ABSTRACT: Presently most of the world’s ...

Presently most of the world’s energy supply comes from fossil and nuclear sources. In spite of the
increasing issues of resource limitations and environmental pollution, these sources continue to be
important in providing energy for the next few generations. However, these sources are expected to be
less available and are of environmental concern. To meet the increasing global demand for energy and
to allow for the decrease of environmental pollution, the uses of alternative or clean energy sources,
which do not depends on fossil fuels and has a tolerable environmental impact, is increasing. Alternative
energy sources (AES) like microturbines, photovoltaic (PV), fuel cells, wave energy and wind turbines
seem to meet the requirement for clean energy. Such resources have not yet become a major part of
the electrical power system grid. Integrating these generating sources into the existing power system
grid, known as distributed energy resources (DER), can provide a more reliable and better quality power
to consumers. The electricity obtained from these energy sources is normally unregulated and is not in a
suitable form to be directly connected to the power system grids or to non grid-connected loads.