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Maryland's Forest Stewardship Educator'
Vol. 4, No.1
Spring 1996
Managing Forest Succession for Wildlife
J
ust as every human undergoes changes from
newborn to mature adult, forests also undergo
predictable changes. The orderly progression of
plant communities from bare earth to mature forest is
called forest succession - one of the most basic principles
that guides the development of forests and changes in
wildlife habitat.
Forest succession commonly begins when a crop field
or pasture is abandoned and grasses invade the area.
Soon, seeds of sun-loving (shade- intolerant) trees and
shrubs blown by the wind and contained in bird droppings
germinate and grow. Tightly packed trees and shrubs start
to crowd the site. Dense vegetation no longer allows
sunlight to reach the ground, resulting in the loss of abundant herbaceous vegetation found in earlier successional
stages. As the trees continue to grow and compete for
available sunlight, some thrive and others die. It is under
this dense crown of forest trees and shrubs that piants
adapted to shady conditions (shade-tolerant) thrive.
A second important ecological principle is edge - the
boundary between two different stages of succession, or,
in general, between any two ecological communities.
Examples of edge include the interface between a pond
and a stand of trees, a field and a forest, or a road and a
forest. Often the diversity of wildlife is greatest along an
edge because its transitional nature allows a variety of
habitats to exist in close proximity to each other.
Succession and Wildlife Habitat
Different species of wildlife rely on one or more
stages of forest succession to meet their needs for survival. The basic needs of wildlife, or wildlife habitat, are
food, cover, water, and living space that will support
animals through the entire year and their lifetime.
Food may include nuts, berries, and grasses, as well as
other flora and fauna such as grubs and the insects they
become. Cover must provide not only nesting cover but
Deer. Grouse, Shrew. Red Fox, a ••r
Cottontail Rabbit· Shrew
I Grasshopper· Sparrow
I
Meedowlark
Figure 1 - Different stages of forest succession (i.e.,
grass, seedling, sapling, pole, and sawtimber) provide
one or more of the food, cover, water, and space requirements for wildlife habitat (WVU Coop. Ext. Serv.)
continued on page 2
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND AT COLLEGE PARK
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND EASTERN SHORE
Renewable Resources
Extension Act (RREA)
rearing cover, roosting cover, escape cover, loafing areas,
travel lanes, and protection from winter's and the heat of
the summer. Water sources must be present. Streams
provide drinking water for birds and mammals; vernal
pools ( seasonal springtime puddles and pools) and
swamps provide breeding places for insects, reptiles, and
amphibians such as salamanders, frogs, and toads. Living
space must be varied enough to meet the needs of animals
throughout the lives. For example, adult turkeys need
mature trees that provide a place to roost and a supply of
acorns as food, but the young or "polts" need short grassy
clearings where they can find the insects they need to grow
after hatching.
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habitat
Edges that are wide and diverse can provide a range of
successional habitats that allow many wildlife species to
meet their needs in a smaller area. However, some wildlife
species do not benefit from increased edge. For example,
forest-interior dwelling birds need mature forest, but their
numbers dwindle quickly as the forest is fragmented.
Therefore, you need to know what you want to manage
for and the habitat needs of that species.
Managing Forest Succession
The process of forest succession proceeds whether we
do anything or not. Therefore, wildlife habitat changes as
wen. Forest managment practices provide some of the
best opportunities to improve the health and productivity
of forests for forest products, recreation and aesthetics, as
well as alter wildlife habitat.
Harvest practices can be used to create or enhance
important or missing habitat components on a piece of
property, such as forest openings; stands of seedling,
sapling, poletimber or mature timber; mast trees; or snags
and cavity trees. Many practices cause forests to revert to
early successional stages, while the planting of trees and
shrubs pushes succession ahead to provide sources of food
and shelter more quickly than nature would. Forest
stewardship practices can also assure that special wildlife
habitats such as wetlands, spring seeps, cliffs, caves, and
nest boxes are protected and enhanced.
To educate yourself on wildlife habitat and management practices for specific wildlife species, a series of 17
facts sheets can be purchased for $10 from your local
Cooperative Extension Service office.
Forestry Declaration of Intent
The Declaration of Intent for Forestry Operations (i.e.
logging and timber harvesting) is required in many Maryland counties as a result of the Forest Conservation Act or
"tree bill" which took effect in January 1993. Although not
part of the law itself, this declaration is part of the regulations developed by the Maryland Department of Natural
Resources (DNR).
Most counties and local jurisdictions require that this
document be submitted along with or as part of the permit
prior to any logging activities. The regulation states that any
property that has a timber harvest implemented may be
subject to fines, fees, or prohibitions if any development
takes place within five years ofthe logging activity. Some
counties have a seven-year prohibition.
The regulation was initially aimed at developers who
might buy up parcels of forested land with the intent to
clearcut and develop them, however, it also affects - and
hurts - forest owners who have properly implemented a
forest management plan for many years. Many wooded
properties lie within developing urban areas; locking up the
land for many years unfairly penalizes the owners for their
past stewardship commitment and acts as a disincentive for
sound forest management.
The Maryland Forests Association (MFA) voiced its
concern to the DNR and a task force was formed. After
several years of discussions and negotiations, changes have
been suggested. Local jurisdictions would have the option
to waive the declaration of intent as long as the forest
landowner adheres to a forest management plan drawn up
by a registered forester. As with an management activities,
the sediment control plan must satisfy requirements for
commercial logging and timber harvesting. If you have
comments or questions on the new regulation and its status,
call the Maryland Forests Association at (410) 535-1144.
- submitted by Dave Chessler; Maryland Forests Assoc.
Branching Out
Vol. 4, No. I, Spring 1996
Editors: Jonathan Kays,Pam Townsend
Contributors: Anita Schipper Caplan
Phone: (301) 432-2735 Fax: (301) 432-4089
We welcome your email: [email protected]
Branching Out is published quarterly and distributed to 8,450
woodland owners, resource professionals, .and others interested in
orest stewardship. Calendar and news items are welcome. Items must
be received by July 15 for the summer newsletter.
The sponsoring agencies' programs are open to all citizens without regard
to race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin, or disability.
7th American Forest Congress
The 7th American Forest Congress, titled "Many
Voices, A Common Vision," was held in Washington,
D.C., February 20-24. Any description of this meeting
must include the word "intense." More than I ,400 people
with deeply held beliefs came together in goodwill in
hopes of developing a forest vision that would take us into
the 21th century. As a Maryland forest owner, I attended
along with other forest owners, environmentalists, educators, representatives of government agencies, wildlife
groups, urban and community forestry and students. The
congress was not without controversy as a few environmental delegates from the western u.s. attempted to use
the forum to air their view, however, this was not wellreceived by the majority of delegates.
Congress organizers worked hard for over a year prior
to the meeting. Draft vision elements and principles for
achieving the vision were collected at 50 grass roots round
tables held across the country.
At the congress, participants were assigned to tables of
10 people of diverse backgrounds and interests. People at
each tables introduced themselves and established conduct rules.
The first phase of the congress involved developing a
vision or a desired state of being. Seven vision elements
that arose from the earlier round tables were discussed
and added to by participants at each table. All suggestions
were compiled, and the acceptance of each was determined. Intermingled in the process were two sets of
concurrent dialogue sessions offered to broaden perspectives on 40 forest-related issues.
The second phase was to develop principles to support
our common vision. Nineteen principles that provided
guidelines on how to achieve the vision were submitted
for discussion. Break-out sessions produced a total of 61
principles, and supporting statements were prepared to
provide evidence or rationale for each principle. Acceptance of the principles was again determined by a consensus process.
The third phase was to develop "next steps" to bring us
closer to achieving our vision. Participants relocated to
tables of their home states to recommend actions needed
to achieve the vision.
Most people I met were impressed by the goodwill,
knowledge, and commitment of congress participants.
Discussions focused on the broad center of the bell curve
where most could find common ground. Although a few
tables had members that tried to impose their positions on
all, most people had a constructive experience.
When the congress adjourned most participants were
optimistic that our inclusive vision is achievable. While
agreement on how this vision will be attained was not
resolved, all of us departed motivated to try in our own
way.
- Submitted by Sandra West, a Marylandforest owner,
Coverts Cooperator, and attendee at the Forest Congress
Forestry Board Receives Honor
.
The Frederick County Forest Conservancy Board
recently received the Wildlife Conservation Award of the
MarylandlDelaware Chapter of the Wildlife Society.
The award is presented to a person or organization that
does not have wildlife management as a primary purpose
or source of income. In accepting the award, Board
Chairmen John Blake said, "We are all pleased by this
recognition that what we do is appreciated by others."
Efforts of volunteers in local forest and wildlife management programs are key to reaching the diverse citizenary
of our state.
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Take Note ...
* Timber Harvesting: An Essential Management Tool
(Forest Stewardship Bulletin No.7): This publication
provides practical information of great value. Free from
Penn State Cooperative Extension, 7 Ferguson Bldg.,
University Park, Pa. 16802. Six other bulletins in this
series are also available.
Biodiversity for Forests and Farms: This 28-minute
video is useful to natural resource professionals, land-use
planners, agriculturalists, forest owners, educators and
others. This video explains concepts of biodiversity and
ecosystem management that allow resource managers to
apply traditional techniques in innovative ways to enhance
species diversity in forests and on farms. Available for
$24.95 from: Cornell Univ., Med. Servo Res. Ctr., #7 B&T
Park, Ithaca, NY, 14850; (607) 255-2090.
* Coverts Workshop: Each fall the Maryland Cooperative
Extension Service trains 30 forest landowner volunteers in
a 4-day forest wildlife training workshop. Unfortunately,
there will be no Coverts workshop this fall. However, if
you are interested in applying for training in September of
1997 - send your name and address to the editor.
*
BRANCHING OUT
Maryland Cooperative Extension Service
18330 Keedysville Road
Keedysville, MD 21756
Vol. 4, No.1
Spring 1996
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What About Grapevines?
Most landowners pay little attention to the grapevines
in their woodlands except as a source for decorative
wreaths. Most vines have been left to grow. After each
timber harvest or natural disturbance, they slowly advance
in their quest to take over the land. As they spread, they
compete with trees for necessary sunlight and their weight
often disfigures the shape of crop trees. After many
years, with the help of ice and snow storms, they can
cause tree tops to break.
To ensure diversity and balance in your woodland,
some vines are necessary. Grapes formed on the vines are
a source of food for wildlife, particularly when other food
sources are slim. It is normally wise to leave vines along a
wood's edge, and in permanent wildlife trees. A variety of
animal and bird species will be grateful.
However, most landowners need to control vines to
protect future productivity of the forest. Cut vines near
the ground around crop trees with value for forest products and mast for wildlife. If you cut the vines a few years
prior to any harvesting in the area, the shade of the forest
cover will kill the vines with no need for herbicides.
Non-Profit Org.
U.S. Postage
PAID
Pennit No. 10
College Park, MD
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