241.4
239.6
236.5
234.6
232.4
230.2
227.7
225.4
223.2
221.0
218.2
216.3
213.7
211.5
209.5
207.1
0.0
3. Eskom 15W warm white CFL
Table C3: Measured data for an Eskom 15W warm white CFL
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
Active power
Active power
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
[W]
[W]
207.3
107.0
12.3
230.1
109.7
13.7
209.3
106.9
12.4
232.2
111.6
13.9
211.4
106.2
12.5
234.9
118.7
14.1
213.7
106.9
12.7
237.0
115.2
14.2
216.6
107.9
12.9
239.0
114.6
14.4
218.5
111.0
13.0
241.7
114.8
14.5
220.6
110.6
13.1
243.8
114.4
14.7
223.1
117.7
13.2
246.0
114.0
14.8
225.3
115.3
13.4
248.3
114.7
15.0
227.5
109.3
13.5
250.6
115.6
15.2
252.9
115.5
15.5
Eskom 15W warm white CFL: active power vs. voltage
18.0
16.0
Active Power [W]
14.0
y = 0.1561x + 12.045
R2 = 0.9954
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
Voltage [V]
Figure C5: Eskom 15W warm white CFL: Measured active power versus voltage relationship.
Page C4
252.9
250.6
248.3
246.0
243.8
241.7
239.0
237.0
234.9
232.2
230.1
227.5
225.3
223.1
220.6
218.5
216.6
213.7
211.4
209.3
207.3
0.0
4. Osram 20W Dulux CFL
Table C4: Measured data for an Osram 20W Dulux CFL
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
Active power
Active power
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
[W]
[W]
207.3
135.4
17.3
230.2
135.8
18.8
209.1
135.3
17.4
232.2
135.7
18.9
211.8
135.5
17.7
234.4
133.8
19.0
213.5
136.3
17.8
237.1
134.6
19.0
216.7
136.5
18.0
239.4
135.3
19.3
218.1
135.4
18.0
241.7
134.9
19.4
220.8
135.4
18.2
243.5
135.3
19.5
223.0
135.4
18.3
246.0
135.3
19.7
225.5
134.4
18.4
248.5
136.0
19.9
227.5
135.6
18.6
250.9
136.2
20.0
253.0
135.7
20.1
Osram 20W Dulux CFL: active power vs. voltage
20.5
20.0
Active Power [W]
19.5
y = 0.1381x + 17.21
R2 = 0.9954
19.0
18.5
18.0
17.5
17.0
16.5
16.0
Voltage [V]
Figure C6: Osram 20W Dulux CFL: Measured active power versus voltage relationship.
Page C5
253.0
250.9
248.5
246.0
243.5
241.7
239.4
237.1
234.4
232.2
230.2
227.5
225.5
223.0
220.8
218.1
216.7
213.5
211.8
209.1
207.3
15.5
5. Osram 21W Dulux Superstar CFL
Table C5: Measured data for an Osram 21W Dulux Superstar CFL
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
Active power
Active power
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
[W]
[W]
207.1
128.5
16.8
230.1
137.1
19.6
209.5
128.2
16.8
232.5
137.3
19.9
211.4
127.2
16.8
234.4
138.7
20.0
213.5
128.3
17.1
236.4
138.3
20.2
216.4
130.7
17.6
239.6
138.7
20.5
218.5
133.0
18.2
241.4
138.3
20.6
220.5
134.1
18.4
243.5
139.0
20.8
223.5
135.5
18.8
246.1
139.2
21.0
225.7
135.8
19.0
248.8
139.8
21.3
227.2
136.3
19.2
250.7
139.0
21.4
252.9
139.6
21.6
Osram 21W Dulux Superstar CFL: active power vs. voltage
25.0
Active Power [W]
20.0
y = 0.2587x + 16.469
R2 = 0.9804
15.0
10.0
5.0
Voltage [V]
Figure C7: Osram 21W Dulux Superstar CFL: Measured active power versus voltage relationship.
Page C6
252.9
250.7
248.8
246.1
243.5
241.4
239.6
236.4
234.4
232.5
230.1
227.2
225.7
223.5
220.5
218.5
216.4
213.5
211.4
209.5
207.1
0.0
6. Lohuis 22W cool white CFL
Table C6: Measured data for a Lohuis 22W cool white CFL
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
Active power
Active power
Voltage [V] Current [mA]
[W]
[W]
207.3
173.9
17.2
230.1
179.7
19.7
209.4
174.8
17.5
232.3
180.9
20.0
211.3
178.8
17.6
234.8
181.1
20.2
213.8
176.4
17.8
236.6
180.8
20.4
216.4
176.8
18.2
239.4
181.8
20.7
218.3
177.4
18.4
241.2
182.8
20.8
220.2
177.1
18.6
243.6
183.4
21.1
223.0
178.5
18.9
246.5
184.3
21.4
225.3
180.6
19.2
248.5
185.8
21.7
227.6
182.0
19.5
250.6
185.2
21.9
253.1
188.0
22.1
Lohuis 22W cool white CFL: active power vs. voltage
25.0
Active Power [W]
20.0
y = 0.2486x + 16.928
R2 = 0.9985
15.0
10.0
5.0
Voltage [V]
Figure C8: Lohuis 22W cool white CFL: Measured active power versus voltage relationship.
Page C7
253.1
250.6
248.5
246.5
243.6
241.2
239.4
236.6
234.8
232.3
230.1
227.6
225.3
223.0
220.2
218.3
216.4
213.8
211.3
209.4
207.3
0.0
Appendix D
Import Schedule Excel Format
Page D1
Table D1: Import Schedule Excel format
Weekday Saturday Sunday P-holiday
00:00
00:30
01:00
01:30
02:00
02:30
03:00
03:30
04:00
04:30
05:00
05:30
06:00
06:30
07:00
07:30
08:00
08:30
09:00
09:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
18:00
18:30
19:00
19:30
20:00
20:30
21:00
21:30
22:00
22:30
23:00
23:30
Page D2
Appendix E
Sustainability Assessment Questionnaire
Page E1
Township
Homeowner
name
Contact
number
Did they receive
How
If failed, did they
How many Are the CFLs
and did they
many
replace it?
installed? still working?
install?
failed?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Page E2
If yes, with what
type of light?
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
CFL
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Incandescent
Type of
Incandescent
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
40W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
60W
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100W
100W
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100W
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100W
100W
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100W
100W
100W
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100W
100W
100W
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