RIETI BBL Seminar Handout Speaker: Mr. Bruce STOKES November 17, 2015

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Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI)
RIETI BBL Seminar
Handout
November 17, 2015
Speaker: Mr. Bruce STOKES
http://www.rieti.go.jp/jp/index.html
Global Concern about Climate Change
Wide Support for Limiting Emissions
Partisan National Divisions May Mean Challenges Ahead
Bruce Stokes
Director, Global Economic Attitudes
Japan, November 2015
Pew Research Center
•
Established 1996
•
Funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts
•
Non-profit, non-partisan fact tank in Washington
•
Survey topics: U.S. domestic politics and economic conditions, values, U.S.
image abroad, global views toward major powers, terrorism, democracy,
country conditions, aging, economy
•
Since 2002, we have surveyed in 85 countries, including 40 nations in 2015
•
www.pewresearch.org
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
2
Methodology
• Surveys conducted across 40 countries from March 25 to May 27, 2015,
totaling 45,435 respondents
•
Based on nationally representative telephone and face-to-face
interviews with adults 18 and older conducted under the direction of
Princeton Survey Research Associates International
•
The margin of sampling error for the complete set of weighted data is
±2.8% - ±4.3%
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
3
KEY TAKEAWAYS
November 17, 2015
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4
Brazilians Most Concerned about Climate Change,
Chinese Least Worried
Global climate change is a very serious problem
November 17, 2015
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5
Latin Americans, Sub-Saharan Africans More Troubled by
Climate Change than People in Other Regions
Regional medians
Note: Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median. Asia-Pacific median includes China.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
6
Global Support for Both Personal and Policy Changes
Global medians on climate change solutions
November 17, 2015
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Top Polluters Less Concerned about Climate Change
But Their Publics Still Willing to Limit Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Climate change is a very serious problem
Support limiting greenhouse gas emissions as part of an int'l agreement
China
18%
71%
45
U.S.
69
India
Russia
70
33
76
65
45
Japan
83
Germany
55
GLOBAL MEDIAN
54
87
78
Note: Data shown for top six CO2 emitting nations based on 2011 emissions data from the World Bank. Median calculated from all 40 nations surveyed.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
8
Japanese Say Climate Change Is Harming People Now
and Want Limitations on Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Japan
Global Median
45%
Climate change is a very
serious problem
54%
71
Climate change is harming
people now
51
34
Very concerned climate change
will harm me personally
40
People will have to make major
lifestyle changes to reduce the
effects of climate change
53
67
83
Support limiting country's
greenhouse gas emissions
78
Rich countries should do more
than developing countries to
address climate change
34
54
Note: Japan included in global median.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
9
CONCERN ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING
AND A WILLINGNESS TO ACT
November 17, 2015
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10
Drought Tops Climate Change Concerns Except in Japan
Regional medians of most concerning effects of global climate change
Note: Japan included in Asia-Pacific median. Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median.
November 17, 2015
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11
Intensity of Climate Change Concern Varies Globally
Global climate change is a very serious problem
November 17, 2015
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12
Climate Concern in U.S., China, Japan Trails
That in Many Other Regions
Global climate change is a very serious problem
Latin America
74%
Africa
61
Europe
54
Asia/Pacific
45
Middle East
38
U.S.
45
Japan
45
China
18
Note: Japan and China included in Asia-Pacific median. Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
13
In Asia, India Most Concerned about Climate Change,
China Least Worried
Global climate change is a very serious problem
India
76%
Philippines
72
Vietnam
69
South Korea
48
Japan
45
Malaysia
44
Australia
43
Indonesia
41
Pakistan
China
November 17, 2015
29
18
www.pewresearch.org
14
Europeans Most Supportive of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Do you __ our country limiting greenhouse gas emissions as part of an international agreement?
Oppose
Europe
13%
Latin America
11
Africa
10
Asia/Pacific
Middle East
Support
87%
83
77
13
76
17
73
U.S. 24
GLOBAL MEDIAN
Japan
69
12
78
83
10
Note: Japan included in Asia-Pacific median. Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median. Global median is calculated from all 40 nations surveyed.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
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Among Many Top Polluters, Young Are Strongest
Supporters of Limiting Emissions, No Generational Difference in Japan
Support limiting country’s greenhouse gas emissions
Youngestoldest gap
18-29
30-49
50+
%
%
%
U.S.
85
69
60
+25
Poland
71
65
57
+14
France
95
85
84
+11
India
74
70
64
+10
Australia
84
83
75
+9
Japan
83
85
82
+1
Note: Japan difference not statistically significant. All other differences shown are statistically significant.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
16
Globally, Majority Support for Rich Countries Doing More,
But Not in Japan
To address global climate change …
Developing countries
should do just as much
Middle East
51
44
50
35
Asia/Pacific
GLOBAL MEDIAN
56
41
Africa
U.S.
62%
29%
Europe
Latin America
Rich countries should do more
than developing countries
42
40
40
50
54
38
34
Japan 58
Note: Japan included in Asia-Pacific median. Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median. Global median calculated from all 40 nations surveyed.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
17
Generational Divide on Who Should Do More to Address Climate Change
Rich countries should do more to address climate change than developing countries
Youngestoldest gap
18-29
30-49
50+
%
%
%
U.S.
51
42
34
+17
Japan
45
35
31
+14
Australia
55
55
45
+10
France
44
51
60
-16
Germany
47
56
65
-18
Note: All differences shown are statistically significant.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
18
Majorities in Japan, Most Regions Say Lifestyle Changes Necessary
Do you think people will have to make major changes to reduce the effects of climate change
OR can technology solve the problem without major changes?
Technology can
solve problem
Latin America
Europe
U.S.
Make major
lifestyle changes
83%
13%
73
21
66
23
Africa
21
65
Asia/Pacific
23
61
48
Middle East 34
GLOBAL MEDIAN
67
22
Japan 36
53
Note: Japan included in Asia/Pacific median. Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median. Global median calculated from all 40 nations surveyed.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
19
Women, More than Men, Say Personal Changes
Necessary to Combat Global Warming
To reduce the effects of global climate change people will have to make major changes in the way they live
Women
Men
Diff
%
%
U.S.
75
57
+18
Canada
81
66
+15
UK
74
60
+14
Australia
71
57
+14
Spain
83
71
+12
Germany
81
70
+11
South Korea
89
78
+11
Poland
53
44
+9
Ukraine
53
44
+9
France
86
80
+6
Japan
54
52
+2
Note: Japan difference not statistically significant. All other differences shown are statistically significant.
November 17, 2015
www.pewresearch.org
20
CLIMATE CHANGE IS DIVISIVE WITHIN COUNTRIES
November 17, 2015
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In Europe, U.S.: Deep Ideological Divide on Climate Change Concern
Global climate change is a very serious
problem
Left-Right
Diff
Left
Right
%
%
Italy
69
42
France
70
UK
Global climate change is harming
people now
Left-Right
Diff
Left
Right
%
%
+27
74
64
+10
49
+21
71
50
+21
53
34
+19
59
44
+15
Spain
60
46
+14
69
51
+18
Germany
58
57
+1
73
59
+14
Poland
16
18
-2
25
36
-11
Liberal
Conservative
Lib-Conserv
Diff
%
%
59
32
Liberal
U.S.
Lib-Conserv
Diff
Conservative
%
%
68
30
+38
+27
Note: Statistically significant differences in bold.
November 17, 2015
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22
Stark U.S. Partisan Differences on Climate Change
November 17, 2015
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JAPAN DEMOGRAPHICS
November 17, 2015
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In Japan, Older Generation More Concerned about Climate Change
Climate change is a
very serious problem
Climate change is
harming people now
Very concerned climate
change will harm me
personally
%
%
%
TOTAL
45
71
34
Men
Women
82
88
69
73
32
35
18-29
30-49
50+
29
38
52
61
74
73
27
32
36
Lower income
Higher income
47
43
67
75
38
30
Secondary
Post-secondary
49
40
70
73
37
29
November 17, 2015
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… But Young and Old Both Willing to Act, and Young More Likely
to Say Rich Countries Should Do More to Address Climate Change
People will have
to make major
lifestyle changes
Support limiting
country’s greenhouse
gas emissions
Rich countries should
do more than developing
countries
%
%
%
TOTAL
53
83
34
Men
Women
52
54
86
80
36
32
18-29
30-49
50+
48
52
54
83
85
82
45
35
31
Lower income
Higher income
54
53
81
87
33
36
Secondary
Post-secondary
51
57
82
86
33
36
November 17, 2015
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All Pew Research Center reports and data are
available online at www.pewresearch.org
November 17, 2015
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