Name: ____________________________________ I. MULTIPLE CHOICE Fill in the appropriate bubble on the scantron for the following questions. (1pt each) 1. Which of the following is an example of an organism interacting with an abiotic factor? a. Cows eating grass. c. Sun warming and melting ice into liquid water. b. Rocks adding nutrients to the soil. d. Plants absorbing water through their roots. 2. Which of the following is an example of primary succession? a. A forest recovering after a fire c. Moss growing on the side of your house b. Tall grass growing after a farm field is abandoned d. None of the above 3. Sea otters prevent sea urchins from depleting the kelp population. Kelp supplies a variety of ocean organisms with food. The most accurate, ordered, definition for each species (in the following order) is: sea otter –sea urchin – kelp a. Generalist – host – keystone c. Native – nonnative - parasite b. Keystone – predator – prey d. Predator – producer – predator Use the graph to the right to answer questions #4&5 4. What is the average number of green insects collected? a. 4 b. 1 c. 3 d. 9 5. Which of the following is a reasonable inference (conclusion) for why orange insects were caught the most? a. The color blended in with the background. b. The color stood out among the background. c. There were less orange insects than other colors. d. Everybody likes the color orange. 6. What best describes the following situation? Butterflies that have traditionally lived their lives in Southern Mexico have begun to migrate northward, into Texas. Scientists attribute this behavior to global climate change, claiming these butterflies are a(n) a. Predator b. native species c. Indicator species d. keystone species 7. In the food web to the right, the SHREW is a _____________ and if removed will cause_________. a. Secondary consumer; the snake population to decline due to lack of food b. Secondary consumer; the rabbit population will increase because there will be more food available c. Primary consumer; the mouse population to go up because there will be less competition d. Primary producer; the insect population to increase because it has less predators. 8. A J-shaped population growth will suffer a dieback (crash) because of: a. Low birth rates c. exceeding carrying capacity b. immigration d. nothing; J-shaped growth continues forever 9. An r-strategist generally a. has a low reproductive rate (offspring / lifetime) b. reproduces later in life, typically only once or twice c. has a short-life span and reproduces quickly d. gives much parental care to its offspring 10. The estimated carrying capacity of deer in Upper Dublin Township is 50. If the population reaches 500, what is the LEAST likely thing to happen? a. Some township residents will begin to feed the deer to prevent starvation. b. The population will decrease due to increased car accidents. c. The population will continue to increase in size. d. The deer will leave Upper Dublin and emigrate to Abington looking for food. For questions 11- 16 answer with one of the labels, a-e. To clarify, the organisms of the relationship you should focus on are in bold. (Each label may be used once, more than once, or not at all.) The answer to #2 is c. a. mutualism b. commensalism c. competition d. parasitism e. predation 11. A colony of deep sea polyps “becomes” the shell for a hermit crab providing a life-long shell for the crab and gaining transport for itself in the process. 12. A “herd” of hyenas often follows a lion and waits until the lion is finished eating its prey before eating the remains. 13. Ranchers killed hundreds of prairie dogs so their cattle could have the grass on the range. 14. Plant detritus provides most of the food for decomposers and soil-dwelling detritus feeders such as earthworms. The detritus feeders provide nutrients for new plant growth. 15. At dusk, the bolas spider twirls a thread that ends in a drop of liquid silk. Male moths are attracted by a chemical in the silk, and become caught on the sticky blob. The spider hauls in the moths and chows down. 16. Bedbugs are a recent U.S. problem…these creatures live in complex carbohydrates (your mattress) and feed on the blood of any mammal in the house. Questions 17-20: For each of the following factors, state what would happen to the population size. a. Increase b. Decrease c. Stay the same 17. 18. 19. 20. plants receive unlimited favorable light the habitat becomes unsuitable emigration rate exceeds immigration rate birth rate exceeds death rate 21. In a given year, there are 750 births, 625 deaths, 1000 immigrants and 1125 emigrants. The population is___. a. Growing c. Shrinking b. Staying the same d. Cannot be determined 22. Which does NOT correctly match the country with the approximate current population total? a. United States – 318 million b. China – 1.3 million c. India – 1.2 billion 23. Between 1963 & present, the rate of the world’s annual growth rate has _____________ and the total world population has _____________________. a. Increased; Increased. c. Increased; Decreased b. Decreased; Increased d. Decreased; Decreased Use the provided age structure diagram to answer questions 24 & 25 24. The age structure diagram represents a. A developed country b. A developing country c. A country before the agricultural revolution. d. A city with high birth rates. 25. If reproduction patterns remain similar over the next 50 years, this population will likely a. Rapidly grow. b. Grow slowly. c. Gradually shrink in size. d. Disappear. 26. Developed countries ________________________________. a. are highly industrialized c. have low average incomes b. make up 80% of the world’s population d. use about one-fourth of the world’s energy resources Use the diagram to answer questions 27 – 29 27. Which statement best describes a country in the second stage of the demographic transition? a. A strong economy with lots of industry. b. Death rates are much higher than birth rates. c. Medicine has allowed death rates to decrease but birth rates are still high d. Small families with many women in the workforce. 28. A country in the third stage of the demographic transition will have what type of population growth: a. Rapid b. Slow c. Zero 29. Countries in the first stage of demographic transition have birth rates that a. Are almost equal to the death rates. c. Are low. b. Are higher than death rates. d. Are causing the population to decrease. 30. Compared to developing nations, developed nations have a. less access to birth control c. faster-growing populations b. low literacy levels d. higher health standards and sanitation II. SHORT ANSWER: Answer ONE question in each of the 3 sections (A-C) below. You should have a total of THREE answers. Use the essay portion of your scantron. The answer to #12 is b. SECTION A: Ecosystem Dynamics (4pts) Answer ONE of the following questions: 31. The return of an increasingly diverse ecosystem following a disturbance is known as succession. Following a nuclear disaster, detail the components of an ecosystem 1 year, 10 years, and 100 years after this massive disturbance where humans have been banned from returning to the area. A complete answer will use the terms pioneer species and climax community. 32. What is the least important component of a food web? Why? (Be sure to DESCRIBE the necessity of all other trophic levels for a thorough answer.) Section A continued on next page 33. The number of hunting permits has been doubled in a certain township in an effort to maintain the population of deer at K. EXPLAIN when this is a good decision. SKETCH a population growth curve to show what the population must look like to support your explanation. (Hint: Explain the lesson from the Oh Deer simulation. In order to receive full credit, use the words limiting factor, carrying capacity, resources, in your answer.) SECTION B: Adaptations (4pts) Answer ONE of the following questions: 34. Stink bugs are insects that use a form of chemical defense against predators. During the early stages of an attack, they release secretions with a very strong odor that affect sensitive areas of the predator’s face and mouth. As a result, the predator flees before the stinkbug is injured. Explain how stinkbugs might have evolved this specialized defense mechanism. Include the ideas of natural selection and adaptations in your answer. 35. Use the following information to answer this question: Tim, a scientist studying guppies in Ecuador, found that the fish had a wide variety of color patterns. A previous study showed evidence that guppies use color to hide from predators. The following data was collected after capturing guppies in two habitats in the same stream. He noted the environment, and also any noticeable predators the guppies had. EXPLAIN why the average numbers of colored of spots were different in the mid-stream and lower-stream pools. Number of Colored Spots in Two Stream Habitats 10 8 Average Number of Spots 6 Blue 4 Red In your description be sure to: Describe the differences between the numbers of colored spots in the two pools Explain the possible causes of these differences in numbers of spots Include data from the graph to support your answer. 2 0 Mid-Stream LowerStream Color of Spots 36. Examine the graph to the right. Each line represents a different species. STATE the species interaction that may be occurring between species A and B and EXPLAIN your reasoning. Then provide an EXAMPLE of this interaction in an ecosystem. Population SECTION C: Niches/species (4pts) Answer ONE of the following questions: 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Species A Species B Species C 1 3 5 7 9 Time 37. The cardon and organ-pipe are flowering cactuses that depend on bats for pollination. The bats pollinate the cacti as they eat the fruit of the cactuses. Studies of the bats and cacti suggest that local villagers are driving bats living near these cacti from their cave homes. What is the relationship between the bats and the cacti? DISCUSS the effects on both populations (bats and cacti) if the number of bats decreases.