Development of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) Abstract

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Development of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
Controller for Photovoltaic (PV) Cells
Okkar Moe Myint and Prof. Yoon G. Kim, Calvin College
Abstract
Methods
Results
The research focused on developing a
prototype model of a MPPT controller.
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
technology is an electronic system that
changes the operating points/parameters
based on voltage supply (from solar
modules) to deliver maximum power. We
combined the technology with a charger
circuit. We were able to deliver up to 45
W to the load resistor.
We used the Perturb and Observe (PO)
algorithm to track MPP. In the algorithm,
the operating points are perturbed
periodically by changing the voltage at the
photovoltaic (PV) source.
For initial testing, a variable power supply
was used to simulate the voltage supply
from solar panels. A power resistor
(load) with 50 W power rating was used
to simulate the battery. The resistance of
the load was varied throughout the
experiments. The performance, and
accuracy of the algorithm was verified by
performing several simulation tests.
Faith and Engineering
As Christian caretakers, we are called to
sustain God’s wonderful creation. By
creating this device, we can maximize the
energy extracted from the sun - the
sustainable energy source. We are able to
make a better use of renewable energy.
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IV_graph
PV-graph
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Problem Statement
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Need:
Without MPPT, the solar power systems
would not utilize all of the power supplied
by photovoltaic (PV) panels due to the
non-linear characteristics of PV cells.
Objectives:
1. To implement a MPPT algorithm and
verify its performance.
2. To build a prototype of a MPPT
controller.
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Fig - 2 : Prototype Circuits in Operation
To verify its performance, a prototype of
the charge controller is built. The controller
consisted of voltage and current sensors, a
DC to DC converter, and a microcontroller
board.
The board was used for implementing the
MPPT algorithm, which controls the DC/DC
converter by generating different pulse
width modulation (PWM) signals.
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Fig – 5 : Experimentally obtained IV and PV
curves
Fig – 4 : Characteristic IV and PV curves
Fig.4 shows the IV curve of solar panel
experimentally obtained.
The proposed MPPT prototype constantly
tracks MPP, and was able to deliver 45 W
power to the resistor load.
A printed circuit board (PCB) of MPPT
controller will be used for testing with
real solar panels and batteries in the
future.
Fig – 3: PWM and Shut Down Signals
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Solar Voltage (V)
Future Development
Fig – 1 : A Typical Solar Power System
Solar Power(W)
Solar Current (A)
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References
Nolan, Tim. "Arduino PPT Solar Charger." . N.p.,
10 May 2009. Web. 7 Sept. 2013.
Messenger, Roger A., and Jerry
Ventre. Photovoltaic Systems Engineering.
second ed. N.p.: CRC Press, 2004. N. pag.
Print.
Femia, Nicola, Giovanni Petrone, Givoanni
Spagnuolo, and Massimo Vitelli. Power
Electronics and Control Techniques for
Maximum Energy Haversting in Photovoltaic
Systems. New York: CRC Press, 2013. N. pag.
Print.
Acknowledgements
Engineering Sustainability Research Fund
by Mr. Joel Zylstra