Name:________________ Parent/Guardian Signature_______________________ Matter and Energy Test Study Guide

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Matter and Energy Test Study Guide
Learning Target 1: Matter
1. What is matter? Give an example of matter.
Matter is anything that mass and occupies space (volume). An example would be the air, your book,
or the table.
2. What is energy? Give an example of energy.
Energy is the ability to do work or to cause matter to move or change. An example would be heat,
kinetic energy, or potential energy.
3. How are matter and energy different?
All matter has energy. Energy does not have mass or volume.
4. List and describe the four states of matter. Make sure to include the properties of each state.
Solid- particles packed together in a lattice-work, particles vibrate in one place back and forth,
particles have low energy, definite shape and volume
Liquid-particles are loosely bound, particles slip and slide past each other, particles have more energy
than a solid, no definite shape, definite volume
Gas-particles spaced very far apart, particles move very fast and go anywhere they want to go,
particles have lots of energy, no definite shape or volume
Plasma-has had the electrons stripped away, particles spaces very far apart and move very fast
5. Define: Make sure to include energy transfers associated with each change.(add or release)
a. Sublimation: solid to gas- (heating required) energy absorbed
b. Melting: solid to liquid- (heating required) energy absorbed
c. Boiling: liquid to gas (throughout liquid)- (heating required) energy absorbed
d. Evaporation: liquid to gas (at surface of liquid)- energy absorbed from environment
e. Vaporization: liquid to gas- (heating required) energy absorbed (includes boiling and
f. Freezing: liquid to solid- (cooling required) energy released
g. Condensing: gas to liquid- (cooling required) energy released
Learning Target 2:
6. What does the Law of Conservation of Energy say?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only be changed (transformed) from one form to
another. This means the overall amount of energy in the universe remains constant.
7. Explain how the Law of Conservation of Matter applies to the movement of the pendulum pictured
The amount of potential energy at point A is changed to kinetic energy as the pendulum moves to point
B. Then that kinetic energy becomes potential energy again as the pendulum moves to point C. The
overall amount of energy stays the same, it is just changed from potential to kinetic and back to potential
Learning Target 3: Energy
8. What are the two general types of energy? Kinetic and potential
Define and give an example for each
a. Potential energy: stored energy or energy due to position; Example: roller coaster at top of
a hill, book on a table, ball in the air
b. Kinetic energy: energy of motion; Example: roller coaster going down a hill, ball falling
through the air, car driving down the road
10. What is gravitational potential energy (GPE)? Potential energy that something has because it is
higher from the surface of the Earth, such as a roller coaster at the top of a hill
11. At which point(s) does the football have the most potential energy? Kinetic energy?
The football has the most potential energy at the highest point of the “hill” in the picture. The football
has kinetic energy as it moves toward the top and then again as it falls back to the ground.
12. What is the equation for kinetic energy?
KE= ½ mv2 This means KE= 0.5 x mass x (speed)2
13. What is the equation for potential energy?
PE = mgh This means PE = mass x 9.8 x height
14. Calculate the potential energy of a rock if its mass is 55 kg and it is sitting on a cliff that is 27m high.
PE = 55kg x 9.8 x 27m = 14, 553J
15. If a book has a mass of 5kg and is sitting 2m off the floor, what kind of energy does it have?
Calculate it.
The book has potential energy because it is sitting higher from the surface of the Earth.
PE = 5kg x 9.8 x 2m = 98J
16. If a rock has a mass of 55kg and falls off a cliff with a velocity of 8m/s, what kind of energy does it
have? Calculate it.
The rock has kinetic energy because it is moving.
KE = 0.5 x 55kg x (8m/s)2 = 1,760J
17. What is the kinetic energy of a truck that is travelling at a velocity of 60m/s and has a mass of
KE = 0.5 x 2900kg x (60m/s)2 = 5,220,000J
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