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1119 Main Administration Building
College Park, Maryland 20742-5031
301.4U5.5252 TEL 301.405.8195 FAX
OFFICE OF THE SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT AND PROVOST
June 7, 2013
MEMORANDUM
TO:
Bonnie Thornton Dill
Dean, College of Arts and Humanities
FROM:
Elizabeth Beise
(3)
Associate Provost for Academic Planning and Programs
SUBJECT:
Proposal to Modify the Bachelor of Arts in Art History (PCC log no. 12058)
6J
At its meeting on May 3, 2013, the Senate Committee on Programs, Curricula and
Courses approved your proposal to modify the Bachelor of Arts in Art History. A copy of the
approved proposal is attached.
The change is effective Fall 2013. Please ensure that the change is fully described in the
Undergraduate Catalog and in all relevant descriptive materials, including the program's four­
year plan (contact Lisa Kiely at [email protected] for more information), and that all advisors are
informed.
MOC/
Enclosure
cc:
William ldsardi, Chair, Senate PCC Committee
Sarah Bauder, Office of Student Financial Aid
Reka Montfort, University Senate
Erin Howard, Division ofInformation Technology
Pam Phillips, Institutional Research, Planning & Assessment
Anne Turkos, University Archives
Linda Yokoi, Office of the Registrar
Robert Gaines, Office of Undergraduate Studies
Alene Moyer, College of Arts and Humanities
Meredith Gill, Art History and Archaeology
THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK
PROGRAM/CURRICULUMIUNIT PROPOSAL
to P£:~~n=~:~:l~~::'
•
propo,,'" '" MSWonJ
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CC
,tt"h"",'
LOG NO.
Please submit the signed form to the Office of the Associate Provost
12058
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for Academic Planning and Programs, 1119 Main Administration Building, Campus.
College/School: College of Arts and Humanities
Please also add College/School Unit Code-First 8 digits:
01202700
DepartmentlProgram: Art History and Archaeology
Please also add DepartmentlProgram Unit Code-Last 7 digits:
1270901
Type of Action (choose one):
X Curriculum change (including informal specializations)
o Renaming ofprogram or formal Area ofConcentration
o Addition/deletion offormal Area ofConcentration
o Suspend/delete program
0 New academic degree/award program
0 New Professional Studies award iteration
0 New Minor
0 Other
Italics indicate that the proposed program action must be presented to the full University Senate for consideration.
Summary of Proposed Action:
All art history majors must take at least one ARTH 488 (Colloquium in Art History) as part of their major
requirement. Enrollment is limited to (a) majors with at least 75 total credits and at least 9 credits in ARTH at the 300
level, or (b) those given permission by the department.
[Rationale]: Currently, our major requirement stipulates that a student must take seven ARTH courses at the 300-400
level. We have discovered that too many of our majors circumvent the system by only taking 300-level courses. Our 400­
level courses (in particular ARTH 488), are most often taught by our full-time professors and highlight innovative content
and/or theme-based material of the professor's area of specialization, with more emphasis on critical reading and writing.
Furthermore, ARTH 488 (Colloquium in Art History) is a seminar-type course capped at 12 students (as opposed to our
300-level courses, which are capped at 30), allowing significant oversight of the students, especially in supervising their
independent research assignments. In addition, each semester, our ARTH 488 research papers written by our majors are
submitted to LOA for use in our LOA evaluation. Therefore, it is essential that our majors take at least one 400-level
course before graduating.
====================================================================================
APPROVAL SIGNATURES - Please print name, sign, and date. Use additional lines for multi-unit programs.
~/l;t;<;t
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1. Department Committee Chair
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2. Department Chair
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6. Chair, Senate pcc
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7. University Senate Chair (if required)
8. Senior Vice President and Provost
----r't----
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_
THE UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK
PROGRAM/CURRICULUMIUNIT PROPOSAL
IPCC LOG NO.
Please email the rest of the proposal as an MSWord attachment
to [email protected]
"
•
Please submit the signed form to the Office of the Associate Provost - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ­
for Academic Planning and Programs, 1119 Main Administration Building, Campus.
College/School:
Please also add College/School Unit Code-First 8 digits:
01202700
DepartmentlProgram:
1270901
Type of Action (choose one):
X Curriculum change (including informal specializations)
o Renaming a/program or formal Area o/Concentration
o Addition/deletion o//ormal Area o/Concentration
o Suspend/delete program
0 New academic degree/award program
0 New Professional Studies award iteration
0 New Minor
0 Other
Italics indicate that the proposed program action must be presented to the full University Senate for consideration.
Summary of Proposed Action:
Limit the number of special courses that students may take to satisfy the requirements of the major, 'as folIows (all of
these have already been informal advising practice, in some form or other, for some time):
A. No more than 3 credits total of269 or 289 (i.e. no more than one 200-level study- abroad course or one 200­
level transfer course in a topic that is not fundamentally equivalent to one of our courses).
B. No more than 6 credits of 369 (i.e. no more than two 300-level study abroad courses in topics that are not
fundamentally equivalent to our 300-level courses).
C. No more than 6 credits of 389 (Le. no more than two 300-Jevel special courses, as transfer credit or here on
campus, on topics outside our regularly offered, "hard-numbered" curriculum)
APPROVAL SIGNATURES - Please print name, sign, and date.
I. Department Committee Chair
J1?~e.J'l::::!!e.~e.~A~,.:t~e.r~_~~~~---":~~~~---;:
3. College/School PCC Chair
!..!....~..1....:.~:LJ~_
.....c..
_
4. Dean
5. Dean of the Graduate School (if required)
6. Chair, Senate PCC
7. University Senate Chair (ifrequired)
8. Senior Vice President and Provost
_
_
The University of Maryland Program/Curriculum/Unit Proposal
Summary of Proposed Action:
Require all Art History majors to enroll in ARTH 488 (Colloquium in Art
History) as part of their major requirement. Enrollment is limited to (a) majors with
at least 75 total credits and at least 9 credits in ARTH at the 0300 level, or (b) those
given permission by the department.
Current Problem:
•
Our current major requirement stipulates that a student must take seven ARTH
courses at the 0300-400 level. The problem with this requisite is that many of our
majors graduate without taking a single 400-level course. We do not feel that our
majors receive sufficient critical and methodological training with this current
arrangement.
Rationale for Making ARTH 488 a Major Requirement:
•
ARTH 488 (Colloquium in Art History) is an upper-division seminar that
emphasizes critical thought, reading, research, and writing.
•
ARTH 488 course is capped at 12 students, ensuring significant faculty supervision
of our majors (in comparison to our SOO-level courses, capped at SO), especially in
supervising their independent research assignments.
•
ARTH 488 is most often taught by our full-time professors and highlight
innovative content and/or theme-based material of the professor's area of
specialization.
•
The proposed change is in part a result oflearning outcomes assessments. LOA
report from 2011 identified a few weaknesses in student work, mainly in the area of
the use of research technology, methodological awareness, and writing technique.
Making ARTH 488 a requirement for our majors will ensure that we also meet
LOA and departmental program goals.
1
The University of Maryland Program/Curriculum/Unit Proposal
Current Requirements for the Major:
Credits
ARTTIOO
ARTTIIO
One from:
Two Dimensional Art Fundamentals
Elements of Drawing I
ARTH required courses:
ARTH2xx
three ARTH courses at the 200 level
ARTH800/4 00seven ARTH courses at the 800-400 level
Supporting Area:
Four (4) "Supporting Area" Courses (12
credits). These are four courses at the 800
or 400 level in coherently related subject
matter outside the department of Art
History and Archaeology at the 800-400
level.
8
9
21
12
No credit toward the major can be receivedftr ARTH 100 or 355.
No course with a grade lower than C- may be used to satiif; major or supporting area requirements.
overall GPA of2.0 in the major is required for graduation.
An
Other Requirements for the Major
In the Department of Art History and Archaeology, SOO-level and 400-level courses are differentiated.
SOO-level courses focus on period or topical surveys and 400-level courses highlight content- or theme­
based material. Majors should complete the 200-level surveys before they enroll in SOo- or 40O-level
courses. Students are strongly encouraged to take supporting area courses that complement the art
history major. No course with a grade lower than C- may be used to satisfy major or supporting area
requirements.
The University of Maryland Program/Curriculum/Unit Proposal
Proposed Requirements for the Major (proposed changes in red bold underlines):
Credits
ARTTIOO
ARTTllO
One from:
Two Dimensional Art Fundamentals
Elements of Drawing I
ARTH required courses:
three ARTH courses at the 200 level
seven ARTH courses at the SOO-400 level,
ARTHSOO/400including at least one ARTH 488
(Colloquium in Art History)
ARTH2xx
Supporting Area:
Four (4) "Supporting Area" Courses (12
credits). These are four courses outside the
department of Art History and Archaeology at
the SOO-4-00 level. Course should cohere around
a broad area of study, and must be related to
the student's studies in the department. All
supporting courses must be approved by an
ARTH advisor
S
9
21
12
No credit toward the major can be receivedftr ARTH 100 or :iSS.
No course with a grade lower than C- may be used to satisfY major or supporting area requirements.
overall GPA of2.0 in the major is required for graduation.
An
Other Requirements for the Major
In the Department of Art History and Archaeology, SOO-level and 4-00-level courses are differentiated.
soo-level courses focus on period or topical surveys and 4-00-level courses highlight content- or theme­
based material. Majors should complete the 200-level surveys before they enroll in SOo- or 4-0o-level
courses. Students are strongly encouraged to take supporting area courses that complement the art
history major. No course with a grade lower than C- may be used to satisfy major or supporting area
requirements.
Limit 011 Special Courses
A. No more than S credits total of 269 or 289 (i.e. no more than one 200-level study- abroad
course or one 200-level transfer course in a topic that is not fundamentally equivalent to one of
our courses).
B. No more than 6 credits of 369 (Le. no more than two aoo-Ievel study abroad courses in topics
that are not fundamentally equivalent to our aoo-Ievel courses).
C. No more than 6 credits of S89 (i.e. no more than two soo-Ievel special courses, as transfer
credit or here on campus, on topics outside our regularly offered, "hard-numbered" curriculum)
The University of Maryland Program/Curriculum/Unit Proposal
•
The following view chart for fall/spring 2013-2014 indicates that there will be
enough sections for majors to take ARTH 488 each year. Current majors will be
able to finish the program following requirement policies that were in place when
they entered the program. The proposed major requirement will apply to newly
admitted majors as of Fall 2013.
FALL 2013
ARTH 488B (S. Hill)
ARTH 488F 1. Kuo)
ARTH 488£ S. Mansbach)
ARTH 488G A. Geor?;ievska-Shine)
SPRING 2014
ARTH 488 (Staff; new Romanist)
ARTH 488 (J. Har?;rove)
Spring 2012
ARTH488E
The relationship between Art and Science
in Nineteenth-Century Europe
Tuesday, Thursday 12:30-1 :45
Art/Sociology Building 3217
Dr. June Hargrove
Office: 4224 Art/Sociology Building
Phone: 301- 405-1494
Email: b~Tgr.9X9-®~IIllc.l,9c.l~1Email is for limited exchanges (appointments, factual verifications).
All other matters must be discussed in person.
Office Hours: Tuesday, 11:00-12:30 or by appointment (walk-ins are welcome)
ELMS will be usedfor posting thefull syllabus, readings, supplementary bibliographies,
lecture images, and announcements.
SAM QbE
Course Description
Science progresses; art
. ci .t s e er~h geab and
.
ratIc
anonymous before
u ersa
Ieve n; artIst
and necessary creators of their unique masterpieces.
Stephen Jay Gould, Leonardo's Mountain of
Clams and the Diet of Worms
In the format of a seminar this class will explore intersections of art and science from an art
historical perspective from the late eighteenth century to the end of the nineteenth century in
Europe. The Age of Enlightenment ushered in a remarkable era of scientific inquiry and
encouraged the application of this new found knowledge to artistic endeavors. This can be
loosely described as a trend that began with the careful classification of observable appearances
and progressed to more interior and intuitive phenomenon. The effects on the arts were
incalculable, ranging from the materials of art to the hidden implications, from making to
reception, and incorporating ideas that extend beyond the subjects selected to consider how they
are represented and to what effect. The approach is intended to be wide-ranging and will not
attempt to establish a specific development of the relationship between science and art (the topic
is too vast), but rather to investigate a variety of ideas that emerged over the century to enhance
our awareness of how diverse yet inseparable the connections between them are.
Course Requirements
Participation in course discussions. Readings will be assigned for classes over the first half of the
semester, which are mandatory for discussion. You will keep a Notebook with comments that
reflect the content of each class; you will submit your notebook with your paper. Instead of an
exam, you will write a IS-page research paper - guidelines to be distributed separately. Success
in this course is based on your engagement with the readings and discussions as well as your
research presentation/paper.
Grading Breakdown: These components are not mathematically quantifiable as exams and
written reports. but you will develop insights that correspond to your performance as it is seen
overall.
Participation (with notebooks)
Role as discussion leader
Oral presentation
Research Paper
35%
10%
15%
40%
Research Paper
You will be required to submit a paper that incorporates both the information and understanding
of your course readings and discussions and research Specific guidelines are found below.
Academic Integrity Information:
The University of Maryland, College Park has a nationally recognized Code of Academic
Integrity, administered by the Student Honor Council. This Code sets standards for academic
integrity at Maryland for all undergraduate and graduate students. As a student you are
responsible for upholding these standards for this course. It is very important for you to be
aware of the consequences of cheating, fabrication. facilitation, and plagiarism. For more
information on the Code of Academic Integrity visit the Student Honor Council web site:
htrJ2:l1.. ",\'{~,~lK.lJ111~I.c~llJ. For further information on what constitutes plagiarism and how to
avoid it. see the very useful plagiarism web site of the University of Toronto:
\V\y\V.\vritjng,11toront(),ca!~ldvicc/using:5()urccs!ho\Y:l1()t:tq-pJ'lgiariz:c.
To attest to your commitment to academic integrity. remember to sign the Honor Pledge on all
examinations and assignments: "I pledge on my honor that I have not given or received any
unauthorized assistance on this examination (assignment)."
Please consider respect for Library Books a part of Academic Integrity. I beg you to treat them
with care. For the sake of others. do not write in. underline. cut out or in any other way deface
these resources.
2
Academic Accommodations for Students with Disabilities
If a student has a documented disability and wishes to discuss academic accommodations, please
contact the professor as soon as possible. The rules for eligibility and the types of
accommodations a student may request can be reviewed on the Disability Support Services web
site:
Disability Support Services requires that students request an Accommodation Form each
semester. It is the student's responsibility to present the form to the professor as proof of
eligibility for accommodations.
The Writing Center
The writing center provides opportunities for undergraduates to improve their writing skills.
Trained tutors are available to assist you through all the stages of the writing process. Writers of
all levels can benefit from the training available at the Writing Center.
0125 Taliaferro Hall, 301405-3785
Religious Observances
The University System of Maryland policy states that students should not be penalized in any
way for participation in religious observances. Students shall be allowed, whenever practicable,
to make up academic assignments that are missed due to such absences. It is the student's
responsibility to contact the professor, and make arrangements for make-up work or
examinations. The student is responsible for providing written notification to the professor
within the first two weeks ofthe semester. The notification must identify the religious holiday(s)
and date(s). For additional information, please visit the University of Maryland Policies and
Procedures at bttp:/i\v'Y\\"prcsiQ~I1t,llll}d. ~~ill/P()l ic irs/iii ~.J()<'l,htl11l
Absences for medical reasons
Students who must miss a single class meeting for medical reasons shall make a reasonable
effort to inform the instructor in advance and shall, upon returning to class, present a self-signed
note attesting to the date of the illness and including an acknowledgment that the information is
true and correct. Students who, for medical reasons, miss more than one meeting during the
semester or miss a major scheduled grading event must provide written documentation from a
health-care provider including the dates of treatment and the dates on which the student was
unable to meet academic responsibilities. (Private diagnostic information shall be omitted.)
University Closure
If the University is forced to close for an extended period of time, the material missed will be
made up either at rescheduled classes or by extra assignments relevant to that material. If an
exam cannot be rescheduled in a normal fashion, other means of assessment will be employed.
3
Evaluations
Please do evaluate the course both in the department's paper format and online:
WW\v.coursccvalum.umd.cdu. Both evaluations are very helpful to faculty and future students
alike.
Guidelines for the Final Research Papers:
Assignment:
Choose a topic derived from the themes discussed in class on which to focus your research
paper. The paper must incorporate both the information and understanding of your course
readings, the classroom discussions on that topic, and your own research.
Examples of some of the obvious themes are:
Lavater and phrenology, Gall and physiognomy,
Geology and geography
Darwin, Fremiet, and natural selection,
Ernst Haeckel and botanical drawings,
Cordier and the rise of anthropology,
Seurat and color theory from Chevreul to Rood,
Charcot, the forerunner to Freud, and Gauguin's idea of the imagination,
Van Gogh and astronomy,
Munch and Freud's uncanny,
Bergson, on Laughter,
cognitive dissonance,
neuroscience and the aesthetic experience,
Nordau, Degeneration.
Papers should be no more thanl5 pages (not counting notes, bibliography and illustrations),
typed, double-spaced. Ideas, information and quotes taken from specific sources must be cited in
the notes; use footnotes or endnotes but not brackets in the text. You must cite at least two books
and three articles in this project that post-date 1980. Please include a complete bibliography and
illustrate the works of art considered in your text.
This is a research paper. If you do not know the library resources, you should talk to a
librarian and/or sign up for a one hour introduction. Consult DHA (the Bibliography of the
History of Art) or the recent replacement IDA (International Bibliography of Art) as well as the
catalogue. You should also take advantage oflnter-Library Loan. Generally, Internet sites are
not acceptable as a scholarly source. They are sometimes useful for your arguments, but be
careful to distinguish them. You cannot rely on miscellaneous sites for your research. Articles
from scholarly journals that you access through the internet are fine. Do not confuse sites like
JStor (which you are encouraged to use) with unvetted or commercial sites, eg Wikipedia (which
is full of mistakes); however, JStor is not a search engine-you should know what article you are
looking for before you explore this tool. General texts, e.g., Janson, History 0/ Art, and
encyclopedia are not reference sources. Plagiarism is a form of cheating that goes directly to the
Honor Court.
4
Useful resources for writing term papers are:
Diana Hacker, A Pocket Style Manual, any edition
Sylvan Barnet, Writing about Art, any edition
Strunk and Whilte, The Elements ofStyle, a classic but still full of useful insights on writing
Kate Turabian, A Manual for Writers, likewise old but excellent
Other important publications:
Charles Lipson, "Doing Honest Work in College: How to Prepare Citations, Avoid Plagiarism,
and Achieve Academic Success," 2nd ed., U Chicago Press, 2008 (Lipson's other book, "Cite
Right," is also useful).
Mary W. George, "The Elements of Library Research: What Every Student Needs to Know,"
Princeton U Press, 2008.
Both Dartmouth College (1987) and Mt. Holyoke College (1980) published useful handbooks
about the uses and acknowledgment of sources for their students.
University of California Berkeley website about primary sources:
htIp:i Iww\v.1 i b. bcrkclGY' cuui i 11 slrucIigu i ucs!pri ll1 arysources. htllli
And to the Chicago Manual of Style quick guide on line:
http:i.www.chicagomallua]ofstyle.orgitoo!s....citationguide.html
Preliminary thoughts on the Bibliography:
Rudolf Arnheim, Art and Visual Perception, Berkeley, 2004 (new edition).
th
David Bindman, Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea ofRace in the 18 century, Ithaca, 2004.
Peter Bowler, Making Modern Science, Chicago, 2005.
Anthea Callen, The Spectacular Body: Science, Method, and Meaning in the Work ofDegas,
New Haven, 1995.
Jean Clair, ed. L'ame au corps: arts et sciences 1793-1993 : [exposition] Galeries nationales du
Grand Palais, Paris, 19 octobre 1993-24 janvier 1994.
Jean Clair, ed. Crime & chatiment, : [exposition] Galeries nationales du Grand Palais,
Paris, March-June 2010.
Jonathan Crary, The Techniques ofthe Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth
Century, Cambridge, 1990.
Laurinda Dixon, In sickness and in health: disease as metaphor in art and popular culture,
Newark, 2004.
Fitzwilliam Museum, Endless Forms: Charles Darwin, Natural Science and the Visual Arts,
Edited by Diana Donald and Jane Munro, New Haven, 2009.
David Freedberg and V. Gallese, "Motion, Emotion and Empathy in Aesthetic Experience,"
Trends in Cognitive Science, May 2007, Vol. 11, No.5, pp. 197-203.
John Gage, Color and Meaning, Art, Science, and Symbolism, Berkeley, 2000.
Lynn Gamwell, Exploring the Invisible: Art, Science, and the Spiritual, Princeton, 20 IO.
Martin Kemp, The Science ofArt, New Haven, 1990.
Barbara Larson, The Dark Side ofNature, Science, Society and the Fantastic in the Work of
Odilon Redon, Penn State, 2005.
5
Barbara Larson and Fae Brauer, eds., The Art ofEvolution: Darwin, Darwinisms, and Visual
Culture, Hanover, N.H.: Dartmouth College Press, 2009.
Judson Mills and Eddie Harmon-Jones, Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in
Social Psychology, Washington, DC, American Psychological Association, 1999.
John Onians, Neuroarthistory: from Aristotle and Pliny to Baxandall and Zeki, New Haven,
2011.
Judith Wechsler, A Human Comedy, Physiognomy and Caricature in 19th Century Paris,
Chicago, 1982.
Shearer West, Fin de Siecle, London, 1993.
This is just to give you an idea of the direction of the course. You will also all be welcome to
propose readings.
6
The relationship between Art and Science
in Nineteenth-Century Europe
ARTH 488E: Weekly Schedule in Progress - Changes will appear primarily on
the Wiki
I. Introduction to Class and Ideas
2. Physiognomy and Phrenology: Lavater, Gall, and Charles Bell
3. Astronomy and van Gogh
4. Darwin, the femme fatale and biology
Sandra Schachat, the Exchange between Scientific Illustration and Art
5. Geology and geography
6. Color theory from Chevreul to Rood
7. Subconscious/dreams (two) - Mary Claire Pappas - TBD
8. Anthropology, Orientalism, Primitivism
Cordier - Matt Cowan
Schedule of Reports
March 29: Corey Herdegen, Pictorial ism in 19 lh-century Europe and the invention of the Camera
April 5: Joe Sherren: Art in the Nineteenth Century: Sculpture and Its Relationship with the Natural and Social
Sciences
April I0: Sandra Schachat: Parallel developments in scientific and art theory, and public understanding of interest
in science
April 12: Emily Fisher: Issues around Bartman and the Hottentot Venus
April 17: Richard McCauley: Industry and steam power in representations in art
April 19: Mike Hruch: Industrial revolution, invention of steel, birth of skyscrapers, biomicry, and Victor Horta
April 24: Mary Claire Pappas: Dreams/psychology and the development of the French national subconscious in art
April 26: Becca Goodman: Invention of the Xray and its role in the van Gogh/Otto Wackel forgery trials
May I: Matt Cowan: Organization and role of ethnographic art and its influence on 21 sl century exhibition spaces
and museums
May 3: Caroline Shields, Monet and Cognitive Dissonance
Last Class
Final Week to prepare Paper, Notebooks, and Self-Evaluation. Please have them to me no later than May 17. I
would be very pleased to have them sooner.
7
Weekly Class Bibliography:
Physiognomy and Phrenology: Lavater, Gall, and Charles Bell
Anthea Callen, "Physiognomy and Difference," The Spectacular Body. Science, Method, and Meaning in the Work
ofDegas, New Haven, 1995, 1-35.
The usefulness of phrenology to the sculptor. (1847). The Fine Arts Journal: A Weekly Record ofPainting,
Sculpture, Architecture. Music, the Drama. and Polite Literature, 1(32),502-502. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/6973 715?accountid= 14696
Twine, Richard, (2002). "Physiognomy, Phrenology, and the Temporality of the Body," Body and Science, Vol. 8(1),
67-88. www.btintemet.com/-dream.brotherlBodyandScience.pdf
Sander L. Gilman, "Black Bodies, White Bodies: Toward an Iconography of Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth­
Century Art, Medicine, and Literature," Critical Inquiry, Vol. 12, No. I, "Race," Writing, and Difference (Autumn,
1985), pp.204-242.
Cummings, Frederick. "Charles Bell and the Anatomy of Expression." The Art Bulletin 46, no. 2 (June 1964): 191­
203.
Darwin 2
Discussion: Ernst Haeckel
Irenaus Eibl-Eibesfeldt, "Ernst Haeckel -- The Artist in the Scientist," Art Forms in Nature, Munich, 1998, 19-29.
Judith Magee, "Europe," Art and Nature: Three Centuries of Natural History Art from Around the World,
Vancouver, 2009, 196-247.
Olaf Briedbach, "Brief Instructions to Viewing Haeckel's Pictures," Art Forms in Nature, Munich, 1998,9-18.
Olaf Briedbach, "The Visual Argument," Visions of Nature: The Art and Science of Ernst Haeckel, London, 2006,
133-148.
Presentation: Redon and Others
Toby A. Appel, The Cuvier-Geoffroy Debate, New York, 1987.
Jaume Baguiill, Pere Martinez, Jordi Paps, and Marta Riutort, "Back in Time: A New Systematic Proposal for the
Bilateria," Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences 363(1496), 2008, 1481-1491.
Marcia Bartusiak, "Ye Olde Black Hole," Natural History 119(8), 2011, 10-11.
Albert Boime, Art in an Age ofBonapartism, 1800-1815, Chicago, 1990.
Albert Boime, "Of Matter and a Matter of History: Van Gogh's Starry Night," Arts 59(4), 1984, 86-103.
Charles Darwin, More Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume 2, Fairford, 2006.
Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison, Objectivity, New York, 2007.
8
Rene Descartes, Discourse on Method, 1637.
J. Donald Fernie, "Marginalia: In Pursuit of Vulcan," American Scientist 82, 1994,412-415.
Jan Frercks, Heiko Weber, and Gerhard Wiesenfeldt" "Reception and discovery: The nature of Johann Wilhelm
Ritter's invisible rays," Studies in History & Philosophy ofScience 40(2),2009, 143-156.
Owen Gingerich, The Book Nobody Read: Chasing the Revolutions ofNicolaus Copernicus, New York, 2004.
Stephanie Heraeus, "Artists and the Dream in Nineteenth-Century Paris: Towards a Prehistory of Surrealism,"
History Workshop Journal 48, 1999, 151-168.
Lewis William Halsey Hull, History and Philosophy ofScience: An Introduction, New York, 1959.
David Starr Jordan, "Haeckel's Monism," Science 1(22), 1895,608-610.
J.M. Kilner, Y. Paulignan, and SJ. Blakemore, "An interference effect of observed biological movement on action,"
Current Biology 13(6),2003,522-525.
Thomas Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution, Cambridge, 1957.
Armin Kunz, "Caspar David Friedrich: A.sthetik und Religion by Werner Busch," The Burlington Magazine
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