Sumber : http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/stat-data/Surveys.htm Instrumentality Theory Suppose two corresponding items, one from the dimension being rated and its mate, the relative importance of that topic, called the "valence", are cross-multiplied, then added up across all such pairs, then divided by the number of such pairs. This procedure provides a weighted score, the sum of the items each weighted by its relative importance. The higher the average weighted score, the greater the overall importance and rating of the topic. The technique has been well-liked since two issues are being considered here, how satisfied or prepared or . . . someone is, and how important that topic is to them. The approach has been applied to multivariate issues such as factors affecting leaving an organization, job satisfaction, managerial behavior, etc. Preparing a Questionnaire for Administration Write a descriptive title for the questionnaire. Write an introduction to the questionnaire. Group the items by content, and provide a subtitle for each group. Within each group of items, place items with the same format together. At the end of the questionnaire, indicate what respondents should do next. Prepare an informed consent form, if needed. If the questionnaire will be mailed to respondents, avoid having your correspondence look like junk mail. If the questionnaire will be mailed, consider including a token reward. If the questionnaire will be mailed, write a follow-up letter. If the questionnaire will be administered in person, consider preparing written instructions for the administrator.