and Innovation The Next Revolution in Communications and Information Technology: Its

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The Next Revolution in
Communications and
Information Technology: Its
Implications for Economic
Growth and Innovation
Peter F. Cowhey
Dean, Graduate School of International Relations
and Pacific Studies
And California Institute for Telecommunications and
Information Technology
University of California, San Diego
[email protected]
1
Information on UC San Diego
www.ucsd.edu
► Young! Created in 1959
► 23,000 students (growing
to 30,000): 2nd largest
number of undergraduate student applicants in US
► 8 Nobel Prize Winners
► #6 in US in research & development funds
► Top ten in National Research Council PhD training
ratings and in membership in National Academies
of Science and Engineering
► Major Research Institutes include: California
Institute on Telecommunications and Information
Technology and San Diego Supercomputer Center
2
Graduate School of International Relations and
Pacific Studies (IR/PS): www-irps.ucsd.edu
►
►
The only graduate school in US devoted to professional
school training focused on Asia and the Americas
Masters (2 years) and PhD Training along with mid-career
professional training (ICAP)
ƒ 160 students in entering Masters class from 22 countries
ƒ Specializations ranging from public policy through environmental
policy and international management of firms and non-profits
►
Faculty of distinguished political scientists and economists
ƒ UCSD ranks 2nd in comparative politics, 9th in international relations,
and 15th in economics in US
►
Unique training: All students take micro-economics, finance,
accounting, international politics, public policy analysis, and
comparative politics and economics
3
Strong Long-Term Prospects for
Communications Networks and Information
Technology as Catalysts for Economic Growth
►
►
The current market downturn ignores fundamental
economic advantages of digital communications and
information technology (CIT) in long-term
The stakes are high
ƒ Productivity is the key to long-term growth
ƒ In mature economies, CIT can raise productivity by 0.25% to
0.50% annually—a huge difference cumulatively.
ƒ In all countries, “digital sciences” are key to transforming
traditional scientific research and its application to social
problems
4
A Lesson From Railroad History:
Infrastructure Explosions Are Uneven!!!
► Railroads
had busts and booms in U.S.
ƒ Cost and flexibility of the infrastructure will
influence severity of the bust and boom problem
► They
required complementary innovations
to be sustainable—the Standard Oil and
Armour Meatpacking Trusts created new
uses of Railroads
► They require regulatory and policy decisions
to prosper—time zones and Railroads
5
Why communications networks are
in a better position than railroads
► Cost
► Technology
► Flexibility
of use
6
The Cost of Communications
Networks Is Low
Cost per Mile of Connectivity Infrastructure
Aerial Wireless*
$4,433
Wireless Towers
$11,083
Copper Cable
$22,750
Coaxial Cable
$29,250
Optical Fiber
$40,625
Gas
Electricity
Waterway
$134,583
$232,604
$300,625
$847,917
Roadway
* Experimental network solution
$USD per Mile
Source: Canadian National Broadband Taskforce and InfoAmericas
7
Fiber Optic and Data Storage Are Moving Faster Than Moore’s Law
8
Network Demand staying high!
(Source: Perelman, SAIC)
350
Internet:
Internet: (1
(1 Year)
Year)
#
# of
of hosts
hosts +
+ 16%
16%
data
volume+100%
data volume+100%
metro
metro fiber
fiber +
+ 80%
80%
Sensors
Sensors
RFID
+
RFID
+ 30%
30%
(RFID=Radio
(RFID=Radio Frequency
Frequency
Identification
Identification Devices)
Devices)
300
250
200
150
100
Total Wireless MOU
50
Long Distance MOU
0
98
99
00
01
02
03E
9
Network technologies change rapidly so need flexible
evolutionary path!
►
►
Broadband to the Home and Small Businesses requires multitechnology networks with different cost structures & business models
depending on demand patterns
Need to experiment with best network design! An example:
ƒ The youth market does not dominate wireless in US (unlike Korea)
ƒ Most fiber is in biggest “15% of office buildings”: Need to expand
high speed access to other businesses and homes
ƒ 3G = Wide Area Mobile Data Network on licensed bands
►
Use for secure high speed mobility at a fixed price AND for remote
high speed networking
ƒ Wi-Fi (or 802.11) = Local Area Fixed Data Networks—primarily on
unlicensed bands
►
Wi-Fi for campus environments fed by high capacity fiber
ƒ WiFi won’t replace 3G! 100,000 Wi-Fi hotspots equal coverage
area of 3 3G cell sites (100,000 3G cell sites in US by 2006)
ƒ We need big fiber capacity for some needs, but wireless may be
more effective than fiber for many users
10
Complementary technologies for the use of networks
► Growth
of remote
sensors and radio
identification devices
► Growth of new
computing systems
(e.g., the GRID)
11
Consumers are more sensitive to the total cost of a service
than the price per bit!
Projected consumer willingness to pay
$ per Mbyte
43.90
20.00*
5.30
3.97
Cost of 3G:
$.20-.30/MB
1.20
0.15
SMS
iMode
data
Highly- Voice
Still
pictures compres
sed
video clip
0.06
0.003
Cost of
wireless
Movies
LAN:
(broadcast $.03-.06/MB
Telecon- Music
ference (MP3(VHS- quality) -quality)
quality)
* Based on compressed file transmission, estimated willingness to pay
Source: GS Research; McKinsey analysis
12
Elements of the Revolution: Wireless
and New Computing Models
► Vast
Increase in Internet End Points
ƒ Embedded Processors everywhere in old products
► Your
car is a computer and sensors gathering data
► Radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs)
ƒ New uses – every human body is a data stream
► Emergence
of a Distributed (Networked)
Planetary Computer
ƒ Storage of Data Everywhere
ƒ Scalable Computing Power (the GRID)
13
Selected 3-5 year needs for customers with
security needs for RFIDs (Source: SAIC)
The Issue
►
►
Marco Personal Security
ƒ 9-11
ƒ Lost retail sales
Intelligent Sensing
Factoids
Homeland Security sensor systems
Control theft: 22-4% revenue lost, mostly employee
In the supply chain, cost reduction est. of
1010-30% inventory, 55-40% labor and sales
increase of 11-2%
#1 issue in preparing for Iraq for DOD
logistics
14
So, Where Are We Today? (Source: SAIC)
Adoption
Adoption Rate
Rate of
of New
New Technologies
Technologies
IT/Customer
Integration
Macro Security
02
Network
Systems
20
00
20
98
19
96
19
94
19
92
19
19
90
Intelligent
Sensing
4 Critical Technologies on the cusp
on moving into the customer
innovation cycle
All
All of
of These
These Are
Are Moving
Moving to
to Mass
Mass
Customer
Cycles
Customer Cycles
Macro
Macro Security
Security
Def:
Def: Detection,
Detection, Authentication,
Authentication, and
and
Authorization
Authorization of
of people
people &
& cargo
cargo
Core
Core Science
Science –– Biometrics,
Biometrics, Invasive
Invasive sensors,
sensors,
recognition
recognition software,
software, etc.
etc.
IT/Customer
Integration
IT/Customer Integration
Def.
Def. Creating
Creating cost
cost effective
effective interfaces
interfaces
between
between IT
IT systems
systems and
and customers
customers
Core
Core Science
Science –– Voice
Voice recognition,
recognition, CRM,
CRM, IT
IT
System
System simplification
simplification
Intelligent
Sensing
Intelligent Sensing
Def.
Def. Identification,
Identification, Location,
Location, and
and Condition
Condition
Core
Core Science
Science -- RFID,
RFID, GPS,
GPS, Intell.
Intell. Sensors
Sensors
Network
Network Systems
Systems
Def.
Def. Overlapping,
Overlapping, self
self repairing,
repairing, multi
multi tech.
tech.
networks
networks
Core
Science
Core Science –– Mesh
Mesh networks
networks
All 4 arena’s impact each other and
are dependent upon communications
NOTE: This is a conceptual analysis intended to depict a probable picture of the adoption rates. It represents work in progress by Jeffrey Perelman of SAIC.
Source: SAIC Analysis by Jeffrey Perelman, TVHandbook.com, FCC Databases at FCC.GOV, Zarkon,org, IDC’s Information Industry & Technology Update
15
The Human Body Will Become
an Internet Data Source
Antenna
Transdermal Patch
“Smart Band-Aid®”
CPU/Comm Chip
Battery
Skin
Sensors:
- Physical
- Chemical
- Biological
• Patent Pending
Non-Invasive Platform
- Smart Band-Aid®
Can Also Link to Invasive Sensors
Source: PhiloMetron
16
Scalable Computer Grids: Entropia achieved 1
teraflop capacity in 19 months
17
A Key challenge: Small Radios
► Size
is critical: 1 centimeter or smaller goal
achieved for some designs
► Cost is critical: The goal is US$0.01 per radio—for
complex radios the cost is just below $1 while it is
less than $0.10 for simple RFIDs
► Other drivers on applications
ƒ Novel uses of RFIDs (tracking pets and improving
clothes washing)
ƒ Military security expenditures enable new economies of
scale
18
Key Challenge for This Decade
Put Laboratories on a Chip
Cermet
Cermet Sensor
Sensor
$ 300,000
Source: Greg McRae, MIT and ANL
$ 10
19
Putting a Lab in Every School Creates the Potential for a
Dramatic Increase in Spatial Coverage of Environmental Sensors
US EPA Air Monitoring Sites
PAMS (Photochemical
Assessment Monitoring Station)
Schools in Los Angeles
Unified School District
SLAMS (State & Local
Air Monitoring Stations)
11 PAMS/SLAMS
Monitors in 2001
(CO, NO2, O3, SO2, PB, PM10)
California Air Resources Board
Source: Prof. Gregory McRae, MIT
20
Revolutionizing the rest of the economy with IT and
Communications
►
►
►
►
►
There is substantial national
variation in the uses of ecommerce, but finance, largechain stores, and global
manufacturing dominate
About two-thirds of enterprises
are largely missed
When do we get “fiber to the
cow”?? Example: The “smart
tractor” combines computing
and mobile networks
Is greater speed really the most
important measure of network?
Internet lesson: Allow users to
“co-invent” and manage the
network
21
Competition Policy Challenges
►
►
Technology innovation requires frequent review of competition policies.
Transparency in decision-making is critical for investor confidence and
market efficiency.
Competition within and between network platforms (e.g., wireless and
wired)
ƒ Some infrastructure still does not have effective substitutes! E.g.
local voice service termination on phone networks --- there is no
alternative to NTT for ADSL infrastructure
ƒ Policy should not favor one platform over another: Termination
charges between wired and wireless networks should not favor one
kind of network over another
ƒ Competition policy should foster innovation in the economy by
fostering “co-invention” by users
► Use competition policy to limit rigid vertical integration of
services and technology! Example: U.S. regulation discouraged
vertical integration of phone companies into control of computer
networking
► Reduce level of detailed regulation of spectrum use and
technology standards by governments. (Cave report to UK
Government shows why planning “4G” is bad idea.)
22
Other Policy Challenges
►
R&D Policy vs. Subsidies and Picking Winners:
ƒ Funding research on networks and applications vs. subsidizing build-out of new
infrastructure
ƒ Subsidies for infrastructure can create harmful rigidity:
► Those getting subsidies resist flexibility, but flexible response to surprise is
critical in an era of massive innovation
► Subsidies often have anti-competitive effects
ƒ You can sometimes pick an optimal mandatory standard. But it is very hard to
reverse a mistake. As the sources of innovation diversify it becomes important to
combine R&D test beds with voluntary standards
►
Proprietary vs. Open Source
ƒ Growth of Open Source successes--Linux and Apache--required a start in
communities created by university R&D centers
ƒ Open Source will increasingly be made into a hybrid with proprietary Intellectual
Property
ƒ Cannot weaken traditional IP to build Open Source. They “co-evolve.”
ƒ Making Japanese university more global by becoming leaders in global test beds is
essential to Japan’s future prosperity
23
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