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M. S. RAMAIAH INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BANGALORE (Autonomous Institute, Affiliated to VTU) SYLLABUS Outcome Based Education Curricula (For the Academic year 2015 – 2016) V &VI Semester B. E. Department of Electronics & Communication M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore-54 (Autonomous Institute, Affiliated to VTU) Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Faculty List Sl. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. Name of the Faculty Dr. S Sethu Selvi Prof. C R Raghunath Prof. K. Giridhar Prof. M S Srinivas Dr. K. Indira Dr. K. Manikantan B. Sujatha Dr. Maya V Karki S. Lakshmi Dr. V. Anandi Dr. T D Senthil Kumar Dr. Raghuram Srinivasan H. Mallika A.R. Priyarenjini S.L. Gangadharaiah M. Nagabhushan C G Raghavendra Sadashiva V Chakrasali C. SharmilaSuttur Mamtha Mohan V. Nuthan Prasad ReshmaVerma Shreedarshan K Lakshmi Srinivasan Flory Francis Sarala S M Punya Prabha V Suma K V Jayashree S Manjunath C Lakkannavar Ms. Chitra M Akkamahadevi M B Veena G N Pavitha U S Qualification Ph.D M.Tech M.Tech M.Tech Ph.D Ph.D M E (Ph.D) Ph.D M E (Ph.D) Ph.D Ph.D Ph.D M S (Ph.D) M.Tech M.Tech.,(Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech M.Tech M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Tech (Ph.D) M.Sc M.Tech M.Tech M.Tech M.Tech M.Tech 2 Designation Professor & Head Professor Professor Professor Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION M. S. R. I. T., BANGALORE – 560054. Vision, Mission and Programme Educational Objectives Vision of the Institute To evolve in to an autonomous institution of international standing for imparting quality technical education Mission of the Institute MSRIT shall deliver global quality technical education by nurturing a conducive learning environment for a better tomorrow through continuous improvement and customization Vision of the Department To be, and be recognized as, an excellent Department in Electronic & Communication Engineering that provides a great learning experience and to be a part of an outstanding community with admirable environment. Mission of the Department To provide a student centered learning environment which emphasizes close faculty-student interaction and co-operative education. To prepare graduates who excel in the engineering profession, qualified to pursue advanced degrees, and possess the technical knowledge, critical thinking skills, creativity, and ethical values. To train the graduates for attaining leadership in developing and applying technology for the betterment of society and sustaining the world environment 3 Program Educational Objectives (PEOs) Program Educational Objectives of the Department of Electronics and Communication are: PEO 1: To provide all basic fundamental prerequisites in mathematical, scientific and engineering fields required to solve technical problems. PEO 2: To train in analyzing, designing and creating new scientific tools and other software so as to gain good engineering breadth. PEO 3: To involve in professional and ethical environment, to build effective communication skills, multidisciplinary and teamwork skills and to relate engineering issues to broader social context. PEO 4: To provide an academic environment, awareness to excel and to lead a successful professional career in lifelong learning. PEO 5: To communicate/work with research and development, to design/develop and to formulate/integrate various products. 4 Program Outcomes POs are statements that describe what students are expected to know, attitudes they are expected to hold, and what they are able to do by the time of graduation. Achievement of program outcome should indicate the student is equipped to achieve the PEOs. The POs of the Department of Electronics & Communication At the time of graduation an E& C graduate should be able to: a. Recollect the essential descriptions from basic sciences, and apply them in E & C streams. b. Demonstrate ability to identify, interpret and solve engineering problems. c. Design circuits and conduct experiments with electronic systems, communication equipment, analyze and interpret the result d. Design systems/subsystems and devices e. Demonstrate the capability to visualize, organize and work in laboratory and interdisciplinary tasks. f. Demonstrate skills using software tools and other modern equipment. g. Inculcate the ethical, social and professional responsibilities such as project management and finance. h. Communicate effectively in oral /written form of scientific analysis or data. i. Understand the impact of engineering solutions on the society and also will be aware of contemporary issues and criticisms. j. Develop self-confidence and become excellent multi-skilled engineer, manager, leader and entrepreneur and display ability for life-long learning. k. Participate and succeed in competitive examinations/placement and show potential research capability. l. An understanding of engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects. 5 SCHEME OF TEACHING FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2013 – 2014 V SEMESTER B. E. ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Credits* SI. No. Subject Code 1. EC501 Analog Communication Electronics and Communication 2. EC502 Digital Signal Processing 3. EC503 4. 5. Subject Teaching Dept L T P Total PS-C 3 0 0 3 Electronics and Communication PS-C 4 0 0 4 VLSI Design and Circuits Electronics and Communication PS-C 4 0 0 4 EC504 Microcontrollers Electronics and Communication PS-C 4 0 0 4 EC505 Microwave Electronics and Components & Circuits Communication PS-C 4 0 0 4 Departmental Elective –I Electronics and Communication PS-E x x x 4 6. 7. EC501L Analog Communication Lab Electronics and Communication PS-C 0 0 1 1 8. EC502L Digital Signal Processing Lab Electronics and Communication PS-C 0 0 1 1 9. EC504L Microcontroller Lab Electronics and Communication PS-C 0 0 1 1 19+x x 3+x 26 Total *L: Lecture T: Tutorial P: Practical 6 VI SEMESTER B. E. ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING Credits* SI. No. Subject Code Subject 1. EC601 Digital Communication Electronics and Communication 2. EC602 Analog and Mixed Mode VLSI Design 3. EC603 4. 5. Teaching Dept L T P Total PS-C 4 0 0 4 Electronics and Communication PS-C 3 0 0 3 Computer Communication Networks Electronics and Communication PS-C 3 0 0 3 EC604 Antennas and Propagation Electronics and Communication PS-C 3 0 0 3 EC605 Entrepreneurship & Management Electronics and Communication HSS 2 0 0 2 6. Departmental Elective – II Electronics and Communication PS-E x x x 4 7. Departmental Elective – III Electronics and Communication PS-E x x x 4 8. EC601L Digital Communication Lab Electronics and Communication PS-C 0 0 1 1 9. EC602L VLSI Lab Electronics and Communication PS-C 0 0 1 1 15+x x 2+x 25 Total *L: Lecture T: Tutorial P: Practical 7 LIST OF PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVES: The student has to earn a maximum of 24 credits as electives. The student has to earn a maximum of 03 credits as open elective. Subject Title Subject Code L T P C ECPE01 OOPs with C++ and Data Structures PS-E 3 0 1 4 ECPE02 Operating Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE03 Computer Organization and Architecture PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE04 Power Electronics PS-E 3 0 1 4 ECPE05 Digital Electronic Measurements PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE06 Advanced Signal Processing PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE07 Image Processing PS-E 3 0 1 4 ECPE08 Communication Switching Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE09 Discrete Time Control Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE10 Linear Algebra PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE11 Micro Electro Mechanical Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE12 Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems PS-E 3 0 1 4 ECPE13 Cryptography and Network Security PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE14 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE15 Low Power VLSI Design PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE16 Design of Electronic Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE17 Data Compression PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE18 Radar and Navigational Aids PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE19 Wavelets and its Applications PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE20 Spread Spectrum Communication PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE21 Satellite Communication PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE22 RF ICs PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE23 Advanced Digital Logic Design Course PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE24 Advanced Digital Logic Verification PS-E 4 0 0 4 8 ANALOG COMMUNICATION Course Code: EC501 Prerequisites: Signals & Systems Course Coordinator: Dr. T. D. Senthil Kumar Credits: 3:0:0 Contact hours: 42 Course objectives: Illustrate the generation and demodulation of AM and DSBSC Illustrate the generation and demodulation of SSB and VSB Illustrate the generation and demodulation of FM Understand the effect of noise in CW modulation systems Appreciate the application of AM and FM systems and TV systems Course Contents: UNIT – I Amplitude Modulation and Double Side-band Suppressed Carrier Modulation: Introduction to AM: Time domain description, Frequency domain description. Generation of AM wave: Square law modulator, switching modulator. Detection of AM waves: Square law detector, envelope detector, time domain description of DSBSC, Frequency domain representation, Generation of DSBSC waves, balanced modulator, ring modulator, coherent detection of DSBSC modulated waves, Costas loop, Quadrature carrier multiplexing UNIT – II Single Side-band Modulation (SSB): Hilbert transform, properties of Hilbert transform, preenvelope, single side-band modulation, frequency domain description of SSB wave, time domain description, frequency discrimination method for generating an SSB modulated wave, time domain description, phase discrimination method for generating an SSB modulated wave, demodulation of SSB waves Vestigial Side-band Modulation: Frequency domain description, Generation of VSB modulated wave, time domain description, coherent demodulation, envelope detection of VSB wave along with carrier UNIT – III Angle Modulation (FM): Basic definitions, FM, narrow band FM, wideband FM, transmission bandwidth of FM waves. Generation of FM waves: indirect FM and direct FM, frequency stabilization in FM receivers, demodulation of FM waves, frequency discrimination method, phase locked loop, non-linear model of phase locked loop, linear model of the phase locked loop, nonlinear effect in FM systems 9 UNIT – IV Applications of AM and FM: AM radio (super heterodyne): block diagram of transmitter and receiver, mixer, AGC, performance characteristics. FM radio: block diagram of transmitter and receiver. Elements of Colour TV: Frequency range and channel bandwidth, scanning and synchronization, composite video signal. Block diagram of transmitter and receiver UNIT – V Noise Basics and Noise in Continuous Wave Modulation Systems: Introduction, shot noise, thermal noise, white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth, noise figure, equivalent noise temperature, cascade connection of two port networks, receiver model, noise in DSBSC receivers, noise in SSB receivers, noise in AM receivers, threshold effect, noise in FM receivers, FM threshold effect, preemphasis and de-emphasis in FM TEXT BOOKS: 1. Simon Haykin, “Communication Systems”, 3rd edition, John Wiley, 1996 2. Simon Haykin, “An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communication”, 2nd edition, John Wiley, 2003 3. R. R. Gulati, “Monochrome and Colour TV”, 3rd edition, New Age International (P) Ltd. 2004 REFERENCES: 1. B. P. Lathi, “Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems”, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, 2005 2. H. Taub, D. L. Schilling, “Principles of Communication Systems” 2nd edition, Mca. Graw Hill, 1986 Course Outcomes: 1. Describe the generation and demodulation of AM and DSBSC systems. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, k) 2. Describe the generation and demodulation of SSB and VSB. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, k) 3. Describe the direct and indirect method of generation of FM and its detection. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, k) 4. Employ AM and FM in radio and TV systems. (PO – b, c, h, i, k) 5. Understand noise performance of receivers. (PO – a, b, h, i, k) 10 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Course Code: EC502 Prerequisites: Signals and Systems Course Coordinator: Dr. K. Indira Credits: 4:0:0 Contact hours: 56 Course objectives: Appreciate the importance of Fourier Transform and its relation with other transform. Illustrate filtering of long data sequence using overlap add and overlap save method. Apply the concept of FFT algorithms to compute DFT. Design FIR filter using various window method, frequency sampling and FIR differentiator. Understand FIR filters in Symmetric and anti-symmetric nature. Understand the characteristics of analog filters. Design IIR filter using impulse invariant, bilinear transform and matched Z transforms. Implement FIR &IIR filters for digital filter structures and signal flow graphs. Appreciate the importance and application of DSP processors Understand the Architecture overview of 54x and 67x processors. Illustrate various addressing modes in 54x and 67x processor. Course Contents: UNIT – I DFT and FFT: Frequency Domain Sampling and Reconstruction of Discrete-time signals, Discrete Fourier Transform, DFT as a linear transformation, DFT relations with other transforms, DFT in linear filtering, Filtering long data sequences: overlap-save, Filtering long data sequences: overlapadd method, FFT algorithms: Direct computation of DFT, Radix-2 FFT algorithm: Decimation-intime algorithm, Radix-2 FFT algorithm: Decimation-in-frequency algorithm. UNIT – II FIR Filters: Design of FIR filters: Symmetric and anti-symmetric FIR filters, Design of linear-phase FIR filters using windows and frequency sampling methods, FIR differentiators. Structures for FIR Systems: Direct-Form Structures, Cascade-Form Structures and Lattice Structures. UNIT – III IIR Filters: Analog filter specifications, classification of analog filters: Butterworth and Chebyshev filters, frequency transformations, design of analog filters, Digital IIR filter design using impulse invariant, bilinear transformation, Matched z-transform methods. IIR filter structures: Direct form (I and II), Cascade, Parallel, and Transposed structures. 11 UNIT – IV DSP Processors: Computer architectures for signal processing, Harvard architecture, Pipelining, Hardware multiplier-accumulator, On-chip memory/cache, Extended Parallelism-SIMD, VLIW and static super scalar processing. Data representations and arithmetic: Fixed point numbers and Arithmetic, Floating Point Arithmetic, Comparison of Fixed-point and Floating Point Processors. UNIT – V TMS320C54x Processor: Architecture of 54x, Addressing modes: direct, Indirect addressing, absolute addressing, memory mapped register addressing, stack addressing, circular and bit reversal addressing. Instruction set: Load/store operations, Arithmetic operations, Logical Operations, Program control operations. Implementation of FIR and IIR filters. TEXT BOOKS: 1. J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, “Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms and Applications,” Pearson Education Asia/Prentice Hall of India, 2002. 2. Sanjit K. Mitra, “Digital Signal Processing”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006. 3. Sen M. Kuo, Woon-Seng Gan, “Digital Signal Processors: Architectures, Implementations and Applications”, Pearson Education Asia, 1st Edition, 2005. 4. Emmanuel Ifeachor, Barrie W. Jervis, “Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Approach”, Pearson Education, Second Edition, 2002. REFERENCES: 1. Oppenheim and Schafer, “Discrete Time Signal Processing”, Pearson Education, 2003. 2. Venkataramani B, Bhaskar M, “Digital Signal Processors: Architecture, Programming and Applications”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2002. Course Outcomes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Analyze the importance and application of FFT algorithm. (PO – a, b, c, k) Design FIR and IIR filters which are used for various applications. (PO – b, c, d, k) Employ digital filter structure to implement FIR and IIR expression. (PO – b, d, k) Analyze the significance of DSP processor in real time application. (PO – a, b, h) Describe processor architecture using macro model. (PO – b, d, h) 12 VLSI DESIGN AND CIRCUITS Course Code: EC503 Prerequisites: Solid state devices and Technology Course Coordinator: A. R. Priyarenjini Credits: 4:0:0 Contact hours: 56 Course objectives: Introduce digital integrated circuits. Introduce CMOS devices and manufacturing technology. Introduce CMOS logic gates and their layout. Calculate propagation delay, noise margins, and power dissipation in the digital VLSI circuits. Design Combinational (e.g., arithmetic) and sequential circuit. Understand the concepts of testing in VLSI. Course Contents: UNIT – I INTRODUCTION: Historical perspective, circuit design example, VLSI Design methodologies, hierarchy, Concept of modularity, regularity, locality, Design styles, Packaging, CAD. Fabrication of MOSFETS: CMOS N-WELL, Layout design rules UNIT – II MOS Transistor: Structure, external biasing, operation, V I Characteristics, scaling, MOS Capacitor, MOS Inverter: Static characteristics: Resistive load inverter, N type load, CMOS Inverter. UNIT – III Dynamic switching characteristics: Delay time, calculation of delay time, rise and fall times, resistance, capacitance estimation, Switching power dissipation, super buffers. UNIT – IV Combinational MOS static Logic circuits: NMOS Depletion load complex logic circuits, Pass transistor, Transmission gate, stick diagrams, mask layout. Sequential circuits: SR Latch, CMOS D Latch, edge triggered flip flop. Dynamic logic circuits: Basic principles of PT circuits, Dynamic CMOS circuit techniques: CMOS TG logic, Dynamic CMOS logic High performance Dynamic circuits, charge sharing problems, remedies. UNIT V Design for testability: Fault type and models, Controllability, Observability, Ad hoc testing, scan based techniques, BIST, IDDQ. 13 TEXT BOOKS: 1. Sung – Mo Kang, Yusuf Leblebici, “CMOS digital integrated circuits – Analysis and Design”, Tata McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, 2003. REFERENCES: 1. Kamran Eshraghian, Dougles and A. Pucknell, “Essentials of VLSI circuits and systems”, PHI, 2005 Edition. 2. Weste and Eshraghian, “Principles of CMOS VLSI Design” - Pearson Education, 1999. 3. John P.Uyemura, “Chip Design for Submicron VLSI: CMOS Layout & Simulation”, Thomson Learning, 2005. 4. John P. Uyemura, “Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems”, John Wiley, 2003. 5. Jan M. Rabaey, “Digital Integrated Circuits”, PHI, EEE, 1997. 6. Wayne Wolf, “Modern VLSI Design”, Pearson Education, 3rd Edition, 1997. Course Outcomes: 1. Explain chip design options and design rules in VLSI. Illustrate the steps in CMOS VLSI fabrication. (PO – c, d, h) 2. Apply basic principles to derive threshold voltages, and hence predict performance of various inverter structures. (PO – a, b, c, h, k) 3. Describe the source of parasitics in MOS structures and their effect on circuit performance. (PO – a, b, c, d, h) 4. Employ different logic styles for circuit design and compare and contrast their performance. (PO – b, c, d, h) 5. Define different terms in the DFT domain and describe some important methods for DFT. (PO – d, h) 14 MICROCONTROLLERS Subject Code: EC504 Prerequisites: Digital Electronic Circuits Course coordinator : Dr. K. Manikantan Credits: 4:0:0 Contact hours: 56 Course objectives: Provide a knowledge foundation which will enable students to pursue subsequent courses in real-time embedded systems software and computer design. Understand the differences between microcontrollers and microprocessors, different CPU architectures, & describe the features of a typical microcontroller. Comprehend the architectures of 8051 and MSP430 Microcontrollers, & understand the operation of parts of these controllers, and be able to apply this knowledge in simple programs. Use the 8051 addressing modes and instruction set to perform - arithmetic & logic operations, data & control transfer operations, input & output operations. Describe each module in MSP430, working out to the on-chip peripherals and Use low power features of MSP430 to develop embedded solutions. Course Contents: UNIT – I Microprocessors and Microcontrollers: Introduction, Microprocessors and Microcontrollers, A microprocessors survey, RISC and CISC CPU architectures, Harvard and Von-Neumann CPU architectures. The 8051 Architecture: Introduction, 8051 microcontroller Hardware, Input/output Pins, Ports and Circuits, External Memory, Counters and Timers, Serial Data Input/output, Interrupts. Addressing Modes: Introduction, Addressing modes, External data Moves, Code Memory, Read Only Data Moves / Indexed addressing mode, PUSH and POP Opcodes, Data exchanges, Example Programs. UNIT – II Logical and Arithmetic Operations: Byte level logical operations, Bit level Logical operations, Rotate and Swap operations, Example programs, Arithmetic operations: Flags, Incrementing and Decrementing, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division, Decimal Arithmetic, Example programs. Jump and Call instructions: The JUMP and CALL Program range; Jumps, Calls and Subroutines, Interrupts and Returns, More Details on Interrupts, Example Problems. 8051 Programming in C: Data types and time delays in 8051C, I/O programming, logic operations, data conversion programs, accessing code ROM space, data serialization. 15 UNIT – III Timer/Counter programming in 8051: Programming timers 0 and 1 in 8051C. Programming 8051 Timers, Counter Programming, 8051 Serial Communication: Basics of Serial Communication, 8051 connections to RS-232, 8051 Serial communication programming, Serial port programming in C. UNIT – IV Interrupts Programming: 8051 Interrupts, Programming Timer Interrupts, Programming External Hardware Interrupts, Programming the Serial Communication Interrupts, Interrupt Priority in 8051/52, Interrupt Programming in C. 8051 Interfacing and Applications: Interfacing 8051 to LCD, Keyboard, ADC, DAC, Stepper Motor Interfacing. UNIT – V Introduction to MSP430: Low power features, Pin-out, Functional block diagram, Memory map, MSP430 families. Architecture of MSP430: Central processing unit, Addressing modes, Instruction set, Clock system. Functions, Interrupts and Low Power modes: Functions and subroutines, Interrupts, Low Power modes of operation. Digital I/O –Digital Input and Output: Parallel ports, Understanding the muxing scheme of the MSP430 pins, programming examples. On-chip peripherals: Watchdog Timer, Comparator, Op-Amp, Basic Timer, ADC, DAC, SD16, LCD. MSP430 Interfacing: Interfacing LED, LCD, ADC, DAC, Programming examples. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Kenneth J Ayala, “The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Programming and Applications”, Second Edition, Penram International 1996 / Thomson Learning, 2005. 2. Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi, Rolin D McKinlay, “The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems – Using Assembly and C”, PHI 2006 / Pearson 2006. 3. “MSP430 Microcontroller Basics”, John Davies, Elsevier, 2010. REFERENCES: 1. M. Predko, “Programming and Customizing the 8051 Microcontroller”, McGraw Hill, 1999. 2. MSP430 Teaching CD-ROM, Texas Instruments, 2008. 16 Course outcomes: 1. Identify the components of microcontroller architecture and illustrate these with the 8051 microcontrollers. (PO – a, b, k) 2. Use commands/instructions that place data in internal memory, external memory, get data from ROM addresses, exchange data, predict the ranges of Jump. (PO – a, b, c) 3. Develop 8051 assembly language and C programs for time delays, I/O operations, and Serial communication. (PO – a, b, c, f, h, k) 4. Develop programs using interrupts and write C programs to interface 8051 chip to interfacing modules to develop single chip solutions. (PO – a, b, c, d, f, h, k) 5. Identify the components of microcontroller architecture and illustrate these with the MSP430 microcontrollers to design low power embedded applications using MSP430. (PO – a, b, c, d, f, h) 17 MICROWAVE COMPONENTS AND CIRCUITS Course Code: EC505 Prerequisites: Electromagnetics Course Coordinators: Sujatha B Credits: 4:0:0 Contact hours: 56 Course Objectives: Apply knowledge of impedance matching for designing feed networks for devices like antennas that may be fed using different transmission line. Extend the applicability of Smith charts for analyzing active circuits. Analyze systems that contain a combination of various microwave components like directional couplers, filters, mixers etc. Course Contents: UNIT – I Transmission line theory and Impedance matching: Lumped-element circuit model for a transmission line – wave propagation on a transmission line, lossless line; Terminated lossless transmission line; Smith chart – combined impedance-admittance Smith chart, matching with lumped elements (L Networks) – analytic solutions, Smith chart solutions. UNIT – II Transmission lines, Impedance tuning and Resonators: Single-stub tuning – shunt stubs, series stubs; Quarter-wave transformer; Coaxial line – TEM modes; Stripline – formulas for propagation constant, characteristic impedance, attenuation, approximate electrostatic solution; Introduction to Microstrip line; Series and parallel resonant circuits, loaded and unloaded Q; Transmission line resonators – short-circuited λ/2 line, short-circuited λ/4 line, open-circuited λ/2 line. UNIT – III Microwave network analysis, Power dividers and Directional couplers: Impedance and admittance matrices – reciprocal networks, lossless networks; Scattering matrix – reciprocal networks and lossless networks, shift in reference planes; Basic properties of dividers and couplers – three-port networks, four-port networks; T-junction power divider – lossless divider, resistive divider; Wilkinson power divider – even-odd mode analysis. UNIT – IV Microwave filters: Periodic structures – analysis of infinite periodic structures, terminated periodic structures, k-β diagrams and wave velocities; Filter design by the image parameter method – image impedances and transfer functions for two-port networks, constant-k filter sections, m-derived filter sections, composite filters; Stepped-impedance low-pass filters. 18 UNIT – V RF diodes, Oscillators and Mixers: RF diode characteristics – PIN diodes and control circuits, varactor diodes; Mixer characteristics, single-ended diode mixer; Gunn diodes (theory) – Gunn effect, RWH theory, modes of operation; IMPATT diodes (theory) – avalanche multiplication, carrier and external currents, negative resistance; Reflex Klystrons (theory) – velocity modulation, bunching process. (NO MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS) TEXT BOOKS: 1. David M Pozar, “Microwave Engineering”, 3rd edition, Wiley, 2011. 2. Samuel Y Liao, “Microwave Devices and Circuits”, 3rd edition, Pearson, 2011. REFERENCES: 1. Annapurna Das and Sisir K Das, “Microwave Engineering”, McGraw-Hill, 2006. 2. John Ryder D, “Networks, Lines and Fields”, 2nd edition, PHI, 2010. 3. R. E. Collin, “Foundations for Microwave Engineering”, 2nd edition, John Wiley, 2005. Course Outcomes: 1. Define line parameters and analyze various transmission lines and resonators. (PO – a, b, h, k) 2. Apply concepts of analysis using Smith chart for impedance matching and appraise different impedance matching networks. (PO – a, b, c, h, k) 3. Employ microwave network analysis in design of multiport microwave networks. (PO – a, b, c, d, e, h, k) 4. Describe and design microwave filters. (PO – a, b, c, d, e, h, k) 5. Apply different microwave diodes and mixers in microwave systems. (PO – a, b, c, d, e, h, k) 19 ANALOG COMMUNICATION LABORATORY Course Code: EC501L Prerequisites: Signals & Systems Course Coordinator: Dr. T. D. Senthil Kumar Credits: 0:0:1 Contact Sessions: 12 Course objectives: Obtain a practical perspective of various communication modules Implement various analog modulation and demodulation schemes using discrete components List of Experiments 1. Design and construction of second order active low-pass filter and high- pass filter. Plot of frequency response and estimation of roll-off factor 2. Design and construction of second order active band-pass filter and band-stop filter. Plot of frequency response and estimation of roll-off factor 3. Class-C amplifier. Plot of efficiency vs load resistance. 4. Generation of AM using collector modulation. Plot of modulation signal amplitude vs modulation index. 5. Demodulation of AM using envelope detector. Plot of AM output vs input signal 6. Generation of DSBSC using ring modulation. Observation of output waveform 7. Generation of AM/DSBSC using IC MC1496. Observing the output waveforms 8. Generation of FM using IC 8038. Plot of frequency vs input dc and estimation of modulation index 9. Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis. 10. Transistor mixer study of up conversion and down conversion. 11. Demodulation of FM using PLL. 12. Matlab simulation of analog modulation and demodulation techniques. Course Outcomes: 1. Construct second order active filters for various frequency bands. (PO – b, c, e, f, h, j) 2. Design and implement modulation and demodulation circuit for amplitude modulation. (PO – a, c, d, e, f, h, j) 3. Design and implement modulation and demodulation circuit for frequency modulation. (PO – c, e, f, h, j) 4. Construct the circuit and study the characteristics of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis circuit. (PO – c, e, f, h, j) 5. Construct RF up and down converter. (PO – c, e, f, h, j) 20 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY Course Code: EC502L Prerequisites: Signals & Systems Course Coordinator: Dr. K. Indira Credits: 0:0:1 Contact Sessions: 12 Course objectives: Gain a working knowledge of the design & implementation on various DSP operations using MATLAB. Obtain a practical perspective of convolution and filtering operations using DSP processor Course Contents: A. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS USING MATLAB / DSP PROCESSOR 1. Perform the following operation on a given sequence (Time shifting, Up and down sampling, Folding) 2. Verification of sampling theorem. 3. Convolution of given sequence a) Linear b) Circular 4. Solving a given difference equation with and without initial conditions 5. Computation of N point DFT of a given sequence and to plot magnitude and phase spectrum, and verify using built in function 6. Given a causal system H(z), obtain pole-zero plot, magnitude and phase response. 7. Linear convolution of two sequences using DFT and IDFT. 8. Circular convolution of two given sequences using DFT and IDFT 9. Design and implementation of FIR filter to meet given specifications. (Window, frequency sampling method) 10. Design and implementation of IIR filter to meet given specifications (Impulse Invariant, Bilinear Transform) B. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS USING DSP PROCESSOR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Linear convolution of two given sequences. Circular convolution of two given sequences. Solving a given difference equation Computation of N- Point DFT of a given sequence Realization of an FIR filter (any type) to meet given specifications. The input can be a signal from function generator / speech signal. TEXT BOOKS: 1. “Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB”, J. G. Proakis, Ingle, MGH, 2000. 2. “Digital Signal Processors”, B. Venkataramani and Bhaskar, TMH, 2002. REFERENCES: 1. “Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB”, Sanjit K Mitra, TMH, 2001. 21 Course Outcomes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Perform basic operations on a given signal. (PO – a, b, f) Implement linear convolution and circular convolution. (PO – b, f) Implement FIR filter and IIR to meet the given specifications. (PO – b, c, d, f) Implement IIR filters to meet the given specification. (PO – b, c, d, f) Implement convolution and filtering using DSP processor. (PO – b, f) 22 MICROCONTROLLER LAB Subject Code: EC504L Prerequisites: Digital Electronic Circuits Course Coordinator : Dr. K. Manikantan Credits: 0:0:1 Contact Sessions : 12 Course objectives: Understand assembly level programming and the C data types for 8051, & write 8051 C programs & assembly language programs using Keil development software. Illustrate the various modes of 8051 timers, describe serial communication features of 8051 and program the 8051 timers/counters & serial port in assembly & C. Understand what occurs within the 8051 on an interrupt. Understand how hardware generated interrupts operate, & write programs for 8051 using interrupts. Interface application circuits like LCD, keyboard, ADC, DAC and stepper motor with 8051 microcontroller & develop application programs using 8051 C. Understand assembly level programming and the C data types for MSP430 & write C programs & assembly language programs using Code Composer Studio IAR workbench development software. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS PART A: ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING (using KEIL uVISION 3) 1. Block move, Exchange, Sorting, Finding largest element in an array, Arithmetic instructions 2. Counters 3. Code conversion programs 4. Programs using serial port, and on-chip timers. PART B: INTERFACING Write C programs to interface 8051 chip to Interfacing modules to develop single chip solutions for: 5. Keyboard interface. 6. External ADC interface. 7. Generate different waveforms using DAC interface. 8. Stepper Motor interface. PART C: Programming MSP430 with Code Composer Studio/IAR Embedded Workbench 9. Assembly Language programs for arithmetic and logic operations 10. C Programs for interfacing LCD panel and Keypad. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Kenneth J Ayala, “The 8051 Microcontroller Architecture, Programming and Applications”, Second Edition, Penram International 1996 / Thomson Learning 2005. 2. Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Gillispie Mazidi, Rolin D McKinlay, “The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems – Using Assembly and C”, PHI 2006 / Pearson 2006. 3. “MSP430 Microcontroller Basics”, John Davies, Elsevier, 2010. 23 REFERENCES: 1. M. Predko, “Programming and Customizing the 8051 Microcontroller”, McGraw Hill, 1999. 2. MSP430 Teaching CD-ROM, Texas Instruments, 2008. Course outcomes 1. Use hardware and software development and debugging tools. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, ) 2. Develop, simulate and debug 8051 assembly language and C programs for time delays, I/O operations, logic and arithmetic operations, data conversion using Keil software development tools. (PO – a, b, c, e, f) 3. Write C programs to interface 8051 chip to Interfacing modules to develop single chip solutions for: Displaying the pressed key's key code on the On-board LCD of the ESA MCB51, rotate the stepper motor, read the ADC output and display it on the on-board LCD and generate waveforms using DAC. (PO – a, b, c, e, f) 4. Interpret and design hardware and software for simple real-time digital systems which use the 8051 microcontroller. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, k) 5. Design low power embedded applications using MSP430. (PO – b, d, e, f, k) 24 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION Subject Code: EC601 Prerequisites: Analog Communication, Signals and Systems Course Coordinator: Mrs. Lakshmi S. Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Understand Nyquist Sampling Theorem. Apply the practical aspects of signal sampling. Understand the different quantization techniques. Appreciate the need for DPCM, DM and ADM. Categorize different Line Codes in terms of their Power Spectra. Understand ISI and ways to overcome the same. Conceptualize and apply Correlative and Duo binary Coding techniques. Analyze the concept of Detection and Estimation. Apply Gram-Schmidt orthogonolization procedure for signals. Discuss the need for a Matched Filter Receiver. Understand Coherent modulation techniques such as BPSK, ASK, DPSK and QPSK systems. Analyze the same in terms of error probability and power spectrum. Understand Non-Coherent Modulation Techniques. Course Contents: UNIT – I Signal Sampling: Basic signal processing operations in digital communication, Sampling Principles, Sampling Theorem, Quadrature sampling of band-pass signals, Practical aspects of sampling and signal recovery, PAM, TDM. UNIT – II Waveform Coding Techniques: PCM block diagram, Different quantization techniques, SNR in PCM, robust quantization, DPCM, DM, Adaptive DM UNIT – III Base-Band Shaping for Data Transmission: Line Codes and their power spectra, ISI, Nyquist criterion for distortion less base-band binary transmission, correlative coding, duobinary coding, adaptive equalization, eye pattern UNIT – IV Digital Modulation and Demodulation Techniques: Coherent binary modulation techniques, BPSK, FSK, ASK, DPSK, QPSK systems with signal space diagram, generation, demodulation and error probability concept, Comparison using Power Spectrum, Coherent demodulation techniques for ASK, FSK and BPSK. 25 UNIT – V Detection and Estimation: Concept of Detection and Estimation, Correlation Receiver, Matched Filter Receiver, Properties of Matched Filter. Non -Coherent demodulation techniques for FSK and BPSK, Synchronization: Carrier synchronization Symbol Synchronization. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Simon Haykin, “Digital Communications”, John Wiley, 2003. 2. J. Proakis, “Digital Communication”, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2000. REFERENCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. K. Sam Shanmugam, “Digital and Analog Communication Systems”, John Wiley, 1996. Simon Haykin, “An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communication”, John Wiley, 2003. Bernard Sklar “Digital Communications”, Pearson Education, 2007. K. Sam Shanmugam, A. M. Breipohl, “Random Signals: Detection, Estimation and Data Analysis”, Wiley, 1988. Course Outcomes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sample a signal and reconstruct it at receiver. (PO – a, b, c, h, k) Design a PCM, DPCM, DM and ADM systems. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, k) Design Base Band shaping for data transmission. (PO – a, b, c, k) Describe system level blocks for BPSK, ASK, DPSK and QPSK systems. (PO – a, b, c, h, k) Using GSDP procedure, analyze coherent and no-coherent digital modulation systems and understand the basics of spread spectrum technology. (PO – a, b, c, h, k) 26 ANALOG AND MIXED MODE SIGNAL VLSI DESIGN Subject Code: EC602 Prerequisites: SSDT Course Coordinator: Mr. M. Nagabhushan Credits: 3:0:0 Contact hours: 42 Course learning objectives: Design single stage amplifiers using PMOS & NMOS driver circuits with different loads. Quantitatively analyze a differential pair amplifier with differential loads. Analyze the frequency response of single stage and multistage amplifiers. Analyze the op-amp characteristics and its performance parameters. Analyze the stability and frequency compensation of op-amp. Study the fundamentals of data converters. Course Contents: UNIT – I Introduction & Single Stage Amplifiers: MOS Device Basics, MOS Device, Models, RC Circuits, Passive Devices, mixed signal Layout issues, Common Source Amplifiers, Source Follower, Common Gate, Cascode Structures and Folded Cascode Structures. UNIT – II Differential Amplifier & Current Mirrors: Introduction to Differential Pair Amplifier, Quantitative Analysis to Differential Pair Amplifier, Common Mode Response, Differential Amplifiers with Different Loads, Effects of Mismatches. Simple Current Mirrors, Cascode Current Mirrors, Differential Pair with Current Mirror Load. UNIT – III Operational Amplifiers & Frequency Response: Op Amps Low Frequency Analysis, Two Stage Op Amps, Common Mode Feedback, Frequency Response of Common Source Amplifiers, Source Follower Common Gate, Cascode Structures and Folded Cascode Structures, Differential Amplifiers, Single Ended Differential Pair. UNIT – IV Frequency Compensation & Stability: General considerations, multi-pole systems, Phase Margin, Frequency Compensation Techniques in Telescopic Op Amps, Folded Cascode Op Amps, Two Stage Op Amps, other compensation techniques. UNIT – V Data Converters: Analog vs Digital Discrete Time-Signals, Converting Analog Signals to Digital Signals, Sample and Hold Characteristics, DAC Specifications, ADC Specifications, DAC Architectures, Digital Input Code, Resistor String, R-2R Ladders Networks, Current Steering, Charge Scaling DACs, Cyclic DAC, Pipeline DAC, problems ADC Architectures. Flash type, 2-Step Flash, Pipeline ADC, Integrating ADC, Successive Approximation methods, Problems. 27 TEXT BOOKS: 1. B Razavi ,”Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits”, First Edition, McGraw Hill, 2001 2. R. Jacob Baker, Harry W Li, David E Boyce, “CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, Simulation”, PHI Education, 2005. REFERENCES: 1. Johns and Martin “Analog Integrated Circuit Design”, John Wiley Publications, 1997 2. P E Allen and D R Holberg “CMOS Analog Circuit Design”, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2002. 3. B.Razavi, “Microelectronics”, First Edition, McGraw Hill, 2001. Course outcomes: 1. Design a simple current mirror & cascaded current mirrors. (PO – a, b, c, d, f, j, k) 2. Design a multistage amplifier using single stage amplifier concept. (PO – a, b, c, d, f, j, k) 3. Determine the poles and zeros of a multi pole system & analyze the frequency response, stability of the system. (PO – a, b, c, d, f, h, j, k) 4. Design an operational amplifier to optimize its performance metrics. (PO – a, b, c, d, f, h, j, k) 5. Analyze different ADC/DAC architectures. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, j, k) 28 COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Course Code: EC603 Prerequisites: Fundamentals of computing and Data Structures Course Coordinator: Mrs. Mamtha Mohan Credits: 3:0:0 Contact Hours: 42 Course Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of OSI model and the TCP/IP suite Understand the functioning of addresses of the internet Understand the concept of linking different types of networks in data communication. Design of protocols used in noisy and noiseless channel Basic concept about the protocols for the transmission of frames. Understanding the concepts of multiple access such as Random access, Controlled access and Channelization Discuss the basic concepts of IEEE standards for wired and wireless LAN, and its architecture, Connecting devices. Understand and model logical addressing, IPv4 and IPv6 Appreciating the significance of routing algorithms such as distance vector algorithm, minimum spanning tree, Shortest path algorithm, path vector routing Understanding the protocols used in transport layer. Course Contents: UNIT – I Network Models: Introduction, Layered tasks, OSI Model Layers in OSI model: TCP/IP Suite, Addressing, Telephone Network, Dial up Modem DSL, Cable TV for Data Transmission, FDDI, SONET. UNIT – II Data Link Control: Framing, Flow and error control, Protocols, Noiseless channels and noisy Channels HDLC Protocol, Error detection (CRC) UNIT – III Multiple access: Random access: CSMA, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, Controlled access Channelization UNIT – IV Wired, Wireless LAN and Connecting LANs: Ethernet, IEEE standards, Standard Ethernet, IEEE 802.11Bluetooth, Connecting LANS Connecting Devices, Back Bone Networks 29 UNIT – V Network Layer, Transport layer and Application Layer: Logical addressing Ipv4 addresses: IPV6 Addresses, Transition from Ipv4 to Ipv6 Delivery: Forwarding, Unicast Routing Protocols, Process to process delivery, UDP & TCP format, and Congestion control concepts. TEXT BOOKS: 1. B. Forouzan, “Data Communication Networking”, 4th Edition, TMH, 2006. REFERENCES: 1. James F. Cruz, Keith. W. Ross, “Computer Networks”, Pearson Education, 2nd Edition, 2003. 2. Wayne Tomasi, “Introduction to Data communication and networking”, Pearson Education, 2007. Course Outcomes: 1. Discriminate the functionality between the layers in OSI model and TCP/IP suite. (PO – b, h, k) 2. Employ protocols to facilitate the transmission of frames and to decide the efficiency of the protocols. (PO – a, b, d, f, h, k) 3. Distinguish the IEEE standards designed to understand the interconnectivity between different LANs. (PO – b, h, k) 4. Analyze the global addressing schemes in the Internet to configure the addresses for the subnet. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, k) 5. Employ different algorithms to route a packet to the destination in different networks needed for process to process delivery. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, k) 30 ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION Subject Code : EC604 Prerequisites : Electromagnetics Course Coordinator: V Nuthan Prasad Credits: 3:0:0 Contact hours: 42 Course Objectives: Apply the concepts of vector coordinates and wave theory for the analysis of radiation pattern, field components in electromagnetism. Understand basic antenna parameters. Appreciate the importance of antennas for different frequency and various applications. Illustrate various usage of antenna by designing and sketching the radiation patterns. Illustrate the signal transmission by designing a suitable antenna using software tools. Design any antenna which has good directivity and beam width which can be used in practical application. Understand different propagation concepts like LOS, Ionosphere and surface wave. Understand the effect of relative permittivity and conductivity in ionosphere for wave propagation. UNIT – I Antenna basics: Introduction, basic antenna parameters, patterns, beam area, radiation intensity, beam efficiency, directivities and gain, antenna apertures, effective height, bandwidth, radiation efficiency, antenna temperature and antenna field zones. UNIT – II Point sources and arrays: Introduction, point sources, power patterns, power theorem, radiation intensity, field patterns, phase patterns, Array of two isotropic point sources, principles of pattern multiplication, broad side, end fire array and Hasen and Woodyard array. UNIT – III Electric dipoles and thin linear antennas: Introduction, short electric dipole, fields of a short dipole, radiation resistance of short dipole, field patterns of dipole in general, λ/2 dipole, radiation resistances of λ/2 thin linear antenna, long wire antenna, folded dipole antennas. Small loop, comparison of far fields of small loop and short dipole, far field patterns of small circular loop, radiation resistance, directivity. UNIT – IV Antenna types: Yagi-Uda array, parabolic reflectors, log periodic dipole antenna, lens antenna, rectangular horn antennas, introduction to smart antennas. Microstrip Antennas: Salient features, Advantages and limitations, Rectangular microstrip antennas, Feed methods, Characteristics of microstrip antennas. 31 UNIT – 5 Radio wave propagation: Introduction, free space propagation, ground reflection, surface wave, diffraction, space wave propagation. Ionosphere propagation, electrical properties of the ionosphere, expressions for conductivity and relative permittivity. TEXT BOOK: 1. John D Kraus, Ronald J Marhetka, Ahmad S Khan, “Antenna and Wave Propagation”, Fourth edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006. REFERENCES: 1. John D Kraus, “Antennas”, McGraw Hill, 2nd edition, 1988. 2. Lamont V Blake, “Antennas: Fundamentals, Design, Measurement”, 3rd edition, Scitech Publishing, 2009. 3. Constantine A Balanis, “Antenna, Theory, Analysis & Design”, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edition, 1997. Course Outcomes: 1. Evaluate various far-field antenna parameters and apply the Friis transmission formula. (PO – a, b, c, d, j, k, l) 2. Analyze various linear arrays of point sources and apply the pattern multiplication principle. (PO – a, b, c, h, i, j, k) 3. Classify different field patterns on dipole and loop antenna. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, i, k) 4. Describe the operation and applications of various aperture antennas. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, k) 5. Characterize the propagation of radio waves in the atmosphere. (PO – a, b, e, h, i) 32 ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND MANAGEMENT Course Code: EC605 Prerequisites: Nil Course Coordinator: Mr. C. G. Raghavendra Credits: 2:0:0 Contact hours: 28 Course objectives: Develop a deep working knowledge of managerial fundamentals. Inculcate advanced ability to communicate and work in multidisciplinary teams. Acquire skills to conceive, design, implement, and operate systems in an enterprise and societal context. Develop reinforce managerial traits, motivation and the spirit of Organization. Facilitate decision making process for setting up new enterprise. Facilitate successful and profitable operation of the enterprise. Develop skills to create an environment of sensitivity to cultural and personal factors for effective communication. Know all the government polices available to start up a new business enterprise and Institutional support. Understand the meaning, identification, selection of project and also preparation and errors in project reports. Course Contents: UNIT – I Management: Introduction, meaning-nature and characteristics of management, scope & functional areas of management. Management as science, art or profession, Management and administration, Roles of management, Levels of management. Development of management thought, early management approaches, Modern management approaches. Planning: Nature, Importance and purpose of planning process, Objectives, Types of plans (meaning only), Decision making, Importance of planning, Steps in planning and planning premises, Hierarchy of plans. UNIT – II Organizing and Staffing: Nature and purpose of organization, Principles of organization, Types of organization, Departmentation, Committees, Centralization vs Decentralization of authority and responsibility, Span and control, MBO and MBE (meaning).Nature and importance of staffing, Process of selection and recruitment(in brief). UNIT – III Directing and Controlling: Meaning and nature of directing, Leadership styles, Motivation theories, Communication meaning and importance, Techniques and importance of coordination, Meaning and steps in controlling, Essentials of sound control system, Methods of establishing control (in brief). 33 UNIT – IV Entrepreneur & Small – Scale Industry Entrepreneur: Meaning of entrepreneur, Evolution of the concept, Functions of an entrepreneur, Evolution of Entrepreneur, Development of Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneur vs Intrapreneur, Entrepreneurship and Manager, Attributes and Characteristics of a successful Entrepreneur, Role of Entrepreneur in Indian economy and developing economies with reference to Self-Employment development, Entrepreneurship in India, Entrepreneurship – its Barriers and Entrepreneurial Culture. Small Scale Industry: Definition, Characteristics, Need and rationale of small-scale industry. Objectives, Scope, Role of SSI in Economic Development, Advantages of SSI, Steps to start an SSI – government policy towards SSI, Different policies of SSI, Government support during 5 years plans, Impact of Liberalization, Privatization Globalization on SSI, Effect of WTO /GATTT supporting agencies of government for SSI. UNIT – V Project Management: Meaning of project, Project Identification, Project selection, Project report Need and significance of report, Contents, Formulation, Technical, Financial, Marketing, Personnel and Management Feasibility. Entrepreneurship Development and Government: Estimating and Financing funds requirement Schemes offered by various commercial banks and financial institutions like IDBI, ICICI, SIDBI, KSFCs. Role of Central Government and State Government in promoting Entrepreneurship Introduction to various incentives, subsidies and grants. Export Oriented Units - Fiscal and Tax concessions available. Case studies of Successful Entrepreneurial Ventures, Failed Entrepreneurial Ventures and Turnaround Ventures. TEXT BOOKS: 1. P. C. Tripathi, P. N. Reddy, “Principles of Management”, McGraw Hill, 2008. 2. Vasant Desai, “Dynamics of Entrepreneurial Development & Management”, Himalaya Publishing House, 4th Edition, 2010. 3. Poornima M Charantimath, “Entrepreneurship Development – Small Business Enterprises”, Pearson Education, 3rd edition, 2006. REFERENCES: 1. Robert Lusier, “Management Fundamentals – Concepts, Application, Skill Development”, Thomson, 2006. 2. S. S. Khanka, “Entrepreneurship Development”, S Chand & Co, 3rd edition, 2008. Course Outcomes: 1. Identify, analyze and solve organizational problems. (PO – a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) 2. Apply knowledge and skills required to function in a specific managerial discipline. (PO – a, b, e, g, h, i, j, k, l) 3. Recognize and apply knowledge of environmental friendly resources and to utilize them effectively and efficiently in a workplace environment. (PO – a, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) 4. Acquired all the necessary skills and knowledge to be a successful entrepreneur.(PO – a, b, d, e, g, h, i, j, k, l) 5. Effectively prepare and present project appraisal and report. (PO – a, b, c, d, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) 34 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION AND MICROWAVE LABORATORY Course Code: EC601L Prerequisite: Analog Communication & LIC Course Coordinator: Mrs. Lakshmi S. Credits: 0:0:1 Contact Sessions: 12 Course Objectives Verify sampling theorem Implement various Digital modulation and demodulation schemes using discrete components Multiplex signals in time-domain Verify microwave three port and four port network analysis using scattering parameters.(Power dividers and directional couplers) Understand the wave propagation through the rectangular waveguide and to measure VSWR, impedance and operating frequency. Determine the gain and directivity and beam width of dipole and yagi antennas using strip or micro strip line. Observe the losses in optical fiber communication link. List of Experiments 1. Verification of Sampling theorem using natural sampling and Flat Top sampling circuits 2. Time Division Multiplexing of two band limited signals and also to recover the signals and receiver. 3. Generation of Amplitude Shift Keying signals using IC 4016 and recovery of the ASK signals using detector circuits. 4. Generation of Frequency Shift Keying signals using MUX CD 4051 and recovery of the FSK signals using frequency discriminators. 5. Generation of Phase Shift Keying signals using MUX CD 4051 and detection of PSK signals using phase discriminating circuits. 6. Generation and detection Differential Binary signal and Quadrature PSK using DPSK kits. 7. To verify the power division and calculate insertion loss, isolation of Hybrid network (Magic tee). 8. Measurement of losses in a given optical fiber (propagation loss, bending loss) and numerical aperture. 9. Measurement of frequency, guide wavelength, power, VSWR and attenuation in a microwave test bench. 10. Measurement of directivity and gain of antennas: Standard dipole (or printed dipole), and Yagi antenna (printed). 11. Determination of coupling and isolation characteristics of a stripline (or microstrip) directional coupler 12. (a) Measurement of resonance characteristics of a microstrip ring resonator and determination of dielectric constant (b) Measurement of power division and isolation characteristics of a microstrip 3 dB power divider. 35 Course Outcomes 1. Implement a natural sampling and flat-top sampling circuit to find Nyquist rate. (PO – a, b, c, e, f, h, k) 2. Design and implement ASK, PSK, FSK, DPSK digital modulation schemes. (PO – c, d, e, f, h, k) 3. Obtain the transmission line parameters of different types of transmission lines. (PO – c, d, e, f, h, k,) 4. Employ microwave network analysis in design of multiport microwave networks. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, h, k) 5. Obtain the radiation pattern and calculate antenna parameters. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, h, k) 36 VLSI LAB Course Code: EC602L Prerequisites: Solid State Devices & Technology Course Coordinator: Mr. M. Nagabhushan Credits: 0:0:1 Contact Sessions: 12 Course Objectives: VLSI design concepts studied from 5th semester & MOS concepts studied in 6th semester are employed in various MOS amplifier applications. Course Experiments: I: Digital Circuits using Microwind Tool:1. Schematic Entry and simulation of the following circuits. (i) Not gate (ii) 2 input nand gate and nor gate (iii) Ex-or gate (iv) full adder (v) 4-bit parallel adder 2. Schematic entry and simulation of Sequential circuits. (i) JK Flip Flop using nand gates (ii) JK Master slave flip flop (iii) 3bit asynchronous up counter (iv) 3 bit SIPO shift register 3. Preparing Layout and checking DRC for combinational circuits/sequential circuits (i) Inverter (ii) Full adder (iii) JK Flipflop II. Analog circuits using Cadence tools 1. Design an Inverter with given specifications, completing the design flow mentioned below: a. Draw the schematic and verify the following i) DC Analysis ii) Transient Analysis b. Draw the Layout and verify the DRC, ERC c. Check for LVS d. Extract RC and back annotate the same and verify the design e. Verify & Optimize for Time, Power and Area to the given constraint 2. Design the following circuits with given specifications, completing the design flow mentioned below: a. Draw the schematic and verify the following i) DC Analysis ii) AC Analysis iii) Transient Analysis b. Draw the Layout and verify the DRC, ERC c. Check for LVS d. Extract RC and back annotate the same and verify the design. i) A Single Stage differential amplifier ii) Common source and Common Drain amplifier 3. Design the following circuits with given specifications, completing the design flow mentioned below: a. Draw the schematic and verify the following i) DC Analysis 37 ii) AC Analysis iii) Transient Analysis b. Draw the Layout and verify the DRC, ERC c. Check for LVS d. Extract RC and back annotate the same and verify the design i) Current mirrors ii) Common gate amplifier 4. Design an op-amp with given specification using given differential amplifier Common source and Common Drain amplifier in library and completing the design flow mentioned below: a. Draw the schematic and verify the following i) DC Analysis ii) AC Analysis iii) Transient Analysis b. Draw the Layout and verify the DRC, ERC c. Check for LVS d. Extract RC and back annotate the same and verify the design. TEXT BOOK: 1. “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits”, B Razavi, First Edition, McGraw Hill, 2001. 2. R. Jacob Baker, Harry W Li, David E Boyce, “CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, Simulation”, PHI Education, 2005. REFERENCES: 1. Johns and Martin, “Analog Integrated Circuit Design”, John Wiley Publications, 1997. 2. P E Allen and D R Holberg, “CMOS Analog Circuit Design”, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2002 3. B. Razavi, “Microelectronics”, First Edition, McGraw Hill, 2001. Course Outcomes 1. Practically simulate the theory concepts using microwind and cadence simulators. (PO – c, d, e, f, h, j) 2. Simulate the basic building blocks for required gain and stability. (PO – c, d, e, f, h, j) 3. Implement the basic building blocks used for construction of opamp. (PO – c, d, e, f, h, j) 4. Use op-amp and various components for constructing any data converter applications. (PO – a, b, c, d, e, f, h, j) 5. Implement any digital circuit using microwind tool. (PO – a, b, c, d, e, f, h, j) 38 LIST OF PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVES: The student has to earn a maximum of 24 credits as electives. The student has to earn a maximum of 03 credits as open elective. Subject Title L T P C Subject Code ECPE01 OOPs with C++ and Data Structures PS-E 3 0 1 4 ECPE02 Operating Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE03 Computer Organization and Architecture PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE04 Power Electronics PS-E 3 0 1 4 ECPE05 Digital Electronic Measurements PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE06 Advanced Signal Processing PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE07 Image Processing PS-E 3 0 1 4 ECPE08 Communication Switching Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE09 Discrete Time Control Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE10 Linear Algebra PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE11 Micro Electro Mechanical Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE12 Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems PS-E 3 0 1 4 ECPE13 Cryptography and Network Security PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE14 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE15 Low Power VLSI Design PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE16 Design of Electronic Systems PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE17 Data Compression PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE18 Radar and Navigational Aids PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE19 Wavelets and its Applications PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE20 Spread Spectrum Communication PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE21 Satellite Communication PS-E 4 0 0 4 ECPE22 RF ICs PS-E 4 0 0 4 39 PROFESSIONAL ELECTIVES OOPS WITH C++ AND DATA STRUCTURES Subject Code : ECPE01 Prerequisites : Data Structures using C Credits: 3:0:1 Contact Hours: 42 + 14 Course Objectives: Understand OOP concepts – classes, objects Understand the features of inheritance overloading, polymorphism Understand data structures stacks, queues, lists, heaps, and priority queue Course Contents: UNIT – I Introduction: Structure of C++ program: Preprocessor directive, declarations and definitions, Functions: simple function, passing arguments to functions such as variables, reference arguments pointer type, function return data type such as constant, variables, data structures, specifying a class, member function and member data, nested classes, static data members and member functions, friendly functions UNIT – II Classes and Objects: Definition, class initialization, class constructors and destructors, constructor types, multiple constructor in a class, destructors, Inheritance, defining derived classes, different types of inheritance, Virtual base classes, abstract classes, constructors in derived classes, virtual functions and dynamic polymorphism, pure virtual functions UNIT – III Operator Overloading: Overloading various operators, overloading using friends, new and delete operators, rules, type conversions, exception handling and working with files UNIT – IV Stacks: ADT, derived classes, formula based representation and linked list based representation, Applications Queue: ADT, derived classes, formula based and linked representation, Applications UNIT V Skip lists and hashing: Linear representation, skip list and hash table representation Trees: Binary trees, properties and its representation, operations, binary tree traversal, ADT Priority queues: Linear list, heaps. 40 List of Programs: 1. Simple C++ program, use of cin and cout statements, program using setw manipulator. 2. Programs using functions: Passing arguments such as variables, reference arguments, pointers. 3. Programs using return from functions: reference arguments, structures, Recursions 4. Simple program using class and objects, nesting of member functions, Arrays within a class. 5. Programs on static class member, arrays of objects, objects as arguments. 6. Programs on friendly functions, constructors and destructors. 7. Programs on inheritance, virtual base classes 8. Programs on operator overloading using different operators 9. Programs on Stacks using arrays and linked list 10. Programs on Queues using arrays and linked list 11. Construction of singly linked list and perform operations such as insertion, deletion, searching and displaying. 12. Program to construct binary search tree, to insert a node, delete a node, display the tree TEXT BOOKS: 1. Robert Lafore, “Introduction to OOPs with C++”, 4th edition, Sams Publishing, 2001. 2. E.Balaguruswamy, “Object oriented programming with C++”,TMH, 4th edition, 2011. 3. D.S. Malik, “Data Structures using C++”, India edition, Cengage Learning, 2003. REFERENCES: 1. Gray Litwin, “Programming with C++ and Data Structures “, Vikas Publications, 2003. 2. Aaron M.Tanenbaum, “Data structures using C and C++”, Pearson Education, 2002. Course Outcomes: 1. Outline the essential features and elements of C++ programming. (PO – a, e, f, k) 2. Apply the concepts of class, method, constructor, instance, data abstraction, function abstraction, inheritance, and virtual functions. (PO – d, e, f, k) 3. Understand operator overloading and the handling mechanism. (PO – d, e, f, k) 4. Apply data structures such as stacks and queues in programs. (PO – d, e, k) 5. Understand and apply fundamental algorithmic problems including tree traversals, graph traversals, and shortest paths. (PO – d, e, k) 41 OPERATING SYSTEMS Subject Code: ECPE02 Prerequisites: Computer Architecture Credits: 4:0:0 Contact hours: 56 Course objectives: Understand the goals of OS Study the different types of OS for different application Construct and design a process threads Learn about memory management and scheduling jobs Study file handling and organization UNIT – I Introduction: Overview: goals, resource allocations, classes, batch processing. Multiprogramming, time sharing real time and distributed OS UNIT – II Structure: Operation, structure of supervisor configuring and installing, OS with monolithic structure, layered design virtual machine OS, kernel based OS UNIT – III Processes: Definition, programmers view and OS view, interacting processes, threads, processes in unix, threads in Solaris UNIT – IV File system: IOCS, directories, I/O organization, interface between file system and IOCS, allocation of disk space, implementation of file access, UNIX FS UNIT – V Memory management: Memory allocation in programs, prelims, contiguous and non-contiguous allocation to program and for controlled programs Scheduling: Fundamentals, long term and short term, and medium term scheduling, scheduling in UNIX. TEXT BOOKS: 1. D. Dhamdhere, “Operating Systems”, McGraw Hill, 2008 REFERENCES: 1. A. Silberschatz, Peter B. Galvin, G. Gagne, “Operating System Concepts”, Wiley, 8th Edition, 2008 2. M. Palmer, M. Walters, “Guide to Operating Systems”, 4th Edition, Course Technology, 2011 42 Course outcomes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Understand the goals and application of OS. (PO – a, f, g) Analyze a process and threads in UNIX. (PO – a, b, c, d) Analyze memory handling. (PO – a, b, j, k) Understand with file systems. (PO – a, b) Design and organize scheduling. (PO – a, b, c, d, i) 43 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE Subject Code : ECPE03 Prerequisites : Digital Electronics Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Describe the progression of computer architecture. Know about the different software and hardware components of a digital computer. Apply principles of logic design to digital computer design. Analyze digital computer and decompose into various lower level modules and lower level blocks involving both combinational and sequential circuit elements. Explain the basic concepts of interrupts and how interrupts are used to implement I/O control and data transfers. Explain the reasons for using different formats to represent numerical data. Identify the different architectural and organizational design issues that can affect the performance of a computer such as Instruction Sets design, Pipelining, RISC architecture, and Superscalar architecture. UNIT – I Basic Structures of Computers: Computer types, Functional units: Input unit, Memory unit, Arithmetic and logic unit, Output unit, Control unit, Basic Operational Concepts, Performance, Processor clock, Basic performance equation, Pipelining and Superscalar operation, Clock rate, Performance measurement. UNIT – II Input/Output Organization: Accessing I/O devices, Interrupts: Interrupt Hardware, Enabling and Disabling Interrupt, Handling Multiple Devices, Controlling Device Requests, Exceptions, Direct Memory Access, Bus Arbitration; Buses: Synchronous Bus, Asynchronous Bus, Interface Circuits, Parallel Port, Serial Port, Standard I/O Interfaces, PCI bus, SCSI bus, USB. Pipelining: Designing Instruction set for pipelining, pipeline hazards, structural hazards, UNIT – III The Memory System: Some Basic Concepts, Semiconductor RAM memories, Read only memories, Speed size and cost, Cache memories, Virtual memories and performance considerations. UNIT – IV Basic Processing Unit: Register Transfers, Performing an Arithmetic or Logic operation, Fetching a Word from Memory, Storing a Word in Memory, Execution of a Complete Instruction, Branch instruction, Multiple Bus Organization, Hardwired Control, A Complete Processor, Micro programmed Control. UNIT – V Arithmetic: Addition & Subtraction of Signed Numbers: Addition/Subtraction Logic Unit, Design of fast adder: Carry-Look-ahead Addition, Multiplication of Positive numbers: Signed-Operand 44 Multiplication, Booth Algorithm, Fast Multiplication: Bit-pair recoding of Multipliers; Integer division, Floating-point Numbers & Operations, IEEE Standard for Floating-point Numbers, Arithmetic Operations on Floating-point Numbers, Implementing Floating-point Operations. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Carl Hamacher, ZvonkoVranesic and SafwatZaky, “Computer Organization”, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2002. REFERENCES: 1. William Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture – Designing for Performance”, Sixth Edition, Pearson Education, 2003. 2. David A. Patterson and John L. Hennessy, “Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software interface”, Third Edition, Elsevier, 2005. 3. John P. Hayes, “Computer Architecture and Organization”, Third Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 1998. 4. V.P. Heuring, H.F. Jordan, “Computer Systems Design and Architecture”, Second Edition, Pearson Education, 2003. Course Outcomes: 1. Understand the basic hardware and internal architecture of a computer. (PO – a, e, f, i) 2. Employ various data representations and explain how arithmetic and logical operations are performed by computer. (PO – a, b, c, d) 3. Design basic CPU, memory and I/O devices. (PO – d, e, f, k) 4. Design basic I/O system and interconnection structure of a computer. (PO – d, e, h, k) 5. Analyze performance of different architectural designs. (PO – b, e, h, j) 45 POWER ELECTRONICS Subject Code: ECPE04 Pre requisites: Analog Electronic Circuits Credits: 3:0:1 Contact Hours: 42 +14 Course Objectives: Understand the meaning and importance of power electronics. Learn the main switching topologies used in power electronics circuits and how they operate, how they are controlled, driven and protected. Understand the principle of operation of a thyristor. Analyze and understand different configurations of control rectifiers. Categorize different commutation techniques. Categorize ac voltage controllers. Conceptualize dc-dc converters. Understand the principles of inverters. Course Outcomes: UNIT – I Power Devices: Application of power electronics, Power BJT’s, Switching characteristics, Switching units, Base drive control, Power MOSFETs, Switching characteristics, Gate drives, IGBTs, Isolation of gate and base drive, Construction of thyristor, Principle of operation, Different states/Modes of operation, Static anode VI characteristics, Two transistor model, Triggering/Turn-on mechanism, Dynamic (Turn-on and Turn-off), Characteristics, Gate characteristics, Gate triggering, di/dt and dv/dt protection, Thyristor firing circuits. UNIT – II Control Rectifier: Introduction, Principle of phase controlled converter operation, Single phase half controlled converter, Single phase fully controlled converter, Dual converter, Three phase half controlled converter, Three phase fully controlled converter. UNIT – III Commutation Techniques: Introduction to commutation, Different types of commutations, Natural commutation and forced commutation, Self-commutation, Complementary commutation, Auxiliary thyristor commutation. UNIT – IV AC Voltage Controllers and Choppers: Introduction to choppers, Principles of step down and step up choppers, Step down chopper with RL load, Classification of chopper, Analysis of impulse commutated thyristor chopper, Introduction to AC voltage controllers, Principle of ON-OFF control, Principle of phase control, Single-phase AC controllers with R load and RL load. 46 UNIT – V Inverters: Introduction, Principle of operation, Performance parameters, Single-phase bridge inverter, Voltage control of single-phase inverters, Current source inverters. TEXT BOOKS: 1. M. H. Rashid, “Power Electronics Circuits, Devices and Applications”, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003. 2. G. K. Dubey, S. R. Doradla, A. Joshi, R. M. K. Sinha, “Thyristorized Power Controllers”, New Age International Pvt. Ltd, 6th Edition, 1986. REFERENCES: 1. P. S. Bhimbra, “Power Electronics”, Khanna Publication, 1995. 2. SCR GE Manual, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall, 1979. Course outcomes: 1. Design drive controls for power semiconductor devices. (PO – a, b, c, e, f) 2. Analyze the operation of single phase and three phase rectifiers with various loads. (PO – b, c, d) 3. Design commutation circuits. (PO – c, d, e, k) 4. Design ac-voltage controllers for different configurations. (PO – c, d, e, k) 5. Analyze the operation of choppers and inverters. (PO – a, b, d, e, k) 47 DIGITAL ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS Subject Code: ECPE05 Prerequisites: Digital Electronics Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Discuss the various terms, different types of errors and standards of measurements used in the electronic instrumentation systems. Explain the principle of operation and applications of different types of digital measuring instruments such as Voltmeters, Multimeters, Frequency meters, Phase meters, Tachometers, PH meters etc. Describe the principle of working, features and usage of different types of important electronic instruments such as LCR meters, special oscilloscopes, digital signal generators, spectrum analyzer, logic analyzer, recorders etc. in various electronic applications. Discuss the working and use of data acquisition systems, data loggers, digital transducers, telemetry systems, digital process controllers and microprocessor based distributed controls systems in various electronic and industrial applications. UNIT – I Measurement and Error: Definitions, Accuracy and precision, Significant figures, Types of errors, Limiting errors, Classification of standards of measurement, Time and frequency standards. Digital Voltmeters and Multimeters: Advantages of digital meters, General characteristics (specifications) of a DVM, Ramp type DVM, Integrating type DVM (Voltage to frequency conversion), Dual slope integrating type DVM (Voltage to time conversion), Successive approximation type DVM, Parallel or flash type DVM, Microprocessor based ramp type DVM, Digital meter displays – LED and LCD displays, Range changing methods for DVM, Digital multimeter. UNIT – II Digital Frequency meters and Phase meters: Introduction, Frequency measurement, High frequency measurement (extending the frequency range), Time (period) measurement, Time interval measurement, Frequency ratio measurement, Totalizing mode of measurement, Universal counter, Automatic and computing counters, Reciprocal electronic counters, Sources of measurement errors, Specifications of electronic counters – Input characteristics and operating mode specifications, Digital phase meter. UNIT – III Digital Instruments: Digital tachometer, Digital PH meter, Digital measurement of mains (supply) frequency, Digital L, C and R measurements – Digital RCL meter, Digital capacitance meter. Special Oscilloscopes: Sampling oscilloscope, Digital read out oscilloscope, Digital storage oscilloscopes, DSO applications. 48 UNIT – IV Digital Signal Generators: Arbitrary waveform generators (AWG), Arbitrary function generator, Data generator, Key characteristics of digital signal generators. Digital Spectrum Analyzer: Principle of working and its applications. Logic Analyzer: Types of logic analyzer - Logic time analyzer, Logic state analyzer, interfacing a target system. Recorders: Digital data recording, Objectives and requirements of recording data, Recorder selection and specifications, Digital memory waveform recorder (DWR). UNIT – V Transducers: Electrical transducers, advantages, classification of transducers, characteristics and choice (selection) of transducers, Digital Transducers -Optical encoders, Shaft (spatial) encoders. Digital Data Acquisition System: Objectives of DAS, Elements of data acquisition system. Data loggers: Basic operation of data loggers. Telemetry systems: Landline and radio frequency (RF) telemetry systems. Digital Controllers: Direct digital and computer supervisory control, Digital process controllers, Microprocessor based distributed control systems. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Albert D. Helfrick, William D. Cooper, “Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques”, PHI, 2012. 2. David A. Bell, “Electronic Instrumentation and Measurements”, 2nd Edition, PHI, 2009. 3. M. M. S. Anand, “Electronic Instruments and Instrumentation Technology”, PHI, Eighth printing, 2010. 4. H. S. Kalsi, “Electronic Instrumentation”, TMH, 3rd Edition, Seventh reprint, 2012. REFERENCES: 1. A. J. Bouwens, “Digital Instrumentation”, PHI, 2007. 2. A. K. Sawhney, “Electrical and electronic Measurements and Instrumentation”, Dhanpat Rai& Co, 19th Revised Edition 2011. 49 Course Outcomes: 1. Employ the concept of different types of errors in the study of performance of various electronic instrumentation systems. (PO – a, c, d, h) 2. Apply the concepts of basic principle of working of different electronic instruments in designing and constructing the various new types of instruments for different applications. (PO – a, c, d, e, f, h, i, j, l) 3. Illustrate the applications such as design & testing of differential circuits and systems using suitable instruments. (PO – c, d, f, h, i, j, l) 4. Select the instruments for observing the timing relationships, frequency spectrum, recording the data and waveforms. (PO – c, d, f, h, i, j, l) 5. Demonstrate the use of data acquisition systems, data loggers, digital transducers, telemetry systems, digital process controllers etc. in the various industrial and electronic applications. (PO – b, e, f, h, i, j, l) 50 ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING Subject Code : ECPE06 Prerequisites : Digital Signal Processing Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Understand discrete random variables and random processes Analyze response of LTI systems to stationary input signal Estimate non parametric power spectral density of deterministic and stationary random signals Design optimum and adaptive filters. Course Contents: UNIT – I Introduction: Discrete time signals, Transform domain representation of deterministic signals, discrete time systems, Minimum phase and system invertibility UNIT – II Random variables, vectors and sequences: Random variables, random vectors, discrete time stochastic processes, linear systems with stationary random inputs, innovations representation of random vectors. UNIT – III Non-parametric power spectrum estimation: Spectral analysis of deterministic signals, estimation of the autocorrelation stationary random signals, estimation of the power spectrum of stationary random signals. UNIT – IV Optimum linear filters: Optimum signal estimation, linear mean square error estimation, optimum FIR filters, linear prediction, optimum IIR filters. UNIT – V Least square filtering and adaptive filters: Least squares error estimation, least square FIR filters typical applications of adaptive filters method of steepest descent, LMS adaptive filters, RLS adaptive filters. TEXT BOOKS: 1. D G Manolakis, V K Ingle and S M Kogon, “Statistical and Adaptive Signal Processing”, MGH, 2000. 2. M H Hayes, “Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modeling”, John Wiley, 2002. 51 Course Outcomes: 1. Describe behavior of LTI systems to stationary signals. (PO – a, b, c, f, h) 2. Describe discrete time stochastic process. (PO – a, b, f, h) 3. Estimate autocorrelation and psd of stationary signals. (PO – a, b, c, f, h) 4. Design optimum FIR and IIR filters. (PO – a, b, c, d, f, k) 5. Understand and design optimum and adaptive filters. (PO – a, b, c, d, f, h) 52 IMAGE PROCESSING Subject code: ECPE07 Prerequisites: Digital Signal Processing Credits: 3:0:1 Contact Hours: 42 + 14 Course objectives: Review the basics of Digital Image Processing. Study different spatial and frequency domain image enhancement algorithms. Appraise 2-D filtering and image restoration techniques. Study on Line and Edge detection Study thresholding and different segmentation techniques. Course Contents: UNIT – I Introduction and Fundamentals: What is Digital Image Processing? Origins, Examples, Fundamental Steps, Components, Elements of visual perception, Image Sensing and acquisition, Image sampling and quantization, Basic relationship between pixels, Mathematical tools used in image processing. UNIT – II Intensity Transformations and Spatial Filtering: Basic intensity transformation functions. Histogram processing, Spatial filtering, smoothing spatial filters, Sharpening spatial filters. UNIT – III Image Transforms: Two dimensional Orthogonal and unitary Transforms, Properties of Unitary Transforms, 1D-DFT,2D-DFT, DCT, Basics of filtering in the frequency domain , Image Smoothing and Image Sharpening using Frequency domain filters. UNIT – IV Image Restoration: Model of image degradation/restoration process, noise models, Spatial filtering, Periodic noise reduction, Linear position Invariant degradation, Estimating the degradation function, Inverse filtering, MMSE filtering, Constrained least squares filtering, Geometric mean filter. UNIT – V Image Segmentation: Fundamentals, Edge detection, Edge linking via Hough Transform, Thresholding, Region Based Segmentation, Segmentation using Morphological Watersheds. List of Programs using Matlab: Basic concepts of displaying images. Conversion between images classes and types. Spatial frequency in an image Intensity Transformation functions Spatial Filtering Filtering in Frequency domain. Image Restoration using filters. 53 Line and Edge detection using filter masks Line detection using Hough Transform Thresholding and Segmentation using Watershed Transform TEXT BOOKS: 1. R C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing”, 3rd edition, Pearson Education, 2009. 2. R C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, S. L. Eddins, “Digital Image Processing using MATLAB”, 2nd Edition, 2009. REFERENCES: 1. Anil. K. Jain, “Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing”, Pearson, 2002. Course outcomes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Analyze general terminology of digital image processing. (PO – a, b, e, f) Examine various types of images, intensity transformations and spatial filtering. (PO – d, e, f) Employ Fourier Transform for image processing in frequency domain. (PO – a, d, e, f) Evaluate the methodologies for image restoration and segmentation. (PO – d, e, f) Apply image processing algorithms in practical applications. (PO – d, e, f) 54 COMMUNICATION SWITCHING SYSTEMS Subject Code: ECPE08 Prerequisites: Analog Communication Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours:56 Course Objectives: Discuss the evolution, network topologies, regulations and standards of telecommunication systems. Explain the switching techniques, principle of working, features and applications of different types of switching systems such as, crossbar systems, electronic systems, SPC systems and digital switching systems. Define the various terms used in the telecommunications traffic and analyze the loss probability and delay probability of lost call systems and delay systems. Discuss the different types of networks such as, ISDN, Cellular radio networks, intelligence networks etc. in telecommunication systems. Design the different types of space division switching networks and describe the principle of working of different time division switching networks and also calculate the loss probability (grade of service) of these networks. Explain the software architecture and classification of software used in digital switching systems and also discusses the maintenance of digital switching systems. UNIT – I Evolution of Switching Systems: Evolution of telecommunications, Network structure, Network services, Terminology, Regulation, Standards, the ISO reference model for open systems interconnection, Message switching, Circuit switching, Basics of switching systems, Functions of switching systems, Cross bar switching systems, Electronic switching. Digital Switching Systems: Basic central office linkages, Evolution of digital switching systems, Stored program control switching systems, Digital switching system fundamentals, Building blocks of a digital switching system, Basic call processing. UNIT – II Telecommunications Traffic: Introduction, unit of traffic, Congestion, Traffic measurements, Mathematical model, Lost call systems, Theory, Traffic performance, Loss systems in tandem, Queuing systems, Second Erlang distribution, Probability of delay, Finite queue capacity, System with a single server, Queues in tandem, Delay tables, Application of delay formulae. Networks: Introduction, ISDN, Intelligent networks, private networks and Cellular radio networks. UNIT – III Switching Networks: Introduction, single-stage network, Gradings, Principle, Design of progressive grading, Other forms of grading, Traffic capacity of grading, Application of grading, Link systems, General, Two-stages networks, Three-stage networks, Four-stage networks, Discussion, Grades of service of link systems, Applications of graph theory to link systems, Use of expansion, Call packing, Re-arrangeable networks, Strict sense three stage non-blocking networks. 55 UNIT – IV Time Division Switching: Introduction, Basic time division space switching, Basic time division time switching, Time multiplexed space switching, Time multiplexed time switching, Combination switching, Three stage combination switching, Grades of service of time division switching networks, Synchronization, Frame alignment, Synchronization network. UNIT – V Switching System Software: Basic software architecture, Operating systems, Database management, Concept of generic programs, Software architecture for level-1, level-2 and level-3 control, Digital switching system software classification, Call models, Connect sequence, Disconnect sequence, Software linkages during a call, Call features, Feature flow diagrams, Feature interaction. Maintenance of Digital Switching Systems: Introduction, software maintenance, interfaces of a typical digital switching systems central office, system outage and its impact on digital switching system reliability, impact of software patches on digital switching system maintainability, growth of digital switching systems central offices, A methodology for reporting and correction of field problems, diagnostic capabilities for proper maintenance of digital switching systems, effect of firm ware deployment on digital switching systems. TEXT BOOKS: 1. J. E. Flood, “Telecommunication Switching Traffic and Networks”, Pearson Education, Fourth impression, 2008. 2. Thiagarajan Viswanathan, “Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks”, PHI, Thirty Fifth printing, August 2011. 3. Syed R. Ali, “Digital Switching Systems”, TMH, 2010. REFERENCES: 1. John C. Bellamy, “Digital Telephony”, John Wiley, 3rd Edition, 2002. Course Outcomes: 1. Employ the concepts of different types of switching techniques in voice and data communication and apply the concept to different types of switching systems. (PO – a, b, g, h, j) 2. Use the concepts of basic principle of working of different types of networks for choosing networks to provide required services to the customers at a satisfactory level. (PO – a, b, d, g, h, j, k) 3. Estimate the optimum number of switching elements (cross points) from the knowledge of the design of different switching networks. (PO – a, b, e, g, h, j, l) 4. Select the suitable switching network which can carry optimum traffic with less loss probability and blocking probability from the knowledge of the theory of working of different switching networks. (PO – c, d, g, h, j) 5. Use the basic information of maintenance of digital switching systems to assess the maintainability of a switching system (Central Office). (PO – a, b, g, h, j, l) 56 DISCRETE TIME CONTROL SYSTEMS Subject Code : ECPE09 Prerequisites : Control Systems Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering in control systems Discuss the basic principle of zero order and first order hold. Understand discrete time models for sampled data systems. Analyze digital control systems. Obtain basic knowledge of digital process control design. Course Contents: UNIT – I Z plane analysis of discrete control systems: Impulse sampling and data hold, obtaining the ZTransform by the convolution integral method; Evaluation of the convolution integral in the left half plane, right half plane, obtaining ZT of function involving the term (1− − ) pulse transfer function; convolution, starred Laplace Transform of the signal involving both ordinary and starred Linear time systems, General procedure for obtaining pulse transfer functions, pulse transfer function of cascaded elements, pulse transfer function of closed loop system, pulse transfer controller of a digital PID Controller. UNIT – II Design of DTC Systems by Conventional Methods: Mapping between the S-plane and the z-plane, Mapping of the LH of the S-plane into Z-plane; Stability analysis of closed loop system in the Zplane; Jury stability test, bilinear transformation and Routh’s Stability, transient and steady state response analysis. UNIT – III Design of Discrete Time Control System: Design based on the Root Locus method; Design based on the frequency method. UNIT – IV State Space Analysis: State space representation of discrete time systems; Controllable Canonical forms, Observable Canonical forms, Diagonal Canonical forms, Jordan Canonical forms, Solving Discrete Time State Space equations, Lapnov’s Stability test. UNIT – V Pole placement and observer design: Controllability, Observability, design via Pole Placement. 57 TEXT BOOK: 1. Katsuhiko Ogata, “Discrete Time Control System”, PHI, Second Edition, 2008 REFERENCES: 1. C. L. Phillips, H. Troy Nagle, “Digital Control System Analysis and Design”, PHI, 1995. 2. M. Gopal, “Digital Control and State Variable Methods”, Third edition, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2009. 3. Richard C. Dorf, Robert H. Bishop, “Modern Control Systems”, Pearson Education, Eighth Edition, 2005. Course Outcomes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Develop pulse transfer function of discrete control systems. (PO – a, b, c) Analyze the stability of DTCS. (PO – a, b, d) Able to design DTCS using Root locus and frequency method. (PO – a, b, d) Apply state space analysis to represent various canonical forms. (PO – a, b, c, d) Able to design system using pole placement. (PO – b, c, d) 58 LINEAR ALGEBRA Subject Code : ECPE10 Prerequisites : Engineering Mathematics Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Use mathematically correct language and notation for Linear Algebra. Become computational proficient involving procedures in Linear Algebra. Understand the axiomatic structure of a modern mathematical subject and learn to construct simple proofs. Solve problems that apply Linear Algebra to Chemistry, Economics and Engineering. UNIT – I Linear Equations in Linear Algebra: Systems of Linear Equations, Row reduction and Echelon Forms, Vector Equations, Matrix Equation Ax = b, Solution Sets of Linear Systems, Linear Independence, Introduction to Linear Transformations, Matrix of a Linear Transformation, Linear Models in Engineering. UNIT – II Vector Spaces: Vector Spaces and Subspaces, Null Spaces, Column Spaces and Linear Transformations, Linearly Independent sets, Bases, Co-ordinate Systems, Dimensions of a Vector Space, Rank, Applications to Difference Equations UNIT – III Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors: Characteristic equation, Diagonalization, eigenvectors and Linear Transformations. UNIT – IV Orthogonality and Least Squares: Inner Product, Length and Orthogonality, Orthogonal Sets, Orthogonal Projections, Gram – Schmidt Process, Least Squares Problems UNIT – V Symmetric Matrices and Quadratic Forms: Diagonalization of Symmetric Matrices, Quadratic Forms, Constrained Optimization, Singular Value Decomposition. TEXT BOOKS: 1. David C Lay, “Linear Algebra and its Applications”, 3rd Edition, Pearson, 2005. 2. Gilbert Strang, “Linear Algebra and its Applications”, 3rd Edition, Thomson Learning Asia, 2003. 59 Course Outcomes: 1. Solve systems of linear equations using multiple methods, including Gaussian elimination and matrix inversion. (PO – a, b) 2. Demonstrate understanding of the concepts of vector space and subspace. (PO – a, b, c, d) 3. Determine eigen values and eigenvectors and solve eigen value problems. (PO – a, b, c, d) 4. Apply principles of matrix algebra to linear transformations. (PO – a, b, c, d, h) 5. Demonstrate understanding of inner products and associated norms. (PO – a, b, c, d, h) 60 MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS Subject Code : ECPE11 Prerequisites : Solid State Circuits and Devices Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Get an overview of microsytems. Learn about typical applications of microsystems. Understand scaling laws. Understand the principles of microsensors and microactuators. Understand the various principles of operations of mems transducers. Learn basic electrostatics and its applications in MEMS sensors and actuators. Understand about RF MEMS and its applications. Familiarize oneself with atleast one MEMS CAD tool. Learn about ways to fabricate MEMS device Understand the packaging needs for MEMS devices. Course Contents: UNIT – I Introduction to MEMS: Historical background of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Feynman’s vision, Nano technology and its applications, multi-disciplinary aspects, basic technologies, application areas, scaling laws in miniaturization, scaling in geometry, electrostatics, electromagnetics, electricity and heat transfer UNIT – II Micro and Smart Devices and Systems – Principles: Transduction principles in MEMS Sensors: Micro sensors-thermal radiation, mechanical and bio-sensors, Actuators: different actuation mechanisms - silicon capacitive accelerometer, piezo-resistive pressure sensor, blood analyzer, conductometric gas sensor, silicon micro-mirror arrays, piezo-electric based inkjet print head, electrostatic comb-driver, Smart phone applications, Smart buildings UNIT – III Materials and Micromanufacturing: Semiconducting materials, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Silicon Nitride, Quartz, Poly silicon, Polymers, Materials for wafer processing, Packaging materials, Silicon wafer processing, lithography, thin-film deposition, etching (wet and dry), wafer-bonding, Silicon micromachining: surface, bulk, LIGA process, Wafer bonding process. UNIT – IV Electrical and Electronics Aspects: Electrostatics, Coupled electro mechanics, stability and Pull-in phenomenon, Practical signal conditioning circuits for microsystems, Characterization of pressure sensors, RF MEMS. Switches, varactors, tuned filters, Micromirror array for control and switching in optical communication, Application circuits based on microcontrollers for pressure sensor, Accelerometer, Modeling using CAD Tools (Intellisuite) 61 UNIT – V Integration and Packaging of Microelectromechanical Systems: Integration of microelectronics and micro devices at wafer and chip levels, Microelectronic packaging: wire and ball bonding, flipchip, Microsystem packaging examples, Testing of Micro sensors, Qualification of MEMS devices TEXT BOOKS: 1. G. K. Ananthasuresh, K. J. Vinoy, S. Gopalakrishnan, K. N. Bhat, V. K. Aatre, “Micro and Smart Systems”, Wiley India, First edition, 2010 2. T R Hsu, “MEMS and Microsystems Design and Manufacturing”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2nd Edition, 2008 3. Chang Liu, “Foundations of MEMS”, Pearson International Edition, 2006 4. S D Senturia, “Microsystem Design”, Springer International Edition, 2001 Course Outcomes: 1. Understand microsystem and their applications. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, j) 2. Analyze Scaliy laws and operate of various practical MEMS systems. (PO – a, b, c, d, h, i, j, l) 3. Analyze the electrical and electronics aspect of MEMS system. (PO – a, b, c, i, j, l) 4. Employ various micromachining techniques for MEMS devices. (PO – a, b, c, d, i, j, k, l) 5. Describe various packages techniques for MEMS devices. (PO – b, h, i, k, l) 62 NEURAL NETWORKS AND FUZZY SYSTEMS Subject Code : ECPE12 Prerequisites : Nil Credits: 3:0:1 Contact Hours: 42 +14 Course Objectives: Understand neural networks and fuzzy logic fundamentals and theory. Express the functional components of neural network classifiers and fuzzy logic classifiers. Develop and implement a basic trainable neural network. Develop and implement fuzzy logic system. UNIT – I Fundamentals of Neural Networks: Biological neurons and their artificial models, Neural Network Architecture: Single Layer, Multi-layer Feed Forward Networks, Recurrent Networks, Learning methods. UNIT – II Back Propagation Networks: Architecture of a back propagation network, Back propagation learning, Training of Neural network, Method of steepest descent, effect of learning rate, Back propagation algorithm. UNIT – III Fuzzy Set Theory: Fuzzy vs crisp sets, crisp sets, Operations on crisp sets, properties of crisp sets, partition and covering. Membership function, Basic fuzzy set operations, properties of Fuzzy sets, Crisp relations and Fuzzy relations. UNIT – IV Fuzzy systems: Crisp logic: Laws of propositional logic, inference in propositional logic. Predicate logic: Interpretations of predicate logic formula, inference in predicate logic. Fuzzy logic: Fuzzy Quantifiers, Fuzzy inference. Fuzzy rule based system, defuzzification. Applications: Greg Viot’s Fuzzy cruise controller, Air conditioner controller. UNIT – V Applications: MATLAB Implementation: Pattern classification using Hebb net and McCulloch – Pitts net, Pattern recognition using Perceptron Networks, Implementation of all fuzzy operations on both discrete and continuous fuzzy sets, Defuzzification, Fuzzy inference system. TEXT BOOKS: 1. S. Rajasekaran, G. A. Vijayalakshmi Pai, “Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic and Genetic algorithms”, PHI, 2003. 63 2. S. N. Sivanandam, S. Sumathi, S N Deepa , “Introduction to Neural Networks using Matlab 6.0”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006. 3. Timothy Ross, “Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications”, John Wiley and Sons, 2004. REFERENCES: 1. Jacek M. Zurada , “Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems”, Jaico Publishing House. 2. Simon Haykin, “Neural Networks- A Comprehensive Foundation”, Pearson Education, 2001. 3. B. Kosko, “Neural Networks and Fuzzy systems, Prentice Hall, 1991. Course Outcomes: 1. Generate logic functions like AND, OR, XOR using learning rules. (PO – a, b, f) 2. Apply Hebb rule and perceptron learning rule for pattern classification problem. (PO – b, c, f, k) 3. Understand character recognition and data compression using back propagation network. (PO – b, c, d, f, k) 4. Apply the rules of fuzzy logic for fuzzy controller. (PO – b, d, f, k) 5. Employ fuzzy set operations and defuzzification for control system applications. (PO – a, b, d, f, k) 64 CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY Subject Code : ECPE13 Prerequisites : Nil Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Explain the objectives of information security, and application of each of confidentiality and integrity. Analyze the tradeoffs inherent in security Understand the basic categories of threats to computers and networks Describe efficient basic number theoretic algorithms, including greatest common divisor, multiplicative inverse mod n, and raising to powers mod n. Understand the principles of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography Discuss the fundamental ideas of public key cryptography. Analyze the importance of elliptical curve encryption and decryption Understand steganography and its applications UNIT – I Introduction: Overview of modern cryptography, Number theory principles, Euclid’s algorithm, Extended Euclid’s algorithm, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Discrete logarithm, classical encryption techniques. UNIT – II Block Cipher and DES: S-Box Design Principles, Block cipher modes of operation, Attacks and applications on DES, Stream Ciphers, Pseudorandom functions UNIT – III Asymmetric key cryptography: RSA, Mathematical foundations of RSA, Attacks on RSA. The Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP), Diffie Hellman Key Exchange algorithm, El Gamal encryption. UNIT – IV Digital signatures: Signature schemes, Theory of Elliptic Curves, Elliptic Curve Encryption and Decryption UNIT – V Steganography: Types and its applications, Intruders, viruses and firewalls. TEXT BOOKS: 1. W. Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security”, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, 2011. 2. B. A. Forouzan, “Cryptography & Network Security”, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2010. 65 3. Neal Koblitz, “A Course in Number Theory and Cryptography”, Springer Verlag, New York Inc. May 2001. 4. Hoffstein, Pipher, Silvermman, “An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography”, Springer, 2008. Course Outcomes: 1. Analyze and design classical encryption techniques, block ciphers and their applications for computer networks. (PO – a, b, c, d, h) 2. Understand and analyze data encryption standard and advanced encryption standard. (PO – b, c, d, e, h) 3. Design confidentiality schemes using symmetric encryption, public key cryptography, RSA. (PO – a, b, c, d, h) 4. Design key management schemes, digital signatures and authentication protocols. (PO – a, b, d, h) 5. Design steganographic schemes for various applications. (PO – a, b, g, h) 66 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS Subject Code : ECPE14 Prerequisites : Digital Communication Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Understand the basics of Global Positioning System. Appreciate the functioning of different segments in GPS system. Recognize the coordination of GPS time with earth rotation. Understand the concepts of positioning of satellites in earth’s orbit. Recognize the significance of GPS navigation systems. Understand the concepts of wave propagation in the ionosphere. Illustrate the effects of ionosphere on GPS observations. Study of interdisciplinary applications of GPS system. UNIT – I History of GPS: BC4 System, HIRAN, NNSS, NAVSTAR GLONASS and GNSS Systems, GPS Constellation, Space Segment, Control Segment, User Segment, Single and Dual Frequency, Point, Relative, Differential GPS, Static and Kinematic Positioning, 2D and 3D, reporting Anti Spoofing (AS); Selective Availability (SA), DOP Factors. UNIT – II Coordinate Systems: Geocentric Coordinate System, Conventional Terrestrial Reference System, Orbit Description, Keplerian Orbit, Kepler Elements, Satellite Visibility, Topo centric Motion, Disturbed Satellite Motion, Perturbed Motion, Disturbing Accelerations, Perturbed Orbit, Time Systems, Astronomical Time System, Atomic Time, GPS Time, Need for Coordination, Link to Earth Rotation, Time and Earth Motion Services. UNIT – III Different Codes: C/A code; P-code; Y-code; L1, L2 Carrier frequencies, Code Pseudo Ranges, Carrier Phases, Pseudo Ranges, Satellite Signal Signature, Navigation Messages and Formats, Undifferenced and Differenced Range Models, Delta Ranges, Signal Processing and Processing Techniques, Tracking Networks, Ephemerides, Data Combination: Narrow Lane; Wide Lane, OTF Ambiguity. UNIT – IV Propagation Media: Multipath, Antenna Phase Centre, Atmosphere, Elements of Wave Propagation, Ionospheric effects on GPS Observations, Code Delay, Phase Advances, Integer Bias, Clock Error, Cycle Slip, Noise Bias, Blunders, Tropospheric Effects on GPS oberservable, Multipath effect, Antenna Phase Centre Problems and Correction. 67 UNIT – V Interdisciplinary Applications: Crystal Dynamics, Gravity Field Mapping, Atmospheric Occulation, Surveying, Geophysics, Air borne GPS, Ground Transportation, Space borne GPS, Metrological and Climate Research using GPS. TEXT BOOKS: 1. B. Hoffman Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger and J. Collins, “GPS: Theory and Practice”, 4th revised edition, Springer, New York,1997 2. A. Leick, “GPS Satellites Surveying”, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork,1995 3. B. Parkinson, J. Spilker, Jr.(Eds), “GPS: Theory and Applications”, Vol. I and Vol. II, AIAA, 1996 4. A. Kleusberg and P. Teunisen(Eds), “GPS for Geodesy”, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996 5. L. Adams, “The GPS - A Shared National Asset”, Chair, National Academy Press, 1995 Course Outcomes: 1. Employ the concepts in the implementation of GPS system. (PO – b, h, k) 2. Describe the need for synchronizing GPS time with earth rotation. (PO – f, h, k) 3. Describe the importance of GPS navigation system in location identification. (PO – f, h, k) 4. Analyze the ionospheric effects on GPS observations. (PO – a, h, k) 5. Describe the interdisciplinary applications of GPS system. (PO – a, h, k) 68 LOW POWER VLSI DESIGN Subject Code : ECPE15 Prerequisites : VLSI Design and Circuits Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Explain the basic design concepts for low power VLSI circuits in CMOS technology. Apply the knowledge in low-power VLSI circuit analysis and simulation. Identify the critical parameters that affect the VLSI circuits’ performance. Design low-power VLSI circuits by using CMOS processes. Course Contents: UNIT – I Power Dissipation in CMOS: Introduction: Need for low power VLSI chips, sources of power consumption, introduction to CMOS inverter power dissipation, low power VLSI design limits, basic principle of low power design. UNIT – II Power Optimization: Logical Level Power Optimization: gate reorganization, local restructuring, signal gating, logic encoding, state machine encoding, pre-computation logic Circuit Level Power Optimization: Transistor and gate sizing, equivalent pin ordering, network restructuring and re-organization, special latches and flip-flops. UNIT – III Design of Low Power CMOS Circuits: Reducing power consumption in memories, low power techniques for SRAM, circuit techniques for reducing power consumption in adders and multipliers, Special techniques: power reduction and clock networks, CMOS floating gate, low power bus, delay balancing. UNIT – IV Power Estimation: Simulation power analysis: SPICE circuit simulation, Gate level Simulation, Architectural level analysis, Data correlation analysis in DSP systems, Monte-Carlo simulation. Probabilistic Power analysis: random signals, probabilistic techniques for signal activity estimation, propagation of static probability in logic circuits, gate level power analysis using transition density. UNIT – V Synthesis and Software Design for Low Power: Synthesis for low power: behavioral level transforms, algorithm level transforms for low power, architecture driven voltage scaling, power optimization using operation reduction, operation substitution. 69 Software Design for Low Power: Sources of software power dissipation, gate level, architecture level, bus switching activity. Case study: Multi-core processor architecture such as ARM, AMD. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Gary Yeap, “Practical Low Power Digital VLSI Design”, Kluwer, 1998. 2. K. Roy and S.C. Prasad, “Low Power CMOS VLSI Circuit Design”, Wiley, 2000. REFERENCES: 1. Dimitrios Soudris, Chirstian Pignet, Costas Goutis, “Designing CMOS Circuits for Low Power”, Kluwer, 2002 2. Jan M. Rabaey and Massoud Pedram, “Low Power Design Methodologies”, KAP, 1996. 3. P. Chandrakasan and R.W. Broadersen, “Low Power Digital CMOS Design”, Kluwer, 1995. 4. Abdellatif Bellaouar, Mohamed. I. Elmasry, “Low Power Digital VLSI Designs”, Kluwer, 1995. Course Outcomes: Investigate low power design techniques. (PO – b, d, f) Classify the mechanisms of power dissipation in CMOS integrated circuits. (PO – a, b, d, i) Model power dissipation and use optimization methods on various levels. (PO – b, e, f, h) Apply in practice technology-level, circuit-level, and system-level power optimization techniques. (PO – d, i, k ) 5. Analyze and design low-power VLSI circuits using different circuit technologies and design levels. (PO – b, d, e, h) 1. 2. 3. 4. 70 DESIGN OF ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS Subject Code: ECPE16 Prerequisites: Electronic Circuits Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Give overview of design aspect of an electronic system meeting customer requirement. Select transmission lines optimizing various parameters. Understand importance of packaging technology and MCM. PCB laminates and fabrication process and method of PCB selection for systems. Design consideration for selecting frequency, transmitter, power and receiver for a radar system. UNIT – I Overview of design of electronic systems: Introduction to electronic systems, Distinguishing feature and difference between electronic system and circuit, Role of Electronic System Design and Manufacturing Hub and global opportunities for electronic engineers, Development stages and evolution of electronic systems: current and future trends, Significance of time of completion, development of intellectual asset and engineer’s role, Achieving cost effective solution through electronic systems, Impact of global competition and innovation on system design. UNIT – II Phases Involved in System Engineering Process: Challenges of system design, Need analysis, technique of translating user need to a well-defined requirement, Globalization and its impact on electronic system design, Cost benefits of system design, Broad classification of systems as consumer, professional, defense: salient differences through practical examples, various standards and their importance: ISO, ISI, JSS, Case studies UNIT – III Packaging & Product Development: Introduction and overview of microelectronics packaging & its influence on system performance & cost, Packaging hierarchy, Driving force on packaging technology, PCB Technologies: Selection process of laminates in electronics in different applications, Overview of PCB laminates structure and overview of important laminates. UNIT – IV Case Studies on Radar System Design: Introduction to working principles of Radar, Radar equation, importance of probabilities of detection & False alarm, Radar cross section of targets and its role on system parameters, working principle of phased array and active aperture radar, overview of system consideration during the design of radar. 71 UNIT – V Case Studies on Consumer Systems: Based on mobile telephone: Automated parking with security arrangements, Based on rural requirements: Food and health management. TEXT BOOKS: 1. Merrill. I. Skolnik, “Introduction to Radar Systems”, Tata McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, 2001. 2. Rao R Tum Mala, “Fundamentals of Microsystems Packaging”, McGraw Hill, NY 2001. 3. William D Brown, “Advanced Electronic Packaging”, IEEE Press, 1999. Course Outcomes: 1. Understand the distinguishing features and difference between electronic system and circuits. (PO – a, b, k, j) 2. Understand impact of global competition and innovation in system design. (PO – b, c, d) 3. Understand the process of translating user requirement to implementable steps and classify systems as consumer, professional, defense. (PO – b, d, f, l) 4. Understand influence of microelectronics packaging on system performance and PCB laminates structure and properties. (PO – d, f, i, h ) 5. Derive Radar equation and discuss the overview of system consideration during the design of radar and work out system configuration for a consumer requirement. (PO – b, d, g, i) 72 DATA COMPRESSION Subject Code: ECPE17 Prerequisites: Digital Signal Processing Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Appreciate the significance of data compression in real world. Differentiate between lossy and lossless compression methods. Illustrate different lossy and lossless compression methods. Apply compression methods to different data types which include audio, text and images. Categorize some audio compression and image compression standards. Adapt different video compression techniques. Study different video compression standards like H.261, H.264, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and MPEG-7. UNIT – I Lossless Compression: Huffman coding, Adaptive Huffman coding, Arithmetic coding, Comparison, Dictionary techniques UNIT – II Lossy Compression: Scalar quantization, Uniform quantizer, Vector quantization – Advantages, LBG algorithm, Differential coding – Basic algorithm, Prediction in DPCM, Delta Modulation, Transform coding – Transform, Transforms of interest, Quantization and coding of transform coefficients UNIT – III Image Compression Standards: JPEG, Embedded Zerotree Coder, SPIHT, JPEG 2000, JPEG-LS, JBIG, JBIG2 UNIT – IV Video Compression Techniques: Motion Compensation, Search for Motion Vectors, H.261, H.263, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, MPEG-7, H.264 UNIT – V Audio Compression: ADPCM in Speech coding, G.726 ADPCM, Vocoders MPEG Audio Compression: Psychoacoustics, MPEG Audio TEXT BOOKS: 1. Khalid Sayood, “Introduction to Data Compression”, 3rd Edition, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2006. 2. Ze-Nian Li, Mark S. Drew, “Fundamentals of Multimedia”, Pearson Education, 2004. 73 References: 1. David Saloman, “Data Compression: The Complete Reference”, 4th Edition, 2007. 2. M. Ghanbari, “Standard Codecs: Image Compression to Advanced Video Coding”, IEE, 2003. 3. Iain E. G. Richardson, “H. 264 and MPEG-4 Video Compression”, John Wiley, 2003. Course Outcomes: 1. Explain the importance of data compression. (PO – a, b, k) 2. Code and decode text using Huffman, arithmetic and dictionary based methods. (PO – b, c, d, f, k) 3. Understand image compression standards like JPEG and JPEG 2000. (PO – b, c, d, f) 4. Describe different video compression standards. (PO – b, c, d, f, k) 5. Appreciate different audio compression standards. (PO – b, c, d, f, k) 74 RADAR AND NAVIGATIONAL AIDS Subject Code: ECPE18 Prerequisites: Microwaves and Antennas Credits: 4:0:0 Contact hours: 56 Course Objectives: Familiarize with the principle of radar and navigational aids Understand the principles of radar and its use in military and civilian environment. Familiarize with navigational aids available for navigation of aircrafts and ships Obtain knowledge in radar applications Design simple radar system for understanding vehicular movements. Familiarize with different navigational systems and directional finders. UNIT – I Introduction to Radar: Basic Radar – The nature of Radar, Block diagram of simple Radar, Simple form of the Radar Equation, Maximum Unambiguous range of Radar, Radar Block Diagram, Radar Frequencies, Applications of Radar, Origins of Radar The radar equation: Introduction, Range performance, minimum detectable signal, Receiver noise and signal-to-noise ratio, Radar cross-section of Targets, Signal-to-noise ratio, PRF and Range Ambiguities, System Losses, Plumbing loss, Beam Shape loss, Limiting loss, Collapsing loss, Nonideal Equipment, Operator loss, Field Degradation, Other loss factors, Straddling loss, Propagation Effects. UNIT – II MTI and pulse doppler radar: The Doppler Effect, CW Doppler Radar, Coherent MTI, Delay Line Cancelers, Filter characteristics of Delay-line canceller, Blind Speeds, Clutter attenuation, Blind Phases, Digital MTI Processing, Pulse Doppler Radar, Moving Target Detector, Original MTD Signal Processor, Performance and Limitations of MTI. UNIT – III Tracking radar: Tracking with Radar, Sequential Lobing, Conical Scan and Monopulse Tracking, Tracking in Range, Target Acquisition, Comparison of Trackers, Automatic Tracking with Surveillance Radars (ADT). Radar Receivers: Radar Receiver, Receiver noise figure, Noise Figure of networks in cascade, Effective Noise Temperature, Mixers, Low noise front ends, Radar Displays, Duplexers and Receiver Protectors 75 UNIT – IV Detection of signals in noise: Introduction, Matched Filter Receiver, Correlation Detectors, Detection Criteria, Detector characteristics Special Types of Radar: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Air Surveillance Radar, Electronic Counter Measure, Bistatic Radar, Millimeter Wave Radar. UNIT – V Navigational aids: Introduction, Four methods of Navigation. Radio Direction Finding: The Loop Antenna, Goniometer, Adcock Direction Finders, Automatic Direction Finders Radio Ranges: Hyperbolic Systems of Navigation (Loran and Decca), Loran-A, Loran-C Distance Measuring Equipment: Operation of DME, TACAN Aids to Approach and Landing: Instrument Landing System, Ground Controlled Approach System, Surveillance Radar Element, Precision Approach Radar TEXT BOOKS: 1. Merrill I. Skolnik, “Introduction to Radar Systems”, Tata McGraw-Hill, 3rd Edition, 2003. 2. N. S. Nagaraja, “Elements of Electronic Navigation Systems”, 2nd Edition, TMH, 2001. REFERENCES: 1. Peyton Z. Peebles, “Radar Principles”, John Wiley, 2004 2. J. C. Toomay, “Principles of Radar”, 2nd Edition, PHI, 2004. Course Outcomes: 1. Derive and discuss the range equation and the nature of detection. (PO – a, b, c, e, f) 2. Apply Doppler principle in the detection of moving targets and able to understand types of Doppler radars. (PO – b, c, e, g, i, k) 3. Understand principles of tracking radars and refresh the principles of transmitters and receivers. (PO – a, d, f, h, k, l) 4. Analyze the presence of signals in noise and identify special types of radars. (PO – a, b, c, f, g, i, j, l) 5. Understand the principles of navigation, Radio direction finding, DME and TACAN systems. (PO – b, c, d, h, k, l) 76 WAVELETS AND ITS APPLICATIONS Subject Code : ECPE19 Prerequisites : Digital Signal Processing Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Illustrate time frequency resolution using wavelet transform Understand the significance of multiresolution analysis. Understand DWT and DTWT and their interpretation using orthonormal PRQMF filter. Develop applications of wavelet transform in data compression, denoising, edge detection UNIT – I Introduction: Continuous wavelet transforms, Properties, Inverse transform, Examples of mother wavelets, Analytic wavelet transform, UNIT – II Introduction to Discrete Wavelet Transform: MRA, A wavelet basis for MRA, Digital filtering interpretation, Examples of orthogonal basis – generating wavelets, interpreting orthonormal MRAs for discrete time signals. UNIT – III Biorthogonal Wavelets: Biorthogonal wavelet bases, Filtering relationship for biorthogonal filters, Examples of biorthogonal scaling functions and wavelets, Two dimensional wavelets, Multidimensional wavelets and wavelet packets. UNIT – IV Wavelet transform and data compression: Transform coding, DTWT for image compression, Audio compression and video coding UNIT – V Applications of Wavelet Transforms: Denoising, Biomedical applications, Applications in communication system, Edge detection and object isolation, Image fusion. Textbooks: 1. Raghuveer M. Rao, Ajit S. Bopardikar, “Wavelet Transforms: Introduction to Theory & Applications”, Pearson Education Asia, New Delhi, 2003 2. Agostino Abbate, Casimer M. DeCusatis and Pankaj K. Das, “Wavelets and Subbands Fundamentals and Applications”, 3. K. P. Soman and K. L. Ramchandran, “Insight into Wavelets from theory to practice”, Eastern Economy Edition, 2008 77 4. Stephane G. Mallat, “A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing”, Academic Press, Second Edition, 1999. Course Outcomes: 1. Describe scaling functions, continuous wavelet transform and different wavelet functions. (PO – a, b) 2. Differentiate continuous wavelet and discrete wavelet transforms and analyze multi-resolution analysis. (PO – c, d, k) 3. Develop bi-orthogonal wavelet basis function and apply to two dimensional signals. (PO – c, d, e, f, k) 4. Apply wavelet transform for image and audio compression. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, k) 5. Employ wavelet transforms for denoising, speckle removal, object detection and data communication. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, k) 78 SPREAD SPECTRUM COMMUNICATION Subject Code : ECPE20 Prerequisites : Digital Communication Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Understand the concept of spreading and de-spreading of message sequence. Apply the methods to reject narrowband interference. Understand the concept of frequency hopping spread spectrum system. Demonstrate the applications of frequency synthesizers in frequency hopping based modulator. Recognize the need for diversity techniques to overcome the effect of fading. Appreciate the significance of multi-carrier CDMA system. Understand the principle of CDMA and FHMA multiple access techniques. Appreciate the significance of power control techniques in CDMA system. Understand the concepts of multi-user detection. Understand the concepts of detection of CDMA and FHMA signals. Course Contents: UNIT – I Direct Sequence Systems: Definitions and concepts, Spreading sequences and waveforms, systems with BPSK modulation, Quaternary systems, pulsed interference, De-spreading with Band-pass Matched Filters, Rejection of Narrow band Interference UNIT – II Frequency Hopping Systems: Concepts and Characteristics, Frequency Hopping with Orthogonal FSK, Frequency Hopping with CPM and DPSK, Hybrid Systems, Codes for Partial band Interference, Frequency Synthesizers UNIT – III Fading and Diversity: Path Loss, Shadowing, and Fading, Time-Selective Fading, Spatial Diversity and Fading, Frequency selective Fading, Channel Impulse Response, Diversity for Fading Channels, Rake Demodulator, Diversity and Spread Spectrum, Multicarrier Direct Sequence Systems, MC CDMA System, DS CDMA System with Frequency Domain Equalization UNIT – IV Code Division Multiple Access and Frequency Hopping Multiple Access: Spreading Sequences for DS/CDMA, Systems with Random Spreading Sequences, Cellular Networks and Power Control, Frequency hopping Multiple Access 79 UNIT – V Detection of Spread Spectrum Signals: Multiuser detectors, Detection of Spread Spectrum Signals, Detection of Direct Sequence Signals, Estimation of Noise Power, Detection of Frequency hopping Signals Textbooks: 1. Don Torrieri, “Principles of Spread-Spectrum Communication Systems”, 2nd Edition, Springer Verlag, 2005. 2. Robert C. Dixion, “Spread Spectrum Systems with Commercial Applications”, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd Edition, 1994. 3. Andrew J. Viterbi, “Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication”, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 2nd Edition, 1995. Course Outcomes: 1. Employ the spreading and de-spreading principle in direct sequence spread spectrum based communication systems. (PO – b, c, h, i, k) 2. Employ the concept of frequency hopping to avoid jamming in digital communication systems. (PO – b, c, h, i, k) 3. Analyze the significance of rake receiver in combating the effect of multi-path fading. (PO – b, d, h, i, k) 4. Employ the concept of CDMA and FHMA multiple access techniques and importance of power control technique in CDMA system. (PO – b, h, i, k) 5. Employ the concepts of multiuser detection in digital communication receivers to detect CDMA and FHMA signals. (PO – b, h, i, k) 80 SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Subject Code: ECPE21 Prerequisites: Communication Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Familiarize with the satellite networks market and the future needs and challenges Apply mathematical models of satellite networks Strengthen knowledge in satellite communication systems Design satellite communication systems. Course Contents: UNIT – I Orbits and Launching Methods: Introduction, Frequency allocations for Satellite Services, Kepler’s 1st, 2nd and 3rd laws, Definitions of terms for Earth Orbiting Satellites, Orbital elements, Apogee and Perigee heights, Orbit perturbations – effects of non-spherical Earth, Atmospheric Drag and related problems, Sun-synchronous orbit, Geostationary orbit, Launching orbits. UNIT – II Space Segments: Power Supply, Attitude Control – Spin and Three – axis stabilization, Station keeping, Thermal control, TT & C (Telemetry, Tracking and Command subsystems) and Transponders. UNIT – III Space Link and Interference: Introduction, Equivalent isotropic radiated power [EIRP], Transmission Losses. link power budget equation, System noise, Carrier-to-noise ratio, Uplink, Downlink, Combined uplink and downlink C/N ratio, Intermodulation Noise, Interference between Satellite Circuits, (C/I) for uplink and downlink, combined (C/I) on both uplink and downlinks. UNIT – IV Satellite Access: Introduction, Single Access, Preassigned FDMA, Demand assigned FDMA, TDMA, On-board signal processing for FDMA/TDMA operation, Satellite-switched TDMA, CDMA UNIT – V Satellite Services: Introduction, Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) Services, MAT, VSAT, RADARSAT, Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system, ORBCOMM, IRIDIUM. 81 TEXT BOOK: 1. Dennis Roddy, “Satellite Communications”, MGH, 2nd Edition, 1996. REFERENCES: 1. Richharia M, “Satellite Communication Systems”, 2nd Edition, MGH, 1999. 2. Timothy Pratt, Charles W. Bostian, Jeremy E. Allnut, “Satellite Communications”, John Wiley, 2nd Edition, 2002. Course Outcomes: 1. Understand the characteristics of satellite communication Orbits, Launching methods and channels. (PO – c, g, h, i, k ) 2. Apply analytical and empirical models in the design of satellite networks and space segments. (PO – b, e, f, i, k, l) 3. Understand the traffic and queuing theory, space links, interference and analyze the performance of satellite systems. (PO – e, g, h, i, j, l) 4. Understand the multiple division and modulation techniques for satellite access. (PO – a, b, e, f, h, j, l) 5. Describe the various services offered in satellite communication systems. (PO – b, d, f, g, i, l ) 82 RADIO FREQUENCY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Subject Code : ECPE22 Prerequisites : Nil Credits: 4:0:0 Contact Hours: 56 Course Objectives: Understand and design RLC circuits in RF circuits. Understand passive IC components characteristics. Understand the transistor behavior for RF circuit design. Analyze lumped parameter descriptions of RF circuits. Appreciate the importance of Smith Chart and S-parameters for RF design. Identify the factors for bandwidth limitation. Design RF amplifiers with extended bandwidths. Develop a design strategy for LNA. Comprehend mixer fundamentals and design LC networks. Understand and design the RF Power amplifiers. Course Contents: UNIT – I Introduction: Radio Frequency systems Passive RLC Networks: Introduction, Parallel RLC Tank, Series RLC Networks, Other RLC networks, RLC Networks as impedance Transformers. Characteristics of passive IC components: Introduction, Interconnect at radio frequencies: Skin effect, resistors, Capacitors, Inductors. UNIT – II A review of MOS device physics: Introduction, A little history, FETs, MOSFET physics, The long – channels approximation, operation in weak inversion (sub threshold), MOS device physics in the short – channel regime, Other effects. Distributed Systems: Introduction, Link between lumped and distributed regimes driving-point impedance of iterated structures, Transmission lines in more detail, Behavior of Finite – length transmission lines, summary of transmission line equations, artificial lines. UNIT – III Smith chart and S-parameters: Introduction, The Smith chart, S-parameters, Band Width Estimation Techniques, Introduction, The method of open – circuit time constant, The method of short circuit time constant, Rise time, Delay and bandwidth. 83 UNIT – IV High frequency amplifier design: Introduction, Zeros as bandwidth Enhancers, The shunt –series amplifier, Bandwidth Enhancement with fT doublers, Tuned amplifiers, Neutralization and unilateralization, Cascaded amplifiers, AM – PM conversion. Low noise amplifier design: Introduction, Derivation of intrinsic MOSFET two-port noise parameters, LNA topologies: Power match versus noise match, Power-constrained noise optimization, Design examples, linearity and large signal performance, Spurious – free Dynamic range. UNIT – V Mixers: Introduction, Mixer fundamental, nonlinear systems as linear mixers, Multiplier – based mixers. RF power amplifiers: Introduction, Modulation of power amplifiers, summary of PA characteristics, RF PA design examples, additional design considerations, Design summery. TEXT BOOK: 1. Thomas H. Lee, “The design of CMOS Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit”, Cambridge, 2nd Edition, 2004. REFERENCES: 1. Behzad Razavi, “Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuit”, Tata McGraw Hill, 2005. Course Outcomes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Design RLC networks and describe passive IC components characteristics. (PO – a, b, c, d) Analyzer MOS behavior and distributed parameters for RF. (PO – a, b, c, d, e, f) Use Smith Chart for design of S-parameters. (PO – a, b, c, d, e, f) Analyze and design circuits for bandwidth extension and LNAs. (PO – a, b, c, d, e, f) Design mixers using LC networks and RF power amplifiers. (PO – c, d, e, f) 84 ADVANCED DIGITAL LOGIC DESIGN Subject Code: ECPE23 Pre-requisites: Digital Electronic Circuits Credits: 3:0:1 Contact hours: 42 + 14 Course Objectives: Understand and apply the concepts involved in design of different logic elements and building blocks in Digital circuits Describe combinational and sequential circuits using the Verilog Language at behavioural and structural levels Understand and apply the concepts involved in the Digital design building blocks and Verilog HDL. Write Basic Test benches and verify the functionality of the designs. Create Netlist and generate basic synthesis reports UNIT – I Digital Integrated Circuits: Moore’s law, Technology Scaling, Die size growth, Frequency, Power dissipation, Challenges in digital design, Design metrics, Cost of Integrated circuits, ASIC, Evolution of SoC ASIC Flow vs SoC Flow, SoC Design Challenges. Introduction to CMOS Technology: PMOS & NMOS Operation, CMOS Operation principles, Characteristic curves of CMOS, CMOS Inverter and characteristic curves, Delays in inverters, Buffer Design, Power dissipation in CMOS, CMOS Logic, Stick diagrams and Layout diagrams. Timing Concepts UNIT – II Digital Building Blocks: Basic Gates, Universal Gates, nand & nor implementations. Decoder, encoder, code converters, Priority encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, Comparators, Parity check schemes. Multiplexer, De-multiplexer, Pass Transistor Logic, Application of multiplexer as a multi-purpose logical element. Asynchronous and synchronous up-down counters, Shift registers. FSM Design, Mealy and Moore modeling Adder & Multiplier concepts 85 UNIT – III Logic Design Using Verilog: Evolution & importance of HDL, Introduction to Verilog, Levels of Abstraction, Typical Design Flow, Lexical Conventions, Data Types Modules, Nets, Values, Data Types, Comments, arrays in Verilog, Expressions, Operators, Operands, Arrays, memories, Strings , Delays , parameterized designs Procedural blocks, Blocking and Non-Blocking Assignment, looping, flow Control, Task, Function, Synchronization, Event Simulation. Need for Verification, Basic test bench generation and Simulation UNIT – IV Principles of RTL Design: Verilog Coding Concepts, Verilog coding guide lines: Combinational, Sequential, FSM. General Guidelines, Synthesizable Verilog Constructs, Sensitivity List, Verilog Events, RTL Design Challenges, Clock Domain Crossing. Verilog modeling of combinational logic, Verilog modeling of sequential logic. UNIT – V Design and simulation of Architectural building blocks, Mini-project :Basic Building blocks design using Verilog HDL: Arithmetic Components – Adder, Subtractor, and Multiplier design, Data Integrity – Parity Generation circuits, Control logic – Arbitration, FSM Design – overlapping and non-overlapping Mealy and Moore state machine design Mini-Project: n bit Simple ALU design & verification Text Books: 1. Morris Mano M “Digital Design” 4th Edition, Pearson Education, 2014 2. Neil H. E. Weste, David Harris “CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuits and Systems Perspective” 3rd Edition, Pearson Education, 2004, 3. Samir Palnitkar, “VERILOG HDL – A Guide to digital design and synthesis”, 2nd edition, Pearson education, 2003. References: 1. J. Bhasker, “Verilog HDL Synthesis: A Practical Primer” 3rd edition, Star Galaxy, 2005 2. A. Anand Kumar, “Fundamentals of Digital Circuits”, 2nd Edition, PHI Learning, 2012. 86 Course Outcomes: 1. Understand and apply Linux for Verilog simulator usage. (PO – b, c, e, f, h, k) 2. Understand basic VLSI principles. (PO – a, b, c, d, e, f, h, j, l) 3. Understand and apply basic digital design principles. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, h, i, k) 4. Understand and apply the principles of verilog HDL. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, g, h , k, l) 5. Creating directed test benches, running simulations and analyse / debug results Netlist creation, Basic Timing, Area and QOR Report generation. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, g, h, k, l) 87 ADVANCED DIGITAL LOGIC VERIFICATION Subject Code: ECPE24 Pre-requisites: Digital Electronic Circuits Credits: 3:0:1 Contact hours: 42 + 14 Course Objectives: 1. Get familiarized with the concepts of verification. 2. Identify different constructs, classes, assertions and coverage in System Verilog. 3. Acquire knowledge about layered test benches and Unified Verification methodology. UNIT – I Verification Concepts: Concepts of Verification, Importance of verification, Stimulus vs Verification, Test bench generation, Functional verification approaches, Typical verification flow, Stimulus generation, Direct testing ,Coverage: Code coverage and Functional coverage, Coverage plan. UNIT – II System Verilog- language constructs: System Verilog Constructs- Data types: Two state data, Strings, Arrays: Queues, Dynamic and Associative Arrays, Structs, Enumerated types. Program blocks, modules, interfaces, Clocking ports, Mod ports. UNIT – III System Verilog-Classes and Randomization: SV classes: Language evolution, Classes and Objects, Class Variables and Methods, Class Instantiation, Inheritance and Encapsulation, Polymorphism. Randomization: Directed vs Random Testing, Randomization: Constraint driven Randomization. UNIT – IV System Verilog- Assertions and Coverage: Assertions: Introduction to assertion based verification, Immediate and concurrent assertions, Coverage driven assertion: Motivation, types of coverage, Cover group, Cover point, Cross coverage, Concepts of binning and event sampling. UNIT – V Building Test bench: Layered test bench architecture, Introduction to Universal verification methodology, Overview of UVM, Base classes and simulation phases in UVM and UVM macros, Unified messaging in UVM, UVM environment structure, Connecting DUT-Virtual Interface. References: 1. System Verilog 3.1a LRM, Accellera’s Extensions to Verilog 2. Chris Spear, Greogory J Tumbush, “System Verilog for Verification – A guide to learning test bench language features”, Springer, 2012 88 3. “Step by Step functional verification with System Verilog and OVM”, Sasan Iman SiMantis Inc, Santa Clara, CA Springer, 2008. Course outcomes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Understand the principle of verification. (PO – e, f, h, j, l) Understand the OOPS concepts in System Verilog. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, h, j, k, l) Build basic verification environment using system verilog. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, h, i, j, k, l) Generate random stimulus and track functional coverage using System Verilog. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, h, i, j, k, l) 5. Understand the concepts of layered test bench architecture and its components. (PO – b, c, d, e, f, h, j, k, l) 89