Formatting Reference List Citations in Chicago, APA, and MLA Formats

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Formatting Reference List Citations in Chicago, APA, and MLA Formats
Research is documented in many styles. The following are examples of reference lists
when using a parenthetical citation in three of the leading documentation manuals. For
other types of publications and more examples, consult style manuals or journals using the
desired style, or visit Style Manuals & Writing Guides at WKU and on the Web at
http://www.wku.edu/Library/dlps/guides/stylwrit.htm.
CHIC Chicago Manual of Style. 2010. 16th edition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago
Press. WKU also has the E-Book version
APA Publication manual of the American psychological association. (6th ed.).
Washington,DC: American Psychological Association.
MLA MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern
Language Association of America, 2009. Print.
Print Encyclopedia Articles and Reference Works – Unsigned
Print Reference Works and Encyclopedia Articles – Signed (See notes below)
CHIC sect. 15.9 Allen, Anita L. 1995. “Privacy in Health Care.” In Encyclopedia of
Bioethics, Rev. ed., edited by Warren T. Reich. New York:
Macmillan-Simon, 1995), 4:2064-73.
APA pp. 204-205 Allen, A. L. (1995). Privacy in health care. In Warren T. Reich
(Ed.) Encyclopedia of Bioethics (1995 ed.).
MLA pp. 160-161 Allen, Anita L. “Privacy in Health Care.” Encyclopedia of.
Bioethics Ed. Stephen G. Post. 3rd ed. Vol. 4. New York:
Macmillan-Thomson, 2004. Print.
Online Encyclopedia Articles and Reference Works – Signed
CHIC sect. 14.247 “Destroyers - Germany.” 2006. Encyclopedia of Warships from
World War II to the Present Day. Edited by Robert Jackson.
San Diego: Thunder Bay Press.
CHIC sect. 15.9 Lang, Martha E. 2005. “Acupuncture.” In Encyclopedia of Disability, edited by Gary L. Albrecht. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
http://www.sage-ereference.com/disability/Article_n13.html.
APA p. 202-203 Destroyers - Germany. (2006). In Robert Jackson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of
Warships from World War II to the Present Day. San Diego:
Thunder Bay Press.
APA p. 203 Lang, M. E. (2005). Acupuncture. In Gary L. Albrecht (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Disability. Retrieved from http://www.sage-ereference.com
/disability/Article_n13.html.
MLA pp. 160-161 “Destroyers - Germany.” Encyclopedia of Warships from World War
II to the Present Day. Ed. Robert Jackson. San Diego: Thunder
Bay Press, 2006. Print.
Online Encyclopedia Articles and Reference Works – Unsigned (See notes below)
MLA pp. 187-189 Lang, Martha E. “Acupuncture.” Encyclopedia of Disability. Ed.
Gary L. Albrecht. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005. Web. 23
November 2010.
Multivolume Reference Source with No Author
CHIC sect. 14.248 Dictionary of Computing, s.v. “Windows,” accessed June 23, 2009,
http://www.oxfordreference.com/ENTRY.html?&entry=t11.e58.
CHIC sect. 14.124 Rowling, J. K. 2001.Vol. 137. Contemporary Literary Criticism.
Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.
APA p. 205 Windows. (2008). In John Daintith and Edmund Wright (Eds.), Dictionary of
Computing. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from
http://www.oxfordreference.com/ENTRY.html?&entry=t11.e58.
APA p. 202 Rowling, J.K. (2001). In Jeffrey W. Hunter (Ed.), Contemporary
Literary Criticism (Vol. 137). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.
MLA pp. 184-187 “Mammoth Cave National Park.” Encyclopedia Americana. 2004 ed.
Web. 22 Sept. 2007.
Newspaper Article – Unsigned
CHIC sect. 14.207 New York Times. 2007. “Ruling on Nazi Art.” Dec. 29, 2007.
MLA p. 168 Rowling, J. K. Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W.
Hunter. Vol. 137. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, 2001. Print.
Newspaper Articles – Signed
APA p. 200 Ruling on Nazi art. (2007, December 29). New York Times, p. B10.
CHIC sect. 15.47 Haughney, Christine. 2007. “Cashing Out.” New York Times,
December 30, 2007.
MLA p. 145 “Ruling on Nazi Art.” New York Times, 29 Dec. 2007: B10.
APA p. 200 Haughney, C. (2007, December 30). Cashing out. New York Times, H1.
Journal Articles (See notes below) If online, include DOI or URL at the end
MLA p. 142 Haughney, Christine. “Cashing Out.” New York Times, 30 Dec. 2007: H1.
Journal Articles – Two Authors
CHIC sect. 15.9 Novak, William J. 2008. “The Myth of the „Weak‟ American State.”
American Historical Review 113(3): 752-72. [Database & URL/DOI]
CHIC sect. 15.16 Hall, Peter, and Peter Norris. 1993. “Learning for Leadership.”
Leadership & Organization Development Journal 14(7), 35-40.
APA pp. 198-202 Novak, W. J. (2008). The myth of the „weak‟ American state.
American Historical Review 113(3),752-72. [URL/DOI]
APA pp. 198-202 Hall, P., and Norris, P. (1993). Learning for leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 14(7), 35-40.
MLA pp. 137-141 Novak, William J. “The Myth of the „Weak‟ American State.”
American Historical Review 113.3 (2008): 752-72. [URL/DOI]
MLA p. 140 Hall, Peter, and Peter Norris. “Learning for Leadership.” Leadership
& Organization Development Journal. 14.7 (1993): 35-40.
Dissertaions and Theses
CHIC sect. 14.224 Haynes, David Lee. 2008. “Our Government‟s Attenuation of the
Fourth Amendment.” D.A. diss., Idaho State University, 2008.
ProQuest (AAT 3322827).
APA pp. 207-208 Haynes, D. L. 2008. Our Government’s Attenuation of the Fourth
Amendment (unpublished D.A. dissertation). Idaho State University.
Available from ProQuest (No. AAT 3322827).
MLA p. 180 Haynes, David Lee. “Our Government‟s Attenuation of the Fourth Amendment.” Diss. Idaho State U, 2008. Ann Arbor, MI: Proquest, 2008. Web.
Books—Print & Electronic
For E-books, add the online information at the end (See notes below)
Web Pages & Internet Citations – Not Published Elsewhere
(Includes other types of unpublished or informally published works)
CHIC sect. 14.245 Charles Smith. 2010. “The Alfred Russel Wallace Page.”
Western Kentucky University, last modified October 4,
2010, http:// www.wku.edu/~smithch/index1.htm.
APA pp. 211-212 Smith, Charles. (2009). The Alfred Russel Wallace Page.
Retrieved from http://www.wku.edu/~smithch/index1.htm
MLA pp. 181-187 Smith, Charles. “The Alfred Russel Wallace Page.” Western Kentucky U, 13 Sept., 2009. < http://www.wku.edu/~smithch
/index1.htm>.
Book Chapter or Work in an Anthology– Author with Editor
CHIC sect. 15.9 Hutcheon, Linda, and Michael Hutcheon. 2000. Body Charm: Living
Opera. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
CHIC sect. 15.9 Senior, Michael. 1980. “The Age of Myth and Legend.” In Heroes
and Heroines, edited by Antonia Fraser, 7-52. New York:
A&W Publishers.
APA pp. 202-204 Hutcheon, L. (2000). Body Charm: Living Opera. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press.
APA p. 204 Senior, Michael. (1980). The age of myth and legend. In Antonia Fraser
(ed.) Heroes and Heroines (pp.7-52). New York: A&W Publishers.
MLA pp. 148-160 Hutcheon, Linda, and Michael Hutcheon. Body Charm: Living Opera.
Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2000. Print.
Blogs (Weblogs), Online Forums, Facebook, and Discussion Boards
MLA p. 157 Senior, Michael. “The Age of Myth and Legend.” Heroes and
Heroines, Ed. Antonia Fraser. New York: A&W, 1980: 7-52. Print.
E-Mail Messages (not cited in reference list)
CHIC sect. 14.246 Lathrop, Suellyn, 2009, “Hilltoppers in University Archives,” WKU
Libraries (Blog), September 9, 2009, http://library.blog.wku.edu
/2009/09/08/.
CHIC sect 14.222 Anthony T Boyle, e-mail message to Daniel J. Cahill, June
21, 1997.
APA p. 215 Lathrop, Suellyn. (2009, September 9). Re: WKU Libraries. [Web log
Comment]. Retrieved from http://library.blog.wku.edu/2009/09/08/
MLA pp. 204-205 Boyle, Anthony T. “Re: Utopia.” Message to Daniel J. Cahill.
21 June 1997. E-mail.
APA p. 179 Anthony T. Boyle (e-mail message, June 21, 1997) .
MLA pp. 184-187 Lathrop, Suellyn. Hilltoppers in University Archives. WKU Libraries
Blog. Western Kentucky U Libraries, 11 Sept. 2009.
In APA and MLA, personal communications are to be cited in the text only. In CHIC, personal
communications may be cited either in the text or in a note.
*NOTES ON THE REFERENCES*

Initial articles (A, AN, THE) are ignored when alphabetizing.

If there is no author, the title goes in the space for the author. For items produced by an entity or organization (“corporate author”) put the organization in the author spot.

s.v. means sub verbo, “under the word;” it is used in CHIC for alphabetical entries.

In CHIC, placement of the publication date depends on whether the author is using a reference list or a bibliography. Most documentation examples in the manual show the date placement for
bibliographies, where the date is located with the publication details. For reference lists, CHIC places the date after the author information. (See section 15.14.)

For a specific volume in CHIC, APA, or MLA, put vol. 4. For a general reference to the set without a specific volume, put 5 vols.

MLA requires that you identify the medium of publication in which you consulted the item. For example, put the word Print for a print version of a journal article, or Web for a version posted on a
website. For a version from databases such as ABI/Inform, put the name of the database and the word Web. Commonly used media include: Print | Web | E-mail | Television | Radio | CD |
Audiocassette | MP3 File | Film | DVD | Videocassette | Performance | Photograph | Interview | CD-ROM | JPEG File | PDF File | Performance

Dates for web pages & internet citations: In APA, use the year the work was produced; in CHIC and MLA, use day, month, and year if available. If no date is available, use n.d.

For electronic journal articles, APA and CHIC recommend using the Digital Object Identifier (doi) if one is available, or the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) if not. For more information,
see APA pp. 199-200. The following example shows the same article retrieved from Emerald Management Xtra (with a doi) and ABI/Inform (no doi).

(With a doi): Hall, P., & Norris, P. (1993). Learning for leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 14(7): 35-40. doi: 10.1108/01437739310047029
OR (No doi): Hall, P., & Norris, P. (1993). Learning for leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 14(7): 35-40. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com/
November 20, 2010
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