Unit 4: Chapters 9 & 10 Cellular Respiration and... chain, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, substrate- Vocabulary:

Unit 4: Chapters 9 & 10 Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
Chapter 9: fermentation, cellular respiration, oxidation, reduction, electron transport
chain, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, substratelevel phosphorylation, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, chemiosmosis, proton-motive
force, alcohol fermentation, lactic acid fermentation, facultative anaerobes
Chapter 10: photosynthesis, autotroph, heterotroph, chloroplast, chlorophyll, mesophyll,
stomata, stroma, thylokoid, light reactions, Calvin cycle,
photophosphorylation, carbon fixation, absorption spectrum, chlorophyll a,
chlorophyll b, action spectrum, carotenoids, photosystem II, photosystem I,
light-harvesting complex, reaction center, primary electron acceptor,
noncyclic electron flow, cyclic electron flow, G3P, photorespiration, C4
plants, CAM plants
Essay Questions
1. Give a general overview of the inputs and outputs of cellular respiration from
glycolysis, the intermediate step, the Citric-acid cycle, and the electron transport
2. Describe (do not illustrate) the process in which glycolysis is linked to the citric
acid cycle. What products are formed from this process?
3. Describe the form and fate of the carbons in the citric acid cycle (the brief
version) and the products formed from this cycle.
4. What is the purpose of fermentation? Explain what happens in yeast (no
mitochondria) and muscle cells in an anaerobic situation (oxygen depleted).
5. Explain the processes involved in the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
that lead to the production of ATP.
6. Explain photosynthesis.
a. Trace electron flow from water to NADPH.
b. Compare cyclic and non-cyclic electron flow and explain the need for both
c. Summarize the carbon-fixing reactions and the role of ATP and NADPH in
the Calvin Cycle.
7. Compare C3, C4, and CAM plants in terms of their carbon fixation pathways.
How are they similar and how are they different? Why do plants adapt to one of
these three ways? Be sure to explain each pathway and purpose in your answer.
8. Compare and contrast a mitochondrion with a chloroplast in terms of hydrogen
ion gradient, substrates and products, membrane arrangement within each
structure, fluid matrices on each side of the inner membrane, and any other
structure of function you can identify.