INTRODUCTION OF CHINESE ENTERPRISES’ R&D ACTIVITY Zhaoyuan Xu Enterprise Research Institute,

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Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
INTRODUCTION OF CHINESE
ENTERPRISES’ R&D ACTIVITY
Zhaoyuan Xu
Enterprise Research Institute,
Development Research Center of the State Council
2009-5-22
Page 1
R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
contents
1. Motivation
2. Introduction of China’s R&D expenditure
3. Classification of Industrial enterprises
4. R&D and other data used in this research
5. some statistical results for the industrial R&D activity
Page 2
R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
1. Motivation for this Joint Research
ƒ Examine how the productivity of domestic firms is improved
by their own R&D and export activities, as well as the
spillover from foreign R&D and technology purchase.
ƒ Investigate the effect of R&D spillover for different type of
foreign enterprises, such as enterprises owned by
Honkong, Maca, Taiwan or other Country.
ƒ Explore the complementarities between firm’s innovation
effort such as R&D or technology assimilation activities and
opportunities to access new technologies.
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Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
2. Introduction of China’s R&D expenditure
(1) R&D expenditure will play an more and more important
role in the development of economies
%
billion yuan
50.0
400
350
300
40.0
250
30.0
200
20.0
150
100
10.0
50
0.0
0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
total expenditures on R&D (billion yuan)
growth rate of GDP (%)
growth rate of R&D expenditures (%)
R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Page 4
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
Percentage of R&D expenditure to GDP in 2006
3.7
3.5
1.8
1.5
1.4
1.7
1.5
1.3
1.2
0.8
Hungary
Singapore
Taipei
Korea
Spain
Portugal
Finland
Denmark
Czech
Belgium
0.6
Austria
Turkey
Sweden
Canada
Australia
Germany
France
UK
Japan
USA
0.8
1.1
0 . 80.8
0.6
1.0
India
1.9
1.8
2.6
2.3
2.4
Netherlands
Norway
2.1
1.8
2.5
Ireland
2.5
Greek
2.6
3.2
Poland
Russian
Federation
Brazil
3.4
China
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
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R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
(2) Expenditure on R&D by foreign firms grows faster
than domestic firms
Share of R&D expenditure by group of enterprises
Enterprises
with Funds
from Hong
Kong,Macao
and Taiwan
(Joint-venture
Enterprises &
Cooperation
Enterprises)
Enterprises
with Funds
from Hong
Kong,Macao
and Taiwan
(Enterprises
with Sole
Funds &
Share-holding
Corporations
Ltd.)
2000
3.8
2001
foreign
founded firms
(Jointventure
Enterprises &
Cooperation
Enterprises)
foreign
funded firm
(Enterprises
with Sole
Funds &
Shareholding
Corporations
Ltd.)
domesticfunded firms
in total
value of
R&D
expenditure
3.7
8.7
2.8
81.0
100.0
4.1
2.0
11.7
4.1
78.1
100.0
2002
3.7
3.3
9.9
5.3
77.8
100.0
2003
4.1
3.8
9.8
5.5
76.7
100.0
2004
3.9
3.8
12.1
8.5
71.7
100.0
2005
4.1
3.2
12.2
7.5
73.0
100.0
2006
3.7
5.0
10.4
8.7
72.3
100.0
year
total
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Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
(3) Large and Medium sized Industrial enterprises is the
major source of R&D expenditure
Share of Expenditure on R&D by Performer
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
43.5
46.8
48.5
51.0
54.3
56.9
39.5
42.4
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
0%
Others
Institutions of higher education
R&D Institutions
other enterprises
Large & Medium sized Industrial enterprises
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R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
3. Classification of Chinese Industrial Enterprises
Composition of Gross Domestic Product
(%)
Gross
Domestic
Primary
Secondary
Product
Industry
Industry
Industry
Construction
Industry
1978
100.0
28.2
47.9
44.1
3.8
23.9
1990
100.0
27.1
41.3
36.7
4.6
31.6
2000
100.0
15.1
45.9
40.4
5.6
39.0
2007
100.0
11.3
48.6
43.0
5.6
40.1
Year
Tertiary
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(2) Group of Industrial Enterprises
ƒ State-owned and Non-state-owned Industrial
Enterprises above Designated Size
276,474 enterprises in 2004 (≈20% of total firms)
has statistical data by NBS
produced about 90% output of industry sector
employed about 70% labor of industry sector
ƒ Industrial Enterprises below Designated Size
„
1,098,709 enterprises in 2004)
Designated Size —total sales revenue of industrial products
lager than 5 million yuan
Page 9
R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
(3)Sub-group of State-owned and Non-state-owned
Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size
ƒ Large and Medium size Enterprises
has R&D statistical data
27,692 enterprises in 2004
>=300 employer & sales revenue >=0.3billion yuan &
assets >=0.4billion yuan
ƒ Small size Enterprises
Page 10
R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
100%
2.0
18.1
80%
37.7
61.4
64.1
69.0
60%
40%
20%
0%
33.5
79.9
Number of
enterprises
25.4
29.7
10.5
8.9
total assets
Revenue from
main business
28.5
2.5
value of
exports
28.8
number of
employed
person
Large and medium sized enterprises (above designated size)
small sized enterprises (above designated size)
enterprises below designated size
Page 11
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Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
4. Data used in these research
¾
R&D input of Large and Medium size Enterprises
——Social and Scientific Bureau of National
Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
¾
Industry Statistics data ——Industry Statistical
Bureau of NBS
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R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
R&D data
¾ Each data can be identified by Industries (2 digit
group, total 39 industries), regions (31 provinces),
and resignation types
¾ each year has about 2500 observations, among
which about 1000 observations for domestic
enterprises
¾ Data year from 2000 to 2006
¾ Indicators include:
Page 13
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Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
Group of Industrial Enterprises by Registration Status
Domestic Funded Enterprises
Enterprises with Funds from Hong Kong,
State-owned Enterprises
Macao and Taiwan
Collective-owned Enterprises
Joint-venture Enterprises
Cooperative Enterprises
Cooperative Enterprises
Joint Ownership Enterprises
Enterprises with Sole Fund
State Joint Ownership Enterprises
Limited Liability Corporations
State Sole Funded Corporations
Share-holding Corporations Ltd.
Foreign Funded Enterprises
Joint-venture Enterprises
Share-holding Corporations Ltd.
Cooperation Enterprises
Private Enterprises
Enterprises with Sole Fund
Other Enterprises
Share-holding Corporations Ltd.
Page 14
R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
Indicators
Indicators
科技活动人员
Personnel Engaged in S&T Activities
Researchers with Senior or
高中级技术职称人员
intermediate technical titles
without senior or intermediate
无高中级技术职称的
大学本科及以上学历
technical titles but with University
人员
Bachelor degree or above degree
R&D人员
R&D Personnel
Patent Applications
专利申请数
Inventive Patent Applications
发明专利申请数
拥有发明专利数
Owning Inventive Patent
Page 15
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Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
科技活动经费支出总额
内部支出合计
Expenditures on S&T Activities
Intramural Expenditures on S&T
Activities
R&D经费支出合计
Expenditure on R&D Activities
R&D经费内部支出
Intramural Expenditures on R&D
Activities
对院所及高校支出
Expenditure on University and Research
institute
技术改造经费支出
引进国外技术经费支出
引进技术的消化吸收经费支出
购买国内技术经费支出
Expenditure for Technical Renovation
Expenditures for Indraught of Technology
from abroad
Expenditures for Absorb and Digest
Expenditure for Purchase of Domestic
Technology
Page 16
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Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
Industry Statistics data (firm level-data)
ƒ Each data can be identified by Industries (4 digit
group), regions (31 provinces), and resignation
types
ƒ The data can be grouped accordance with the R&D
data
Page 17
R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
Indicators
工业总产值
Gross industrial output value
资产总计
Total Assets
流动资产总计
Total working capitals
流动资产年平均余额
Annual Average Balance of Working Capitals
固定资产原价
Original Value of Fixed Assets
固定资产净值年平均余额
Annual Average Balance of Net value of Fixed assets
负债合计
total liabilities
流动负债合计
Total working liabilities
所有者权益
Owners Equity
主营业务收入
Revenue from Principal Business
主营业务成本
cost of principal business
主营业务税金及附加
Taxes and other charges on principal business
利润总额
Total Profits
应付增值税
Value Added tax payable
全部从业人员年平均人数
Annual Average Employed persons
R&D,Technology transfer and FDI
Page 18
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5. some statistical results for the industrial R&D activity
(1) Share of R&D expenditure to Sales by group of enterprises different little
foreign
founded firms
(Jointventure
Enterprises &
Cooperation
Enterprises)
foreign
funded firm
(Enterprises
with Sole
Funds &
Shareholding
Corporations
Ltd.)
(domesticfunded firms'
total value
of R&D
expenditure)
/domesticfunded firms'
total sales
1.4
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.7
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.9
2002
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.7
1.0
2003
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.5
0.9
2004
0.6
0.5
0.8
0.6
0.9
2005
0.8
0.4
0.9
0.5
0.9
year
Enterprises with
Funds from Hong
Kong,Macao and
Taiwan (Jointventure
Enterprises &
Cooperation
Enterprises)
Enterprises with
Funds from Hong
Kong,Macao and
Taiwan (Enterprises
with Sole Funds &
Share-holding
Corporations Ltd.)
2000
0.6
2001
Page 19
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Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
(2) Growth of R&D and other related activity
for domestic firms
Units:100 million yuan
R&D
Expenditures
for Technical
Renovations
Expenditures
for Indraught
of Technology
from abroad
Expenditures
for Absorb
and Digest
2000
325.3
1053.7
193.1
15.1
24.5
2001
387.5
1172.2
203.6
15.3
34.5
2002
486.5
1378.6
268.0
20.6
40.5
2003
635.9
1752.9
292.5
16.5
50.0
2004
760.7
2292.6
198.7
37.3
64.2
2005
1014.3
2503.7
164.3
39.0
71.7
2006
1293.2
2689.2
191.1
64.7
74.9
Expenditure
for Purchase
of Domestic
Technology
Page 20
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Development Research Center, The State Council, PRC
Thank you for your attention !
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