What makes a society a “Civilization”? (Overhead Note) - from the Latin word, “Civis” which means “citizen” or someone who lives in a city. URBANIZATION – the migration of people from a rural setting into a city; the development of infrastructure in a city to support the needs of a growing population. - Typically, a civilization will develop close to a water source (river, ocean, lake) to supply a steady source of water for irrigation, drinking, fish, and transportation. Most tend to be located in river valleys with rich soil and generally in areas where agriculture could flourish and population could grow rapidly. URBAN REVOLUTION – the development of large densely populated settlements that were socially and economically diverse. - - Society continued to progress and people developed a sophisticated knowledge of farming, trade, government, law, art and science and people began to specialize in their talents and skills. Some scholars have tried to identify very specific requirements or criteria that a society must meet in order to be considered a civilization. Examples include: 1) Literacy – is there a written language present? 2) Technology – do they have the ability, knowledge and expertise to build structures of stone or brick that can last into the future? 3) Specialization of Labour/Diversity of Artisans – are their individuals who are experts in their craft? Most agree that a civilization should demonstrate most of these essential features but not necessarily all. Civilizations should possess some of the following characteristics: State Religion or Beliefs and Value Systems Centralized Government or Good Governance Agricultural Intensification or Effective Use of Resources. Specialization in Occupations Development of Science and Writing Merchants and Trade. Class Structure How does Trade and Commerce lead to the growth of a Civilization? - When a city had an abundant supply of a resource, they harvested it to create tools, weapons, jewellery, and other wares that were in demand by other merchants. Merchants created alliances with other merchants from foreign lands. Kings, queens, and merchants accumulated great wealth that accommodated grand lifestyles. Traders were exposed to different cultures and shared each other’s traditions and ideas. Trade helped towns grow and attracted educated elite such as teachers, lawyers, and politicians. Trade encouraged the development of advanced technologies that helped these states flourish and prosper.