Constructivism of Teaching Idea and Practice Hong Zhu, Jun-qing Wu, Hui-fang Li, Yong-qin Yuan Institute of Corporate Governance, Taiyuan Institute of Technology, China (firstname.lastname@example.org) Abstract - We elaborate eight points of constructivism and develop three of them in terms of team change, mechanism of encourage and restriction, and innovation ability to improve the constructivism idea in teaching. What’s more, the teaching course of Information User Service which applies our ideas in Taiyuan Institute of Technology class 0920931 can be regarded as a case to test its feasibility and effect. Keywords - Constructivism; Case analysis; Team teaching I. Teaching idea of Constructivism A. Constructivism points in teaching Teaching methods is directly related to teaching effectiveness. Therefore, the reform of teaching methods is a question to which has always been paid close attention by administrations and teachers in universities. No matter how reform of teaching methods goes, it must focus on two key points: one is how to arouse the students’ enthusiasm participating activities in class; the other is how to promote teaching effect. Constructivism is born to solve these problems, and it has already been widely applied in several majors in universities. Constructivism educational theory developed by Piaget, Dewey, Bruner and Vygotsky has a profound impact to the world’s education . The influence of constructivism has flowed to fields like education, sociology, philosophy and so on. However, in terms of its development and popularity, it is the field of education that constructivism has the largest influence . Constructivism teaching focus on several points as followed: ① Learning theory. Constructivism is a kind of self-learning theory which focus on students’ initiative inquiry, initiative discovery and initiative construction . ② Interchange between teachers and students class. Constructivism centers on students . The traditional teaching mode in which students have to listen to whatever the teacher says has upgraded to a teacher-students interaction mode in which students can hold the class and the teacher’s role is to guide them. ③ Teamwork. Constructivism emphasizes fostering spirit of teamwork by teamwork learning. The team should be small, whereas the team's structure must be sound. The leader of a team can be regarded as an academic leader who organize the team and guide others. ④ The reform of case-based teaching. The team’s activities should focus on some specific themes which can also be regarded as a case. The team can understand much better by case study. ⑤ Class discussion. The theme is often chosen by teachers. In this way, scientific thinking can be soundly introduced into class. The combination of science and teach can be achieved. ⑥Open teaching. Constructivism holds that a colorful and open learning environment is needed to promote students’ spirits of independence and innovation. ⑦ The teaching process is an information process. Students construct their own knowledge from his background knowledge, experience and external information . ⑧ The reform of exams. The transformation of teaching method has a great impact on the reform of exams which is no longer the traditional exams, but a new type of exams scoring students according to their performance and speech records in class. B. Constructivism mode of teaching According to those teaching points, we assume that there are two teams. Each team has only two members. There are two scientific themes for discussion. This constructivism mode of teaching can be described as Fig1. II. Constructivism practice of teaching. To apply constructivism ideas of teaching, we need to focus on the following aspects: ①Stratified constructivism There are different teaching targets and tasks between undergraduate teaching and postgraduate teaching. Therefore, the constructivism practice of teaching is stratified. The undergraduate teaching would focus on the skeleton. Thus teaching can be easily finished by teamwork. ②Dynamic teamwork Constructivism teaching should be dynamic. In every aspect of teaching, themes can change along with the development of teaching; team can restructure along with the change of theme; members can return to their own teams after the discussion. ③In the classroom. Themes The mechanism of stimulation and restraint. Without stimulation and restraint, each team is inclined to laziness. Therefore, constructivism should be built on a compatible basis of stimulation and restraint, through which teams can be stimulated to finish learning tasks and some lazy members can be restrained to cooperate with others. ④Fostering creativity The ultimate goal of constructivism teaching is to foster students' creativity through their participation in class activities. The core of creativity is to cultivate students’ abilities of discovering and solving problems. Those qualities such as thinking, psychology, attitude, trust, communication, leadership, ethics, etc. are also included. In fact, creativity is a kind of comprehensive quality. Fig.1. Constructivism Teaching Model As a conclusion, in view of undergraduate students, we introduce dynamic teamwork, the mechanism of stimulation and restraint and creativity fostering into the constructivism practice of teaching (see Fig 2). Fig.2. Based on the improvement of the teaching idea of constructivism III. Case analysis on teaching Information user service in Taiyuan Institute of Technology This article takes the course of Information User Service in class 0920931 major Information Management and Information Systems in the first semester of the 2011-2012 academic year as a case, and concludes the experiences and results of constructivism practice of teaching. A. The characteristics of the course of Information user service ① In the view of informational decision, teaching should be developed into advisory. Based on some specific decisional target, decision-maker should gather, regulate, reconstruct and analyses information to work out one or several alternatives, according to which he can make choices. The advisory services range from decisional target to alternatives. Thus teaching should change its content according to social needs . ② From the perspective of the user service , the teaching should move towards innovative services. China Social Science Information Society held in Shanghai in 2010 academic year which based on three elements of “knowledge • services • Innovation”,the knowledge applies in the service, thus causes the innovation, the development direction of the intelligence is necessarily a knowledge-based to provide users with innovative services. ③From the perspective of personnel training , the teaching should move towards the applied talents. Unlike the engineering education of social sciences applied talents equal attention , on the one hand, the application of the results of social science is a long process , on the other hand, the social scientific talent is relatively small, therefore , the social sciences should be more training applied talents. Information management and information system itself is a practical discipline, the cultivation of talents is facing the decision-making consultation service innovation. B. 《 Information user service 》 course teaching needs ①The determination of research topics. A scientific research topic selection is a consulting service theme .According to consulting service theme of teacher for schooll , government and business, we determine the research topics. ② Grouping. In accordance with the voluntary combination of the principle of grouping , each group is a learning team. Each group in accordance with the interest to select a research topic , as a course of study content. C. 《 Information user service 》course Teaching practice ①Learning forms By retrieving relevant information to complete the speech. Each team member should tell their speech as the keynote speaker in the classroom and other students ask questions, keynote speaker answer. If the keynote speaker can not answer the problem, the panel members can give help. ②Learning content The research theme is learning content. By external stimuli in the environment , when a new topic appears, we does not disrupt the original group and will re-screen the students to the newly formed team of dynamic learning. They will return to their respective team after completing the study topic and dissolute, we call it a matrix model teams. ③The role of the teacher The teacher and the student role exchange, the student leads the classroom, the teacher coaches pupils in the middle of the entire learning process. The teacher plays the role of guide , the host , comment and controls the favorable development of the entire teaching and order. Thus, the teacher who can play the role of good teacher, teachers must have some experience and quality in leadership, management , research, teaching. ④ The encouragement and constraint mechanism In order to develop students to participate in team learning enthusiasm and creativity, we also need some incentive and restraint mechanisms to motivate students toward the desired direction of teachers learning and restrict inert students with team learning. ⑤Effectiveness Under the guidance of the teacher , the interaction between teachers and students, students and students produced an unexpected effect , they has completed the scientific research subject proof and the deliberation activity smoothly through adjusting the research subject unceasingly and taking advantage of the strength in student's wisdom. D. 《 Information user service 》 curriculum teaching experience According to the practice of constructivism teaching of Taiyuan Institute of Technology 0920931 class ,the lessons learned is as follows: ① From the student perspective, experience is to choose a research topic in accordance with the interest on the basis of the voluntary combination of learning team, have a collecting, collating, processing information, to speak in class, discussion after class and finally get comprehensive course examination results. ② From the perspective of teacher, experience is mainly according to the present research situation of teachers' scientific research team ,proposing the alternative scientific research subject, adopting motivation and restraint accommodating mechanism, enhancing enthusiasm of the student team study, and finally giving full range of course examination results. ③Ability perspective , mainly students in accordance with the interest to choose the research topic and cultivate teamwork skills through team-based , mutual aid ; the ability to access information through the collection, sorting , processing information and the skill to identify problems and solve problem through classroom to speak and the way of discussion. Fig.3. Taiyuan institute of industrial 0920931 class constructivism teaching mode E. The educational model of《 Information user service》 curriculum According to the summary experience, this article has constructed Taiyuan Institute of Technology 0920931 class constructivism teaching model , as shown in Fig 3. F. The teaching feedback of《 Information user service》 curriculum After the course, we have a survey for the students of class of 0920931 to get the feedback information of the students for the teaching mode of constructivism. ①Teaching activities that teachers organized. 32 students thought the difficulty of teachers teaching increases many or increase..It shows that the majority of students approve the reform of constructivism educational model , the performance of teachers in teaching of constructivism is also approved. Table I Taiyuan Institute of Technology class 0920931 constructivism educational about questionnaire content About the difficulty of the options set forth in the research topic , one student chose the difficult, 19 students chose the more difficult. Obviously on the basis of difference among students' scientific research literacy , alternative research topics are generally biased to some degree of difficulty , it is quite applicable to the constructivism teaching. About the implementation of encourage and restraint mechanism,18 students thought that it is very essentia. Obviously in constructs in the middle of the principle teaching ,the drive and restraint mechanism adopting is very essential. At present, obviously regarding the drive and restraint mechanism which adopts, the majority of students approve, also it has quite part of students do not satisfy with it, analyzing the reasons, it is possible related with that this kind of educational model, benefit many students occupy proportion little, also possible related with the mechanism which itself adopts to wait for the improvement Inspects the result about the comprehensive course giving, the way they adopt is the speech result, the inquiry result, the actual effect result synthesis. 3 students thought are very good, 19 students thought well. The results are more accord with actual situations. Generally speaking, it receives the majority of students to approve. ② Students participate in teaching activities 25 students chose a will or more willing to accept constructivism teaching mode. It shows that only about 50% of the students agree with constructivism teaching mode, there are quite a big part of the students hold on the fence, although not against, and also not really sure. It is high related with that constructivism teaching mode reform practice is relatively short, in addition, increasing study difficulty also related, 37 students thought that the difficulty of study increases many or increases. However, the teachers’ attitude to the effect is quite satisfied. In the study team combines in the question, 23 students chose that it has related with group. Obviously, majority of students pay more attention to the team’ concordance, but not the interest, this had certain deviation with the constructivism according to the interest choice subject's original intention, and finally caused the dynamic sub-team's actual effect to be bigger than the fixed group, because the dynamic sub-team is completely according to the interest of the combination of the team. In the scientific research topic selection, 12 students are interested in it. Obviously, Students’ attention in the application of is more than the attention on points of interest, analyzing the reason, it is possible that as the engineering college of Taiyuan Institute of Technology takes more attention to application. 28 students thought that the function of the speech in the classroom is very big or big. 31 students thought the classroom discussion displays the function is very big or big. 32 students thought that the function of the inquiry in the classroom is very big or big. Obviously, regarding the classroom speech, the discussion, the interactive link, Students are recognized it. ③The cultivation of the innovative ability of students 27 students thought that the ability of collecting the information enhanced. 31 students thought that the ability of analyzing information enhanced. It indicated that the students’ ability of information collection, reorganization, processing, analysis has obtained the big enhancement. 23 students thought that the ability of finding the problem got bigger rise or more. 24 students thought that the ability of solving the problem gets bigger rise or more. Obviously through the construction principle educational model's reform, majority of schoolmates’ ability of finding the problem, solving the question have the certain extent enhancement. 23 students thought their teamwork ability has been greatly or improved. It shows that although the team cooperation ability has been enhanced, it also has quite a part of students have not received good results. 31 students thought that the reform of constructivism teaching mode is useful or more for the enhancement of their innovation, nine students chose the general. 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