Resource Productivity in Tianjin Based on Ecological Footprint Jian Li, Zhe Pan School of Management, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, China ([email protected], [email protected]) Abstract - 1This paper regards the ecological footprint as the comprehensive indicator of natural resource to Calculation and analysis the resource productivity in Tianjin from 2000 to 2010. The results indicated that the resource productivity generally represented the trend of escalation in Tianjin. The resource productivity increased 1.66 times from 1128.778 yuan per hectare in 2000 to 3005.613 yuan per hectare in 2010, the average annual increase value was 187.68 yuan per hectare. The GDP growth rate of Tianjin exceeded the growth rate of ecological footprint, but the growth rate of resource productivity is less than GDP growth rate. So the pressure on the environment in Tianjin still increases gradually. The growth rate gap between resource productivity and GDP has narrowed since 2003. This is consistent with the fact of more pollution disposal investment, higher resource productivity and better environmental quality. Key words - Ecological footprint; Resource productivity; IPAT model; Tianjin I. definition which expanded resource productivity from the output per unit resource input to the service attached to per resource. From the essence of sustainable development, the emergence of MIPS is a great progress undoubtedly. Since the reform and opening up, China's economy has been in a steady, rapid growth pattern, but economic growth largely depends on the expense of resources, the economic growth pattern is characterized by “high investment, high consumption, high pollution”. At present, China is in a stage of accelerated development of urbanization and industrialization. The contradiction between economic development and environment and resources protection is becoming increasingly acute. Sustainable economic growth must be constrained by resource bottlenecks, so we have to improve the efficiency of resource utilization on the basis of protecting environment. II. METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION At present, to develop recycling economy, and build a resource-conserving and environment- friendly society has become the important objectives of China, and the key to achieve this goal is resource productivity theory. Living Planet Report 2008 of World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) tells us, we consume resources too fast, so that beyond the speed of updating of the resource. As reckless spending causing economic recession, reckless spending will also run out of global resources, and endanger future prosperity. Living Planet Report 2010 indicated that by 2030 the human will need two earth to absorb carbon dioxide and to satisfy the demand for natural resources. The importance of resource productivity was acknowledged in the very early, the British economist Jevons had involved it in “coal crisis” in 1865.Since the 1990s, resource productivity research has entered a rapid development period, and the definition and calculation method formed a preliminary unity. In short, resource productivity refers to output efficiency of resources .But this definition has its narrowness and one-sidedness, so the improvement of the definition continues on. For example, Material Input Per Service Unit (MIPS)  proposed by Hinterberger and Schmidt Bleek, is a Fund Project: Tianjin Education Commission, the major project of Social Sciences (2011ZD031,), Tianjin Science and Technology Plan Project (11ZLZLZT08100), the Ministry of Education Humanities and social science research projects (11YJA630046) A. Principle Resource productivity is the ratio between the Value of a country or region or enterprise socio-economic development and the physical quantity of resources and environment consumption. It represents the relationship between economic growth and environmental pressures. The resource productivity is a good substitute for labor productivity, but the notion can’t be practiced in a feasible way. The reason is that no indicator has been found to denote the collective consumption of natural resources. Therefore，the only way is to estimate the productivity of energy, land, water, materials individually. Ecological footprint (EF) method presents a methodologically simple but integrated frame work for national natural accounting of capital，which is capable of measuring the impact of Human’s consumption on ecosystem. Through the introduction of the ecological productive area to realize the integrated of natural resources ， the ecological footprint can measure the consumption of natural resources comprehensively. Therefore，EF can represent the input of all kinds of natural resources in the production function in some way. B. Ecological footprint “Ecological footprint” (EF), refers to the biologically productive land area (including land and water) consumption of resources and services to produce a certain population, and to absorb the waste these populations produce. All of the indicators which ecological footprint method involved should be replaced by the corresponding biologically productive land area. This method not only reflects the occupation of the natural capital, but also reflected the impact of human consumption of natural. C. Resource productivity “Resource productivity” (RP) is a measure of the resource use efficiency. It combines ecological footprint indicators and economic indicators to comprehensively reflect the efficient use of resources. “Resource productivity” (RP) is the ratio of GDP and ecological footprint. GDP (1) RP EF EF refers to ecological footprint. Because natural resource is limited, and in the mining will produce the environment load, we should improve the resource productivity to create more GDP by fewer resources. D. Synergy effects of economic development and environmental pressures In the ideal state, human and nature should live in harmony, co-evolution and balance each other. This paper uses IPAT model to measure the relationship among material consumption, environmental degradation and economic growth. IPAT model was first proposed by famous demographer Ehrlich and Holdren of Stanford University. It is actually an identity about the environmental impact (I) , population (P), affluence (A) and technology (T) . It can be expressed as: (2) I P AT “A” represents the average annual per capita GDP. It GDP can be expressed as: A . From a resource P perspective, “T” represents the resource consumption per EF unit GDP, that is: T . GDP Considering that the resource productivity can represent the relationship between economic growth and environmental pressures, the IPAT model can be used to analysis resource productivity. It can be seen that the RP and T has a reciprocal relationship, equation (2) can be expressed as: P A GDP (3) I RP RP Set the base year's GDP and resource productivity for GDP0 and RP0, the average annual growth rate of GDP and resource productivity for RGDP and RRP, then GDP and resource productivity in year n are as follows: GDPn GDP0 ( 1 RGDP )n (4) RPn RP0 ( 1 RRP )n (5) The environment load of year n is: In GDPn GDP0 ( 1 RGDP )n RPn RP0 ( 1 RRP )n (6) Equation (6) shows that, when GDP and resource productivity has grown exponentially, the environmental load (or resource consumption) may rise, remain unchanged or decrease, its conditions are as follows: (1) If RGDP RRP , the environmental load (or resource consumption) will increase with GDP growth year by year, and the greater the difference between RGDP and RRP, the faster environmental load (or resource consumption) increases; (2) If RGDP RRP , the environmental load (or resource consumption) and economic growth will achieve "decoupling" (no matter how GDP grow, environmental load or resource consumption will not rise); (3) If RGDP RRP , the environmental load (or resource consumption) will decline with GDP growth year by year, and the greater the difference between RGDP and RRP, the faster environmental load (or resource consumption) declines; III. DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING This paper uses a comprehensive method to calculate the ecological footprint of Tianjin. The data is from calendar year “Tianjin Statistical Yearbook”. In the data collection process, according to the results already at home and abroad, the actual situation in Tianjin, do the following treatment: A. Divided consumer items, and calculate the consumption of major consumer items and waste elimination on natural resources. In this paper, consumer project is divided into three categories: the consumption of biological resources (mainly the consumption of agricultural products, livestock products, aquatic products and forest products), energy consumption, building land. B. The average yield data, these two types of resource consumption were converted into the six categories of ecological productivity of the main land and water ecosystems in accordance with the region's ecological capacity and waste elimination, the assimilative capacity of the area (arable land, grassland, woodland, fossil energy land, built land and waters) C. Conversion. Per unit area of arable land, fossil energy land, grassland, woodland and other biological production capacity very different, in order to make the calculation results into a standard of comparison, it is necessary to multiply each of the biologically productive area by an equivalence factor, to transfer it into unified, comparable biological productive area. Equivalence factors refer to the comparison of a certain type of land with world average productivity of land. Each kind of ecological system equivalence factor is determined by the unit space area of each ecosystem type relative biomass production. WWF's latest adjustment, namely: arable land, 2.19; grassland, 0.48; waters, 0.36; woodland, 1.35; built land, 2.19; fossil energy land, 1.35 . They weigh the equivalence factors basing on the maximum potential crop yields of the various types of land estimated by the FAO Global agro-ecological zones (GAEZ) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) . In the specific calculation, because continental shelf is the biggest currently available marine resources so marine waters area mainly refers to the continental shelf. TABLE I ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT AND ITS COMPONENTS IN TIANJIN FROM 2000 TO 2010 Per capita ecological footprint of various types land（hm2/person) Year Arable Grassland Fossil Built energy land land Woodland Waters land Per capita Population Ecologica ecological （million） l footprint （hm2) footprint (hm2/person) 2000 0.224 0.5491 0.0043 0.7882 0.0311 0.0565 1.6532 912.00 15077184 2001 0.2436 0.5819 0.0043 0.9071 0.0375 0.0589 1.8332 913.98 16755081 2002 0.238 0.5973 0.0043 1.0726 0.0594 0.0596 2.0312 919.05 18667744 2003 0.2419 0.6089 0.0043 1.1132 0.0798 0.062 2.1101 926.00 19539526 2004 0.247 0.6064 0.0043 1.1936 0.0882 0.0651 2.2046 932.55 20558997 2005 0.2523 0.6131 0.0043 1.2376 0.1047 0.0657 2.2777 939.31 21394664 2006 0.2512 0.6149 0.0043 1.3368 0.1112 0.0661 2.3845 948.89 22626282 2007 0.2506 0.5654 0.0046 1.4463 0.1162 0.0683 2.4513 959.10 23510418 2008 0.2514 0.5764 0.0047 1.5634 0.1282 0.0685 2.5926 968.87 25118924 2009 0.2484 0.5896 0.0047 1.6273 0.1392 0.0704 2.6795 979.84 26254813 2010 0.243 0.6183 0.0051 1.6314 0.1134 0.0691 2.6803 984.85 26396935 TABLE II TIANJIN RESOURCE PRODUCTIVITY Ecological Real GDP (one Real GDP Resource Resource footprint growth hundred million growth rate productivity productivity rate（%） yuan) （%） （yuan/ hm ） growth rate（%） Ecological Year footprint（hm2） 2 2000 15077184 — 1701.88 — 1128.778 — 2001 16755081 11.13 1720.312 1.1 1026.74 -9.04 2002 18667744 11.42 1931.084 12.3 1034.45 0.75 2003 19539526 4.67 2190.836 13.5 1121.233 8.39 2004 20558997 5.22 2600.487 18.7 1264.89 12.81 2005 21394664 4.06 3086.791 18.7 1442.785 14.06 2006 22626282 5.76 3691.184 19.6 1631.37 13.07 2007 23510418 3.91 4389.554 18.9 1867.068 14.45 2008 25118924 6.84 5298.238 20.7 2109.262 12.97 2009 26254813 4.52 6719.01 26.8 2559.154 21.33 2010 26396935 0.54 7933.898 18.1 3005.613 17.45 According to the calculated results finishing Table 2, Table 2 is for the 2000-2010 real GDP in Tianjin, the ecological footprint (EF) and resource productivity (RP) values. In 2010, the GDP, ecological footprint (EF) and resource productivity (RP), respectively, compared with the 2000 increased by 442.0%, 75.1% and 209.6%, with an average annual growth rate of 44.20%, 0.75% and 20.96% respectively.In the analysis of 11 years, Tianjin's annual growth rate of resource productivity is less than the annual GDP growth rate, and is consistent with condition (1). IV. CONCLUSION Through the calculation of the Tianjin’s resource productivity and the detailed analysis of the relationship between economic development and environmental pressure, the following main conclusions can be reached: A. The analysis of Tianjin's GDP, the ecological footprint (EF) and resource productivity (RP) in 2000-2010 shows that, Tianjin's GDP growth rate is higher than the growth rate of the ecological footprint (EF), but the growth rate of resource productivity is lower than the GDP growth rate. That indicates that environment pressure of Tianjin is still increasing. B. 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