Effective Teachers of Reading (con’t)

Effective Teachers of Reading
Effective Teachers
Understand How Children Learn:
Learning Theories
• Behaviorism (Skinner)
▫ teacher centered/teacher as dispenser of
▫ reading is viewed as a conditioned response
▫ children learn by learning a series of skills and subskills
▫ Teachers use instruction to teach in a planned
sequential order
▫ students work individually
▫ teacher control –rewards and punishments
Constructivism (Piaget)▫ emphasis on background knowledge/schema and
prior experiences
▫ children actively construct meaning/knowledge
▫ Teachers engage students with classroom
▫ Collaboration-students work together to construct
▫ Engagement –engaged students believe they can
succeed/have high self-efficacy (Bandura)
▫ Motivation-engaged students are motivated
Sociolinguistics (Vygotsky)
▫ Oral language provides the foundation for learning to
read and write
▫ children learn through language and social
▫ Reading and writing are social and cultural activities
▫ Zone of Proximal Development (range between dev.
level and potential level
▫ Teacher’s role as scaffolding-support mechanisms
▫ Authentic Literacy Activities
▫ culturally and socially responsive
▫ Incorporates “Critical Literacy” (Friere)-challenges
students to confront injustices and inequities in
Cognitive/Information Processing
▫ unobservable mental processes
▫ compares mind to computer
▫ students are active learners using knowledge to
solve problems
▫ Reading and writing integrated
▫ Reading and Writing are Meaning making
▫ Describes Students as Strategic Readers
▫ Reader’s interpretations are individualized
Transactive/Reader Response
Readers interpretations are individualized
Readers create meaning as they readA two way transaction between readers and texts
efferent stance- reading for information
aesthetic stance- reading for pleasure
Students may use a combination of the two
Teachers need to clearly set purpose
Teachers need to give students opportunities to read
aesthetically to develop a love of reading
Linking Theory to Practice
Sociolinguistic Theory
Classroom Practice
• Children learn by interacting
with one another through
• Children’ learn best through
authentic activities
• Teacher’s role is scaffolding—a
• Literature Circles – In
literature circles, students are
able read and discuss
literature of their choice. The
teacher sets the guidelines, but
the students are ultimately in
charge of the literature circle
Effective Teachers Use a Balanced
Approach (Comprehensive View of
Combines: explicit instruction, guided practice,
collaborative learning, and independent reading and
• Involves oral language, reading, and writing
• Involves phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,
vocabulary, comprehension, and writing
• Includes the writing process, qualities of good
writing, spelling, grammar
• Reading is a foundation for content area learning
• Students collaborate and work together
• Student participate in authentic activities and texts
Effective Teachers SCAFFOLD through:
• Modeled Reading- Group 1
• Shared Reading- Group 2
• Interactive Reading- Group 3
• Guided Reading – Group 4
• Independent Reading – Group 5
Use the Chart Paper and Markers Provided to
describe and illustrate the type of Literacy
Instruction Assigned to your Group.