www.ijecs.in International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242

International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242
Volume 4 Issue 6 June 2015, Page No. 12963-12969
Congestion Control Load Balancing Scheme Intended for
Improving Performance of MANET
Smita Verma1, Deepanjali Joshi2, Ravi Singh Pippal3
Research Scholar, 2Research Guide, 3HOD of CSE Department
Radharaman Engineering College Bhopal, India
[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Abstract—the availability bandwidth in MANET is fixed, that is creating the problem of bottleneck and the load in network is increased.
In MANET if the congestion is occur then the performance of network is gradually decreased according to time. In this research we
proposed the new congestion control load balancing technique with varying the buffer size of queue in dynamic network with reliable
multipath AOMDV protocol. The multipath routing protocol AOMDV is also balance the load by providing alternative path but not capable
at all situation. The AOMDV is provides the multiple path for data sending, if the one is fail and the varying queue length is handled the data
packets that cross the decided queue maximum. The queue is incremented and the storing and forwarding capability of nodes is also
improved. The proposed load balancing proposal is proficiently handled the load on the network. If the node being a component of
communication is moves out of range then the AOMDV is reduced the overhead and re-establishment of connection in between sender and
receiver. The proposed method is increase the routing capability of AOMDV protocol. The achievement of AOMDV and proposed varying
queue is evaluated through performance metrics and observe the performance of proposed scheme is better.
Keyword: - MANET, AOMDV, Routing, Load balancing, Varying queue, Congestion.
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a network
comprising wireless mobile nodes (MNs) that communicate
with each other without centralized control or established
infrastructure. One of the unique features of MANET is each
node must be able to act as a router to find out the optimal path
to forward a packet [1]. As nodes may be mobile, entering and
leaving the network, the topology of the network will change
continuously. MANET provides an emerging technology for
civilian and military applications. Because the medium of the
communication is wireless, only limited bandwidth is
presented. In a MANET, no such infrastructure exists and the
network topology may dynamically change in an unpredictable
manner since nodes are free to move in a neighboring areas.
Network utilization optimization is also an important research
aspect. Unlike wired networks, MANET consists of nodes that
have limited power and restricted bandwidth. The particular
characteristics of MANET nodes cause conflicts of efficiency
and fairness in routing optimization. Most of the time, these
two objectives cannot be concurrently achieved. Performance
focuses on delivery of data packages using the fastest and
shortest path, while justice tries to share out the traffic more
regularly across the MANET. A lot of packets are dropped at
the same time as excessive amount of packets arrive at a
network stumbling block. The packets dropped would’ve
voyaged long way and in accumulation the lost packets
frequently activate the possibility of retransmission. A stream
of packet begins arriving from multiple sources and the entire
need the same output Chanel. In this case, a queue will be
developing. If there is not enough memory to hold every the
packets, the packet will be lost. Increasing the memory to
limitless size does not resolve the problem. This is because, by
the time packets arrive at front of the queue, they have already
timed out (as they waited the queue). When timer goes off
sender broadcast duplicate packet that are also added to the
queue. Thus similar data packets are computed again and again,
increasing the load or amount all the way to the destination
node. This intimates that even more packets are sent into the
network. And so, network throughput is still more deteriorating
by the network congestion.
There are chances of congestion crumple where almost no
data is delivered successfully if no suitable congestion control
is performed. [2]. the bandwidth of the links between the nodes
is not possible to enhance due to that heavy traffic is congested
the network. The proper load balancing scheme is required to
balance the traffic load of dynamic network by distributing it or
improves the processing capability of mobile nodes by confirm
the senders to slow down their traffic rate.The protocol ensures
that the available bandwidth in the network is utilised
efficiently by distributing traffic evenly which ensures better
load balancing and congestion control [3].
Ad-hoc on demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV)
[4] selects a path with a lower hop count and discards routes
with superior hop count. The novel scheme can be applied in
most on demand routing protocols. In this research we use
AOMDV protocol with balance queue level of nodes for
improving the storing and forwarding capacity of mobile nodes
in dynamic network. The proposed approach is reduces the loss
from congestion but not completely removes in network and
the AOMDV is provides the alternative path if the link is break
due to any reason like higher mobility etc.
The Routing in a MANET depends on many factors
including topology, selection of routers, and initiation of
request and specific underlying characteristic that could serve
as a heuristic in finding the path quickly and efficiently [1,5].
The highly dynamic nature of these networks imposes severe
restrictions on routing protocols specifically designed for them,
thus motivating the study of protocols which aim at achieving
routing stability.
Smita Verma, IJECS Volume 4 Issue 6 June, 2015 Page No.12963-12969
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A. Classification of routing protocols in MANET:According to the routing strategy the routing protocols can
be categorized as Table-driven, source initiated and Hybrid [1,
5] while depending on the network structure these are classified
as flat routing, hierarchical routing and geographic position
assisted routing based on the routing strategy the routing
protocols can be classified into three parts:
2.1 Proactive (Table driven) routing protocol:In proactive routing, each node has one or more tables that
contain the latest information of the routes to any node in the
network. Different table driven protocols differ in the way the
information about a change in topology is propagated through
all nodes in the network. The proactive protocols are not
suitable for bigger networks, while they require maintaining
node entries for all and every node in the routing table of every
node. This cause additional overhead in the routing table
leading to consumption of more bandwidth. Examples of such
design are the conventional routing schemes, Destination
Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV).
2.2 Reactive (On-Demand) routing protocol:Reactive routing is also known as on demand routing
protocol since they don’t maintain routing information. They
do not maintain or constantly update their route tables with the
latest route topology. If a node requests to send a packet to a
different node then this protocol searches for the route in an ondemand manner and establishes the connection in order to
transmit and receive the packet. The route detection generally
occurs by flooding technique the route request packets during
the network. Examples of this routing protocols are the
dynamic source Routing (DSR), ad hoc on-demand distance
vector routing (AODV).
2.3 Hybrid routing protocol:These protocols try to incorporate various aspects of
proactive and reactive routing protocols. They are commonly
used to present hierarchical routing; routing in general can be
both flat and hierarchical. In a flat routing approach, the nodes
communicate directly with each other. The problem with this is
that it does not range well; it also does not allow for route
aggregation of update. In a hierarchical routing, the nodes are
grouped into clusters, inside each cluster there is a cluster head,
this proceed as a gateway to other clusters, it serves as a sort of
default route. Example of a hybrid routing protocol is the Zone
Routing Protocol (ZRP).
Based on the method of delivery of data packets from the
source to destination, categorization of MANET routing
protocols could be done as follows:
 Single path Routing Protocols: The routing protocols
that consider sending information packets to a single
destination from a single source. Alternate path is
selected in terms of first one break from any reason.
 Multipath Routing Protocols: Multipath routing is a
technique that develops the underlying corporal
network resources by utilising multiple paths from
source to destination. Due to request fails on single
route, the process is again started. But in multipath
multiple alternate paths are establish until a new route
is established.
Multiple paths can also provide load balancing and route
failure protection by distributing traffic among a set of disjoint
paths. There are several ways to use the multiple paths. In [6,
7] the multiple paths are not used simultaneously. The data
packets are transmitted next to one path. Other paths are kept as
backup paths in case of used path are broken. After all possible
paths are broken; a recent multipath discovery procedure is
initiated again.
There are lot of work was done in field of congestion
control load balancing and each work has effective to balance
the load. The only some of latest work is as mentioned below.
M. Ali, B. G Stewart et al. [8] in this paper researcher present
“Multipath Routing Backbones for Load Balancing in Mobile
Ad Hoc Networks” in this title we are discuss a new approach
based on multipath routing backbones for enhanced load
balancing in MANETs. Nodes in MANETs really differ with
each other in terms of communication and processing
capabilities. In the proposed approach or method, multiple
routing backbones are identified from source to destination
using intermediate nodes that have better communication and
processing capabilities to take part in the mobile routing
backbones and efficiently participate in the routing process.
This work use multipath technique but not execute multipath
simultaneously that case use alternative base load balancing
M. Ali et al. [9] have proposed when the average load of an
existing link increases beyond a defined threshold and the
available bandwidth and residual battery energy decreases
below a defined threshold value, then traffic is distributed over
fail-safe multiple routes to reduce the traffic load on a
congested link. Through simulation results, researchers show
that their proposed approach achieves better throughput and
packet delivery ratio with reduced delay for constant bit rate
(CBR) traffic when compared with QMRB ( a protocol using
QoS mobile routing backbones)
Soundararajan and R. S. Bhuvaneswaran [10] In his titled
“Adaptive Multipath Routing for Load Balancing in Mobile
Ad Hoc Networks” they suggest congestion controlled
adaptive multi-path routing protocol to achieve load balancing
and avoid congestion in MANETs. The algorithm for
discovery of multi-path routes computes fail-safe multiple
paths, which provide or give every intermediate nodes on the
primary path with multiple routes to destination. The fail-safe
or reliable many paths include the nodes with least load and
more battery power and residual energy. When the average
(normal) load of a node along the route increases beyond a
threshold, then Node distributes the traffic over disjoint multipath to reduce the traffic load on a congested link.
Makoto Ikeda, Elis Kulla [6] “Congestion Control for Multiflow Traffic in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks” In this
paper, researcher agreement with congestion control for multiflow traffic in wireless mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET)
using OLSR routing. The OLSR is the Optimized Link State
proactive routing this approach done through OLSR routing
they also apply multi flow in AODV routing approach.
Fubao Yang et al. [11] proposed work on title Network
Coding-based AOMDV Routing in MANET. This paper
presents a Network Coding-based AOMDV routing algorithm
in MANET (NC-AOMDV). It is typically proposed in order to
increase the reliability of data transmission, and by applying
network coding, which allows packet encoding at a
communicate node. Because the encoding packet is generated
by a relay node, the sender node does not require encoding the
packets, and sends only data packets to each route.
Smita Verma, IJECS Volume 4 Issue 6 June, 2015 Page No.12963-12969
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Nitin Goel et al. [12] in this paper Proposed Efficient
Weighted innovative Routing Protocol (EWIRP) to Balance
Load in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The EWiRP
proposed in this paper is a load balancing technique which can
also be viewed as an efficient routing approach, improves
packet delivery ratio, reduces end to end delay, efficiently
exploits the resources like presented bandwidth, node energy,
queue buffer, without affecting the network's vital assets. The
weight calculation procedure considers not only the necessary
parameters but also the service classes of the network.
S. Soundararajan and R. S. Bhuvaneswaran [13] Proposed
Multipath Load Balancing & Rate Based Congestion Control
for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET).This paper presents a
new approach Multipath Load Balancing and Rate Based
Congestion Control (MLBRBCC) based on rate control
mechanism for avoiding congestion in network message or
communication flows. In this procedure the receiver node
copies the estimated rate from the intermediate nodes and the
feedback is forwarded to the sender through an
acknowledgement packet. Because the sending rate is familiar
(adjusted) based on the estimated rate, this procedure is better
than the conventional congestion control technique.
Shalini Puri, Dr. Satish, R. Devene, [14] in this paper
proposed Congestion Avoidance and Load Balancing in AODV
Multipath the proposed protocol (AODV-Multipath) preserves
the higher hop count routes in the routing table and utilizes it as
alternate path as link failure arise. AOMDV does not present
any means to avoid congestion and load balancing in the
network. Queue Length identifies congestion in the network.
Queue Length and Hop Count value are jointly used to select a
route from source to destination that avoids congestion and
load balancing.
Tuan Anh Le et al. [15] in his work titled “ecMTCP: An
Energy-Aware Congestion Control Algorithm for Multipath
TCP” they build up an energy-aware congestion control
algorithm for multipath TCP, called ecMTCP (energy
congestion multipath TCP). In ecMTCP moves traffic from the
high congested paths to the more lightly loaded routes, further
from superior energy cost routes to the lower ones, that node
achieving load-balancing and energy-savings. In this title, they
build up ecMTCP. This title focus congestion control with the
help of energy base load balancing mechanism, this work also
modified via multipath routing technique for end-to-end delay
In the MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Network) important
challenge in congestion control mechanism because how the
sender know about network congestion and adjust the rate, so
our objective to work in the challenging field of congestion
control for minimization waiting time as well as dropping of
data packet and we design an congestion control with load
balancing using multipath routing mechanism in mobile ad-hoc
network, so that we eliminate or reduce congestion as well as
we can minimize routing overhead of the network and also
increase the packet delivery ratio of the network. For that
reason we will propose Congestion control with load balancing
using AOMDV routing in MANET. Effective load balancing
has been a complicated task in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
(MANET) due to their dynamic and un-predictable behaviour
and topology change. This examine presents a new approach
based on multipath routing for enhanced load balancing in
MANET. Nodes in MANET greatly differ with each other in
terms of communication and processing capabilities. In the
proposed technique, multiple routing path are identified from
source to destination using intermediate nodes that have better
communication and processing capabilities to take part in the
mobile routing backbones and efficiently participate in the
routing process.
Our proposed will ensure that there will be no dropping of
packets in the network through the congestion and hence ensure
that there will be successful data transfer with lowest overhead
required. Our work applies in MANET environment and
achieve following goal as well as scope This work efficiently
gives congestion information of network to the sender, than
sender node adjust our rate or alternative path for data delivery
so congestion can’t occur, it’s provide the load of each node
that means (load aware technique) that module minimize the
waiting time of data because according to load sender set the
rate and deliver the data, our work real time applicable for
minimizing data drop from the network if MANET
Algorithm for congestion Aware and Minimization
In this work we deploy algorithm for congestion aware and
minimization, here we set initial variables are show the
particular character in network. Multipath routing technique of
broadcast routing packet are using for data delivery. Routing
packet encapsulate with route request packet, source node
number and receiver node number and after receiving route
packet by any node we identify node number for forwarding
the node and route table generation, that broadcast packet
comes to the receiver node by more than one route, than we
select best three route for data transmission and transmit the
data. If any intermediate node processing capability is lower
than the source and receiver and more sender share common
intermediate node than congestion is arrive to that particular
node so we apply dynamic queue base technique for saving the
data at particular node. This technique is enhanced the storing
capacity of nodes by that the packet dropping due to queue are
almost negligible. All the work minimizes routing overhead as
well as delay and drop since the network.
Step 1 Initialize Mobile Node: M
Step 2 Initialize sender: S
where S belong M
Step 3 Initialize sender: R
where R belong M
Step 4 Terrain Size: 800*800 Meter (m)
Step 5 Initialize Queue Drop Tail
Step 6 Initialize Antenna: Omni Antenna
Step 7 Initialize MAC: 802.11
Step 8 Initialize Routing: AOMDV
Step 9 Initialize Radio Range (RR) = 250 meters
Step 10 Sender Broadcast RREQ (S, R, Radio Range)
If (Next-hop in Range && Channel ==idle)
Receives RREQ;
While (node in range && node! = R)
Intermediate node;
Increment sequence++;
Forward (RREQ, node, R)
If (The Next Node = = R)
Receiver found;
Established path;
} }}
Smita Verma, IJECS Volume 4 Issue 6 June, 2015 Page No.12963-12969
Page 12965
Else if (next-hop in range && channel == busy)
Wait next RTT (Round Trip Time)
Go to step 10;
Step11: If (Route >=2)
Select best three out of all paths;
Step12: Send data (data, S, I, R)
Check available of Queue in intermediate I
If (Q = = Packets Full)
Drop all upcoming data packets;
Analyze data drop of each node;
Else {enqueued ;} // in case of capacity required in
Step13: Send data (data, S, I, R) // proposed method base
If (Q = = Packets Full)
Increment Queue by 1;
En queued Packets;
Step14: Stop
Importance of the research work
Our research proposal is important for following purpose
 Our proposal work under the mobile ad-hoc
environment with dynamic nature that cases our
module control congestion and provide best data
 In our propose work under the multipath routing
strategies so that provides fast and congestion free
communication with load balance base.
 It’s provides reliable as well as low overhead and
increases throughput of the network.
Our proposed method also minimizes the end-to-end delay
because multipath routing protocol provides data delivery
through more than one path bases.
After The NS network simulator [16, 17], from U.C.
Berkeley/LBNL, is an object-oriented discrete event simulator
targeted at networking research and available as public domain.
Its first version (NS-1) Instigate or begin in 1989 as a variant of
the REAL network simulator and was developed by the
Network Research Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory (LBNL), USA. Its expansion was then part of the
VINT assignment [16], persistent by at LBNL, DARPA, Xerox
PARC, and UCB, cover up by which NS version 2.0 (NS-2)
was released; increase significantly from the first version. The
aim of the VINT was not to design a new network simulator,
but to association the effort of all people working in the
research field of network simulation. Network simulator (NS-2)
result is extensively used in the networking research area and
has found large acceptance as a tool to experiment new
concept, distributed algorithms and protocol. Presently NS-2
progress is also maintained through DARPA. NS-2 is used
mostly for small scale simulations of queuing and routing
algorithms, congestion control, transport protocols, and part of
multicast related work.
A. Simulation Parameters
The NS-2 simulator is installed in windows 7 with the help
of supporting Cygwin software in MANET. The practical
implementation of MANET is not possible at current time so
that the whole work on MANET is done in simulation
Table 1 Simulation Parameter
Number of nodes
Dimension of simulated area
Routing Protocol
Simulation time (seconds)
Transport Layer
Traffic type
Packet size (bytes)
Number of traffic connections
Maximum Speed (m/s)
B. Performance Measure
We have primarily selected the following parameters in
order to study the performance of our proposed technique
3 Packet Delivery Ratio: is describing as the number of
received data packets divided by the number of sends data
packets (it’s also percentage of data delivery in receiver
Average Throughput: It is the average number of
messages successfully delivered per second.
Routing packets: The total number of routing packets
transmitted that is also called routing overhead because
communication established.
Packet Drop Reasons: - The packet data packets drop
reasons is may in dynamic network like congestion, queue
length, collision and call back. The congestion is not
possible to eliminate from network completely but
minimization is possible.
We furthermore apply number of various additional
network parameters and measure the result of our proposed
The following simulation results are evaluated on the basis
of performance metrics is described in this section.
6.1 PDR Performance Analysis
The congestion is degrades the network performance by jam
the link in between sender to receiver or the link in between
two nodes i.e. hop. Congestion lower the data processing
capability of mobiles nodes because of that data receiving and
forwarding is not properly managed in dynamic network. The
PDF performance is depend on the percentage of receiving and
sending. If the difference in data packets sending and
receiving is more, then PDF reduces. In this graph the PDF
Smita Verma, IJECS Volume 4 Issue 6 June, 2015 Page No.12963-12969
Page 12966
performance of normal AOMDV routing is more up to
simulation time 50 seconds but after that due to congestion
network performance is continues reduces up to end of
simulation. The proposed varying queue length load balancing
scheme properly balance the load and improves network
performance in terms of PDR metrics. The proposed PDR at
initial not degrades network performance but the receiving
sending ratio of end to end (TCP + UDP) is little bit less and it
is actually due to TCP end packets getting (receiving).
Fig. 2 Throughput Analysis
Fig.1 PDR Analysis
6.2 Throughput Performance Analysis
The congestion is reduces the data traffic forwarding and
receiving in network due to unavailability of bandwidth
capacity. The limited link bandwidth is not capable to handled
extra load of packets that is the main causes of data packets
loss in dynamic network. The throughput of normal AOMDV
protocol is to much less is about highest 275 packets/seconds at
time about 11 seconds and after that the throughput is
continuously degrades in network. The only multipath protocol
is not able to handle the congestion situation in dynamic
network. The proposed varying queue length load balancing
technique is improves the throughput by reduces the congestion
loss. The proposed load balancing scheme is provides the
maximum 500 packets/seconds up to end of simulation. The
proposed throughput represents the communication between
the mobile nodes in dynamic network.
6.3 Routing Overhead Performance Analysis
The connection loss due to congestion is reduces the
packets receiving at destination side and improves the data loss.
If the packets are loss or their limited link expiration time is out
then in that case the query of reestablishment of connection is
generated starting sender side, this is the main source of routing
packets or routing capacity enhancement. The routing load is
considered with respect to data packets received in given
simulation time. The delivery of more routing packets is the
sigh of reestablishment of connection. The routing packets
reckoning of normal AOMDV is about 7250 packets but the
routing packets reckoning of proposed queue length load
balancing congestion control technique is less about 6250
packets. The receiving in less routing packets is more in
proposed scheme but normal AOMDV is less.
Fig. 3 Routing Overhead Analysis
6.4 Performance Analysis of AOMDV Normal and
Proposed Queue based AOMDV
The congestion in network indicates that the mobile nodes
are not handled load properly in network. The sender and
receiver organization of data is necessary for communication
Smita Verma, IJECS Volume 4 Issue 6 June, 2015 Page No.12963-12969
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and reduce the possibility of congestion. The proposed method
of load balancing is minimizes the packet loss due to
congestion and other factors. The Table 2 is shows the
performance of normal AOMDV routing and proposed queue
length based AOMDV routing. The proposed load balancing
scheme is improves about 14% network performance and
reduces packer loss in dynamic network.
Table 2. Performance of AOMDV Normal and AOMDV
AOMDV perfor- AOMDV PerforNormal
mance Proposed mance
No. of
dropped data 3263
6.5 Drop Reason Analysis of AOMDV Normal and
Proposed Queue based AOMDV
The data is drop in MANET has many reasons like out of
range, congestion, collision, Queue length (IFQ) and No Route
exist (NRT). The proposer link connectivity is the main
challenge in MANET and this is not overcome easily. The
Table 3 is shows the different packet dropping reasons. The
packet loss due to congestion in proposed varying queue length
load balancing scheme is reduces as compare to normal
AOMDV. The packets dropping due to queue length is zero in
proposed load balancing scheme but in normal AOMDV is
very high.
Table 3. Packet Drop Analysis
Drop from
Drop from
Drop from
Drop from
Total Drop
% Drop
Total Drop
significant period of time. The proposed varying queue length
based load balancing congestion control scheme is reduces the
delay, routing overhead and packet drop in dynamic Network.
The AOMDV protocol is capable to handled load by providing
alternative path if the already established path is congested.
The proposed scheme is improves the load balancing by
providing the required queue size to each node in network. Due
to that the processing capability of nodes are also utilized for
maximum data forwarding to next neighbor and receiving from
neighbor or sender. The proposed load balancing scheme is
much better than normal AOMDV protocol. The simulation a
result of AOMDV and Proposed congestion control scheme is
evaluated through performance metrics and the proposed
scheme is improves the data receiving, PDF and throughput.
The location discloser is also the one the main issue in
MANET and also the number of nodes are not mentioned their
current location information. In future advancement maintain
the location information without apply any GPS (Global
Positioning System).
Congestion control involves the design of mechanisms and
algorithms to statistically limit the demand-capacity variance,
or dynamically control traffic sources when such a variance
occurs. To balance load the proposed In order to maintain good
network performance, confident mechanisms must be provided
to prevent or restrict the network from being congested for any
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