Unit 4: Chapters 9 & 10 Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Vocabulary: Chapter 9: fermentation, cellular respiration, oxidation, reduction, electron transport chain, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, substratelevel phosphorylation, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, chemiosmosis, proton-motive force, alcohol fermentation, lactic acid fermentation, facultative anaerobes Chapter 10: photosynthesis, autotroph, heterotroph, chloroplast, chlorophyll, mesophyll, stomata, stroma, thylokoid, light reactions, Calvin cycle, photophosphorylation, carbon fixation, absorption spectrum, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, action spectrum, carotenoids, photosystem II, photosystem I, light-harvesting complex, reaction center, primary electron acceptor, noncyclic electron flow, cyclic electron flow, G3P, photorespiration, C4 plants, CAM plants Essay Questions 1. Give a general overview of the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration from glycolysis, the intermediate step, the Citric-acid cycle, and the electron transport chain. 2. Describe (do not illustrate) the process in which glycolysis is linked to the citric acid cycle. What products are formed from this process? 3. Describe the form and fate of the carbons in the citric acid cycle (the brief version) and the products formed from this cycle. 4. What is the purpose of fermentation? Explain what happens in yeast (no mitochondria) and muscle cells in an anaerobic situation (oxygen depleted). 5. Explain the processes involved in the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis that lead to the production of ATP. 6. Explain photosynthesis. a. Trace electron flow from water to NADPH. b. Compare cyclic and non-cyclic electron flow and explain the need for both systems. c. Summarize the carbon-fixing reactions and the role of ATP and NADPH in the Calvin Cycle. 7. Compare C3, C4, and CAM plants in terms of their carbon fixation pathways. How are they similar and how are they different? Why do plants adapt to one of these three ways? Be sure to explain each pathway and purpose in your answer. 8. Compare and contrast a mitochondrion with a chloroplast in terms of hydrogen ion gradient, substrates and products, membrane arrangement within each structure, fluid matrices on each side of the inner membrane, and any other structure of function you can identify.