Lecture Outlines Chapter 6 James S. Walker Physics, 3

Lecture Outlines
Chapter 6
Physics, 3rd Edition
James S. Walker
© 2007 Pearson Prentice Hall
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Chapter 6
Applications of Newton’s
Units of Chapter 6
• Frictional Forces
• Strings and Springs
• Translational Equilibrium
• Connected Objects
• Circular Motion
6-1 Frictional Forces
Friction has its basis in surfaces that are not
completely smooth:
6-1 Frictional Forces
Kinetic friction: the friction experienced by
surfaces sliding against one another
The static frictional force depends on the normal
The constant
kinetic friction.
is called the coefficient of
6-1 Frictional Forces
6-1 Frictional Forces
The kinetic frictional force is also independent
of the relative speed of the surfaces, and of their
area of contact.
6-1 Frictional Forces
The static frictional force keeps an object from
starting to move when a force is applied. The
static frictional force has a maximum value, but
may take on any value from zero to the maximum,
depending on what
is needed to keep
the sum of forces
6-1 Frictional Forces
The static frictional force is also independent
of the area of contact and the relative speed of
the surfaces.
6-2 Strings and Springs
When you pull on a string or rope, it becomes
taut. We say that there is tension in the string.
6-2 Strings and Springs
The tension in a real rope will vary along its
length, due to the weight of the rope.
Here, we will assume that
all ropes, strings, wires,
etc. are massless unless
otherwise stated.
6-2 Strings and Springs
An ideal pulley is one that simply changes the
direction of the tension:
6-2 Strings and Springs
Hooke’s law for springs states that the
force increases with the amount the
spring is stretched or compressed:
The constant k is called the spring
6-3 Translational Equilibrium
When an object is in translational equilibrium,
the net force on it is zero:
This allows the calculation of unknown forces.
6-3 Translational Equilibrium
6-4 Connected Objects
When forces are exerted on connected objects,
their accelerations are the same.
If there are two objects connected by a string,
and we know the force and the masses, we can
find the acceleration and the tension:
6-4 Connected Objects
We treat each box as a separate system:
6-4 Connected Objects
If there is a pulley, it is easiest to have the
coordinate system follow the string:
6-5 Circular Motion
An object moving in a circle must have a force
acting on it; otherwise it would move in a straight
The direction of the
force is towards the
center of the circle.
6-5 Circular Motion
Some algebra gives us the magnitude of the
acceleration, and therefore the force, required
to keep an object of mass m moving in a circle
of radius r.
The magnitude of the force is given by:
6-5 Circular Motion
This force may be provided by the tension in a
string, the normal force, or friction, among
6-5 Circular Motion
6-5 Circular Motion
An object may be changing its speed as it
moves in a circle; in that case, there is a
tangential acceleration as well:
Summary of Chapter 6
• Friction is due to microscopic roughness.
• Kinetic friction:
• Static friction:
• Tension: the force transmitted through a
• Force exerted by an ideal spring:
Summary of Chapter 6
• An object is in translational equilibrium if the
net force acting on it is zero.
• Connected objects have the same acceleration.
• The force required to move an object of mass m
in a circle of radius r is: