End of European Mandate System Young countries! Independence Dates Kuwait 1961 Oman 1970 Bahrain 1971 United Arab Emirates 1971 Qatar 1971 Goals after Independence? Develop Industry & Economy End Foreign control of Industry & develop their own industries. Strength and build the economies; provide jobs Modernize the Country Modernize the countries; build infrastructure; roads, dams, hydroelectric energy etc. Goals after Independence? Improve Agriculture Improve agriculture to increase food production Desalination-remove salt from sea water to use. Green Revolutionsimprove farming technique Develop Oil Industry OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Most OPEC countries are in the Middle East Use oil income to modernize the country Arab Countries located on Persian Gulf Arab Gulf States Six States- Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE & Oman. Arab States of the Persian Gulf All significant revenues from oil and gas & low populations (except for S. Arabia) The Arab states share a regional culture. All six states are hereditary monarchies. (Bahrain & Kuwait have legislatures that are elected.) Oil Reserves by Country Allies with the U.S. President Obama & King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia. The U.S. helped the Kuwaitis during the Persian Gulf War! The U.S. has good relations with all of the Arab Gulf States. Modern Beautiful Cities Oil wealth has allowed most of the Monarch/Leaders invest in infrastructure, and build modern cities in these countries Dubai, UAE Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Manama, Bahrain Kuwait City Wars & Conflicts in the Arab States? What are the important wars or conflicts that the U.S. has been involved with as well? Iraq invaded Kuwait 1st Persian Gulf War When Saddam invaded Kuwait in 1990, the U.S. helped the Kuwaitis in the war. Who won the war? Kuwait King & Pres. Bush, Sr. Kuwait & U.S.A. http://t3.gstatic.com/ima ges?q=tbn:ANd9GcTVeJ3 T1G8Ev8uGOyLriurO0J0 1DeJN9bT2ZUpaEqoMss 3CAbvJPA The nd 2 Persian Gulf War? 12 Years Later the U.S. invades IraqOperation Iraqi Freedom 2003- U.S. believes Saddam had built WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction) War ends in 2011; Saddam is found guilty of crimes! Not a Arab Gulf State, but important war in area. Images or numbers of Iranians killed Over One Million Dead from the war Estimates of 500,000 dead from each country Economic Loss of $500 Million for each country Why no Arab Spring? There are three reasons for the Gulf states’ staying power: Governments here don’t derive their power from fear and brutality; The nations have little history of political activism; Oil wealth allows the regimes to effectively buy popular support. Finally, oil wealth has allowed governments to shower their subjects with perks such as universal health care, tax-free living, scholarships for study abroad, and generous cash gifts. What cities & sites did you see in video clips in United Arab Emirates? What cities & sites did you see in video clips in Kuwait? What cities & sites did you see in video clips in Oman? What surprised you or interested you the most from the videos and class discussion?