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The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 1, January-February 2014
Recognition of Important Sponsorship
Behavior to Attract Audience and to
Improve it in Sport Event
Vahid Rafee Dehbidi*, Elham Rowhanisarvestani** & Salma Hashemian***
*Department of Physical Education, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, IRAN.
**Department of Physical Education, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, IRAN. E-Mail: [email protected]
***Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.
Abstract—The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of how companies behavior to more
success in sponsorship in sport events as a strategic tool in their marketing program. In order to achieve this
purpose, the study identified and propertied companies objectives with sport sponsorship and explain ways to
connect better with customers. Research method was carried out by field method considering the nature and
research subject was descriptive-analytical method. The research statistical population was including 7
companies of financial sponsorship in Towa global competitions being held in November 2011 in Shiraz. The
statistical sample was equal to the statistical population of the research. The research instrument was marketing
questionnaire being applied in Protra University in the south of Africa. The reliability coefficient of the
questionnaire was 0.89 by Cronbach‟s alpha. The results showed that in accepting the support of events, the
organizations were attempting to affect on current customers, local community (competition region) and
potential customers and one of the most important factors in assessment of investment before accepting
sponsorship is the ability of the organization in the success of hospitalization, the number of audiences and
effectiveness of social communications. The Important factors in planning in financial sponsorship companies
business plan, social communication plan and marketing plan. In The investigation of the effect of accepting
sponsorship the sponsorship organizations consider the effect of this support on access to highest media cover
in the first degree and second and third degree consider the access to special media and achieving
advertisement opportunities. Result showed that the first and important thing in planning of sponsorship
companies was effective behaviors of sport sponsors in sport events in sale field and then in hospitalization
field. The most important behavior of marketing manager to success are participating in the events, the
assessment of the performance of sponsorship of the company and giving consulting services to supported
teams.
Keywords—Audience; Effective Behavior; Sponsorship; Sport.
I.
M
INTRODUCTION
ANY companies nowadays are fully aware of the
fact that they need their customers to stay in
business and many of them know the high
significance which marketing plays in making them compete
successfully amongst their competitors. Companies need to
satisfy their customers by creatively managing their
marketing mix in order to have a competitive advantage over
others [David Jobber, 2007].
Promotion is the way for the company to communicate
with their target audiences through mass communication
[David Jobber, 2007]. Promotion, however, includes much
more than the traditional forms of advertising. It involves all
forms of communication to consumers. For many
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organizations, sports are quickly becoming a rather effective
and efficient way to communicate with both current and
potential target markets [Matthew D. Shank, 2009].
According to the definition of Meenaghan about sponsorship,
any monetary or non-monetary investment in an activity is to
achieve the potential benefits of that activity. Sponsorship has
been considered by the companies in recent years and them
considerate a kind of good communication method to
communicate with the consumers with maximum
effectiveness [Meenaghan, 2001].
For many years sponsorship and sports marketing have
been in existence and has now been greatly improved upon.
Hardly can organizers of major events expect to receive some
funds without expecting to give something back in return. A
couple of years ago, sponsorship could be regarded has more
© 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ)
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The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 1, January-February 2014
charitable or philanthropic, but in recent years, hat has
changed significantly has we will see in the coming chapters.
Bernard Mullin et al., (2007) defines the term sponsorship as
„the acquisition of rights to affiliate or directly associate with
a product or event for the purpose of deriving benefits related
to that affiliation or association. The sponsor then uses this
relationship to achieve its promotional objectives or to
facilitate and support its broader marketing objectives‟. Bruce
E Skinner & Rukavina Vladimir (2002) points out that the
Olympics held in Los Angeles was a rapid market expansion
for sponsorship deals. The event‟s organizers where able to
raise over $400 million worth of sponsorship deal which
opened the doors for other Olympics as well as other big
events such as the FIFA World Cup.
When companies commit themselves to sponsoring
certain activity, they should always have clear reasons and
objectives for their actions. Sponsorship goals should always
be linked to promotional objectives and in a wider sense to
the marketing objectives of the organization [Matthew D.
Shank, 2009]. Matthew D. Shank (2009) differentiates
between direct and indirect sponsorship objectives. The direct
sponsorship objective is expected to have an immediate
impact on sales as well as impacting the level of the
consumer behavior. The indirect sponsorship objective on the
other hand is regarded as a long-term commitment, which
requires a high level of generating awareness and company
image before the companies can reach their set indirect
objectives.
Yong Jae Ko et al., (2008) in a study investigated the
effects of sport bias, knowledge of the sponsor and image of
the company on products purchase aim in this study, the
theoretical relations between key effectiveness variables of
sponsorship as sport bias, knowledge of sponsor, company
image and purchase aim were investigated. Finally, it was
defined that purchase aim is probable when the consumers
have good image of sponsor companies and have high level
of bias. Also, the results showed that sport bias of consumers
can positively affect the knowledge, image and their purchase
aim.
Windy Dees et al., (2008) in a study evaluated the
effectiveness of sponsorship in a football plan selected
between the universities via analyzing the effects of attitude
to sponsor, good intention of fan on the purchase aims of the
consumer. Finally, it was defined that although fan sport bias
and attitude to the sponsor can be the most important forms
of effectiveness of sponsorship. Good intention can be one of
key factors of transferring anxious fans to loyal consumers
and it will have the maximum effect on the support aim of the
consumers of company sponsors via their purchase behaviors.
Eshqi (2009) in a study investigated the effectiveness of
sport sponsorship among football fans in Iran as one of the
studies carried out about the effectiveness of sport
sponsorship in Iran football league in which the effect of
sport sponsorship on 5 variables of fan maturity process was
investigated and finally it was found that sport sponsorship
improved the public image of the company, increasing the
purchase aim and the loyalty of the fans to sponsors but it
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didn‟t have any effect on the knowledge of trading mark and
the love to the company and trading mark. Ehsani (2007) in a
study investigated the reasons of not supporting the sponsors
of women sport. The results showed that one of the reasons
that the sponsors didn‟t support women sport is the
companies didn‟t reach their aims.
Abaszadeh (2010) in a research investigated the effective
structures of sport sponsorship and the theoretical relations
between them among football fans in Iran. The results of the
study showed that the support of fans has positive and direct
effect on knowledge, image and their purchase aim from the
sponsors. Also, their knowledge about the sponsor had
positive effect on their image of the sponsor and finally the
knowledge of the fans of sponsor and the image of fans of
sponsor had positive and direct effect on their purchase aim
of the sponsor.
In abroad, namely in Australia, Ireland and USA, many
researches are performed regarding sponsorship namely sport
sponsorship as:
Virvilaiate & Dilys (2010) in a research titled “The
image of sport organizations as competitive score of
attracting the sponsors” showed that the image of sport
organizations had more effectiveness on the factors: Athletes,
results of sport and the results of the competitions. Correct
formation of the image of sport organizations can attract
more sponsors. Also, the image of sport organizations and
sponsorship organizations should have organized and longterm strategies. Sponsorship organizations should imagine
themselves in the market and show their image equally in the
competitions.
Oladunni Roselyn Abiodun (2011) showed that
companies are not too keen on taking risks unnecessarily and
are willing to sponsor various target segments because of the
good image and a wider audience range and the companies
prefer to go into sponsorship that can convey their brand
image effectively.
In recent times, many new opportunities have opened up
for companies to compete with One another in creating
sponsorship deals that is both favorable to them as well as the
sporting entities they get involved with.
What are the required audiences of the sponsorship
companies?
1. Important factors in assessment of investment before
accepting sponsorship
2. Important factors in planning of sponsorship
companies
3. Important factors in the investigation of the effect of
accepting sponsorship
4. There was significant difference between the
identified factors (management of sponsorship,
marketing and communication, evaluation of sport
events, company goals, services, products and
trading mark, sale, media cover, hospitalization,
planning of sponsorship companies, the assessment
of the effect of accepting sponsorship).
© 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ)
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The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 1, January-February 2014
5.
The identification and prioritization of good
behavior of marketing manager (explaining the job
of marketing manager)
II.
RESEARCH METHOD
Research method was carried out by field method considering
the nature and research subject “The identification of
effective behaviors in required audience in sport sponsorship”
was descriptive-analytical method. The research statistical
population was including 7 companies (Shiraz Moket, Iran
cell Col, Dairies company of Arjan in Shiraz, Shiraz
Language institute, Shiraz Navid publications, Chamran big
hotel) of financial sponsorship in Towa global competitions
being held in November 2011 in Shiraz. The statistical
sample was equal to the statistical population of the research.
The research instrument was marketing questionnaire being
applied in Protra University in the south of Africa. The
questionnaire questions were designed as close response
based on Likert scale. The questionnaire was designed by the
researcher and proved by the experts of sport management
field. These questionnaires were completed by the managers
of sponsorship companies. It can be said that the researcher
personally was present during filling the questionnaires and
these meetings were held similar to the meetings of interview.
The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.89 by
Cronbach‟s alpha. In this study, the descriptive statistics
(mean, SD) were used for summarizing the information and
inference statistics was used to investigate the difference of
demographic properties.
III.
FINDING
3.1. Question (1): The prioritization of the Required
Audiences of Sport Sponsorship Companies
Table 1: Scoring the Questions: Prioritizing the Audiences
Prioritizing the Required Audiences
Average
Prioritizing
of Sport Sponsorship Companies
of Scores
Current customers
11.14
1
Local community (competition region)
11.14
1
Potential customers
10.21
2
Common people
10.14
3
Similar company(products and services)
9.71
4
Participants
9.71
4
Employee
9.00
5
Government
9.00
5
Distribution channels
8.50
6
Media interpreters
8.07
7
Beliefs leaders
7.86
8
Providers
7.21
9
Stockholders
7.14
10
Competitors
6.36
11
Similar company(products and services)
5.48
12
Company partners
5.36
13
The results of table 1 showed that in accepting the
support of events, the organizations were attempting to affect
on current customers, local community (competition region)
and potential customers.
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3.2. Question 2: Important Factors in Assessment of
Investment before Accepting Sponsorship
Table 2: Scoring the Questions: Important Factors in Assessment of
Investment before Accepting the Sponsorship
Important Factors of Investment
Assessment before Accepting Sponsorship
Success in hospitalization
The number of audiences
Effectiveness in social communications
Using media
Placing the trading mark of the company for
the public
Mutual effect between sponsorship and
advertisement
Advertisement in press
Being informed of newspaper and competition
journal readers
Being informed of the success of
advertisement
Increasing the advertisement of mark
The assessment of the response of the
customers
Media cover before the competition
Being informed of competition audiences
Mutual effect between sponsorship and
advertisement
Mutual effect between sponsorship and sale
improvement
Advertisement on TV ( for30s)
Mutual effect between sponsorship and direct
marketing
Assessment of the costs of marketing elements
The comparison between the sponsorship with
other product propagation costs
Effectiveness of the achieved target market
Re-assessment of the value of trading mark
The value of advertisement is defined of
advertisement rate
Encouraging the employee to sponsorship
The knowledge of people about mark, products
and services of the company in the competition
The investigation of the view of employee
about sponsorship
Encouraging the employee to sponsorship
Competitive cost in sponsorship
The computation of increasing business after
the end of competition
The assessment of cost return of each thousand
audiences after advertisement
Continuing the advertisement after the
competition
Advertisement on TV (30s)
The value of advertisement is defined of
advertisement rate
Media cover before the competition
Completing the costs of previous sponsorships
Advertisement on Radio (30s)
Being informed of competition radio audiences
The investigation of the views about the
competition before the competition
The investigation of the views about the
competition after the competition
The correlation of the opportunities of the
company with other sponsors
Merging the success of the company with other
financial sponsors
© 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ)
32.36
30.29
28.93
28.21
Average
of
Scores
1
2
3
4
26.71
5
26.50
6
26.43
7
25.86
8
Prioritizing
25.36
9
24.64
10
24.50
11
23.50
23.43
12
13
23.29
14
22.79
15
22.71
16
21.57
17
21.50
18
21.00
19
20.86
19.79
20
21
19.50
22
19.36
23
19.29
24
19.14
25
19.00
18.93
26
27
16.93
28
15.93
29
15.79
30
15.29
31
15.14
32
14.71
14.43
14.21
14.00
33
34
35
36
12.93
37
11.86
38
11.71
39
11.64
40
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The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 1, January-February 2014
The results of table 2 showed that one of the most
important factors in assessment of investment before
accepting sponsorship is the ability of the organization in the
success of hospitalization, the number of audiences and
effectiveness of social communications.
The results of table 4 showed that the organizations to
accept the sponsorship consider the effect of this support on
access to highest media cover in the first degree and second
and third degree consider the access to special media and
achieving advertisement opportunities.
3.3. Question 3: Important
Sponsorship Companies
3.5. Question 5: There was Significant Difference Between
the Identified Factors (Management of Sponsorship,
Marketing and Communication, Evaluation of Sport
Events, Company Goals, Services, Products and
Trading Mark, Sale, Media Cover, Hospitalization,
Planning of Sponsorship Companies, The Assessment
of the Effect of Accepting Sponsorship)
Factors
in
Planning
Table 3: Scoring the Questions of Planning of Financial Sponsorship
Companies
Important Factors in Planning in Financial
Sponsorship Companies
Business plan for the company
Social communication plan
Marketing plan
The plan for sponsorship recommendation to
professional teams
Having assessment plans of organization
behaviors- administrative and management of
financial sponsorship
Having the investigation plan of the success
of previous financial sponsorship
The assessment plan of the behavior of
participants in the competition (athletes,
artists and organizations)
Supporting great number of participants
The plan of investigating the previous
communication problems
Supporting a great number of audiences
Assessment plan of the competition and event
Assessment plans of the teams
Average
of Scores
9.07
9.07
8.00
Prioritizing
1
1
2
7.71
3
7.64
4
7.07
5
6.21
6
5.14
7
5.14
7
4.57
4.36
4.00
8
9
10
The results of table 3 showed that the companies
receiving sponsorship of the teams or events should be with
the importance of a business plan, social communication plan
and marketing plan.
3.4. Question 4: Important Factors in the Investigation of
the Effect of Accepting Sponsorship in Companies
Table 4: Scoring the Questions: The Investigation of the Effect of
Accepting Sponsorship
The Investigation of the Effect of
Accepting Sponsorship
Access with the highest media cover
Access of special media
Achieving advertisement opportunities
Exclusiveness of the name of the company in
the competition
The required budget
Creating different opportunities
Suitable strategy of the image of the company
Effectiveness in the morale of the employee
Access to the specific audiences of the
competition
Suitable strategy for the products, mark and
services of the company
Communicating with the customers
Creating opportunity for company
associations
Exclusive personal arrangements (e.g.
wearing organization cloth or company, etc)
The ability to complete other elements of
marketing communication in the supporting
sport events
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Average
of Scores
9.64
9.43
9.00
Prioritizing
1
2
3
9.00
3
8.64
8.43
7.36
7.29
4
5
6
7
6.64
8
6.50
9
5.93
10
5.93
10
5.79
11
5.43
12
Table 5: Descriptive Statistics of Identified Factors
Average
Significance Difference of
of
SD
Prioritization
Hypotheses
Scores
Planning of sponsorship
4.1905
.64678
1
companies
Good and effective
behaviors of sport sponsors
3.9524
1.14550
2
in sport events in sale field
Good and effective
behaviors of sport sponsors
3.8857
.93707
3
in sport events in
hospitalization field
The investigation of the
effect of investment before
3.8673
.95157
4
accepting sponsorship
Good and effective
behaviors of sport sponsors
3.6190
1.44886
5
in sport events in media
cover
Good and effective
behaviors of sport sponsors
3.4935
.95181
6
in sport events in company
goals in sponsorship
Good and effective
behaviors of sport sponsors
3.3571
1.03382
7
in sport events in marketing
and communication
Good and effective
behaviors of sport sponsors
3.2521
1.16103
8
in sport events in
assessment of sport events
Good and effective
behaviors of sport sponsors
3.2222
1.18808
9
in sport events in services,
products and trading mark
Good and effective
behaviors of sport sponsors
2.9921
.71753
10
in financial sponsorship
management
The results of table 5 showed that planning of
sponsorship companies was important first and good and
effective behaviors of sport sponsors in sport events in sale
field and then in hospitalization field were of great
importance.
© 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ)
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The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 1, January-February 2014
3.6. Question 6: The Identification and Priority of Good
Behavior of Marketing Manager
Table 6: Scoring the Questions: Good Behavior of Marketing
Manager
Good Behavior of Marketing
Average of
Prioritizing
Manager
Scores
Participating in the events
6.00
1
The assessment of the performance
5.71
2
of sponsorship of the company
Giving consulting services to
5.21
2
supported teams
Creating and execution of
4.57
3
sponsorship trading
Merging marketing fields of
communications with sponsorship
4.57
4
plans
Brief investigation of supportive
3.71
5
activities of other competitors
The assessment of sport support
3.5
6
goals
Planning for sponsorship
2.71
7
The results of table 6 showed that the company in the
events, assessment of the performance of sponsorship of the
company and giving consulting services to supporting teams
had the greatest importance.
IV.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Considering the results in this study, some factors identified
as effective behaviors required audience in sport sponsorship
and ranked based on their importance. Considering the results
of variance analysis, it was shown that in accepting
sponsorship, the planning of the company and sale fields and
hospitalization had the greatest importance. The results of the
study proved the results of the study of Virvilaite & Dilys
(2010), Windy Dees et al., (2008), Yong Jae Ko et al., (2008),
Carg (2007), Fasan & Agoro (2007), Cronoval et al., (2005),
Howard & Crompto (2004), Ehsani (2007), Abaszadeh
(2010) and Eshqi (2009).
The aim of this article was to gain a thorough
understanding of what good behavior company‟s sponsorship
as a marketing tool to reach out to their target audience as
well as potential customers. The intent was to gain an indepth understanding on how organizations use sponsorship to
reach out to specific audiences. Today, marketing and
sponsorship have the highest position in sport industry.
Considering the researcher investigations, it can be said that
the role of government and physical education organization
are important and necessary. Sport industry in Iran doesn‟t
have its own position and most of the authorities view the
sport as recreation not an industry and the only issue that
seems to help in promoting the sport is the changing the view
of the managers namely policy makers. We knew that one of
the great problems of physical education organization is the
presence of many authorities and the dispersion of this field
and this case should be considered based on the current
importance of the sport. One of development of sport industry
is investment in this field and one of the most efficient ways
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is attracting other industries sponsors. Considering the
investigations of the researcher, the results showed that today
in Iran, the authorities and physical education organization
could not take a useful measurement in this regard. In this
research, it was observed that private sectors were inclined
for investment in sport and accepting sponsorship but due to
the lack of good background, a few people started sport
sponsorship. Considering the mentioned results, the
researchers considered the following recommendations for
improving sponsorship in sport.
The result showed that in accepting the support of
events, the organizations were attempting to affect on current
customers, local community (competition region) and
potential customers and one of the most important factors in
assessment of investment before accepting sponsorship is the
ability of the organization in the success of hospitalization,
the number of audiences and effectiveness of social
communications. The Important factors in planning in
financial sponsorship companies business plan, social
communication plan and marketing plan. In The investigation
of the effect of accepting sponsorship the sponsorship
organizations consider the effect of this support on access to
highest media cover in the first degree and second and third
degree consider the access to special media and achieving
advertisement opportunities. Result showed that the first and
important thing in planning of sponsorship companies was
effective behaviors of sport sponsors in sport events in sale
field and then in hospitalization field. The most important
behavior of marketing manager to success are participating in
the events, the assessment of the performance of sponsorship
of the company and giving consulting services to supported
teams. In regard of results the writer suggests that:
1. The most important success key in each organization
is creating a strong relationship with people. It seems
that sport and physical education organization in Iran
couldn‟t have effective and suitable relationship with
people. Most of the factories and companies are
active in cultural issues and they consider that people
are more active in these activities.
2. Planning the sport events has important role in
attracting sponsor. Considering the level of these
competitions that were held internationally, it had
weak informing process such that most of the people
were not even informed about these competitions. In
addition, most of the sponsors stated that they were
informed in the last minute. The lack of planning in
facilities is observed. These competitions location
was not suitable for the presence of the tourists. The
lack of parking and recreation facilities, the lack of
the collaboration of governor office, the lack of
collaboration of municipality, the lack of
collaboration of cultural heritage organization, the
lack of collaboration of social and cultural
organizations and army in this competition are
observed. Considering the effect that an international
event has, all the related institutions should attempt in
better holding these competitions.
© 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ)
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The SIJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), Vol. 2, No. 1, January-February 2014
The lack of effective use of sponsors is other
problems of this event. For example, they could buy
thicket for the athletes dispatched from other
countries of Turkish air ling sponsorship, or by
creating some stores in competition environment to
reduce the prices, they could attract more sponsors.
4. Physical education organization can attract more
investment by publishing sport marketing journal and
they help sport field.
5. The companies with sport teams can participate in
public sport plans among all people and by creating
good relationship with people make their trading
mark famous.
6. Considering this fact that sport is not separated from
culture, all the organizations and namely media can
take the measurements in propagating this issue.
7. Considering the investigations, it was observed that
physical education institution after the end of this
competition didn‟t have any assessment of holding
these competitions. This issue affects sponsorship.
8. Physical education organization should organize
native sport fields and can have more advantages of
being the host of competitions.
9. It was observed in the researches that in companies
and factories of sponsorship, classic management
style was used. Unfortunately, modern management
didn‟t have strategic planning. None of the
organizations didn‟t have definite marketing unit and
most of the people delegated this important duty for
public communication section. The managers and
staffs considered sponsorship extra costs that not only
don‟t create any advantages for the institution, but
also it lead into the increase of organization costs.
Also, it was observed that none of the mangers of
were informed of the organizations managers. Thus,
it was proposed that the government for keeping the
private sector teach the managers.
10. Considering the results of research, it was observed
that one of the main reasons is accepting sponsorship
from the institutions is having relationship with
people. Thus, physical education organization in
competitions creates these relationships. Also,
physical education organization should use
advertisement techniques instead of marketing to
attract sponsorship.
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© 2014 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ)
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