Rethinking the Design of the Internet: From Control Plane Architecture

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Rethinking the Design of the Internet:
From Control Plane Architecture
to Data Plane Bug Detection
T. S. Eugene Ng
Assistant Professor
1
The 2004 A. M. Turing Award Goes to...
2
The 2004 A. M. Turing Award Goes to...
Bob Kahn
•
•
Vint Cerf
"For pioneering work on internetworking, including the design
and implementation of the Internet's basic communications
protocols, TCP/IP, and for inspired leadership in networking."
The only Turing Award given to-date to recognize work in
computer networking
3
But at the Same Time...
This Monday, 110 attacks from
China; 26 attacks from USA
2/24/2008 YouTube traffic
mis-routed to Pakistan
Q2/2008 1000s of Netherlands
DSL customers lost service due to
network configuration
error
11/10/2008
CTBC (Brazil) black-holed
all Internet traffic in some parts of Brazil
2/16/2009 Supro (Czech) routing messages
triggered a Cisco router bug world-wide
5/2009 AfNOG (Africa) routing messages
triggered buffer overflow in open-source
routing software Quagga world-wide
Source: Akamai Technologies, Inc.
4
Major Internet Milestones
• 1960-1964 Basic concept of “packet switching” was
independently developed by Baran (RAND),
Kleinrock (MIT)
– AT&T insisted that packet switching would never work!
• 1965 First time two computers talked to each other
using packets (Roberts, MIT; Marill, SDC)
dial-up
MIT TX-2
SDC Q32
5
Major Internet Milestones
• 1968 BBN group proposed to use Honeywell 516
mini-computers for the Interface Message Processors
(i.e. packet switches)
• 1969 The first ARPANET message transmitted
between UCLA (Kleinrock) and SRI (Engelbart)
– We sent an “L”, did you get the “L”? Yep!
– We sent an “O”, did you get the “O”? Yep!
– We sent a “G”, did you get the “G”?
Crash!
6
Major Internet Milestones
• 1970 First packet radio network ALOHANET
(Abramson, U Hawaii)
• 1973 Ethernet invented (Metcalfe, Xerox PARC)
• 1974 “A protocol for Packet Network Interconnection”
published by Cerf and Kahn
– First internetworking protocol TCP
– This paper was cited for their Turing Award
• 1977 First TCP operation over ARPANET, Packet
Radio Net, and SATNET
• 1985 NSF commissions NSFNET backbone
• 1991 NSF opens Internet to commercial use
7
Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols
by David D. Clark (1988)
1. Internet communication must continue despite loss of networks
or gateways
2. The Internet must support multiple types of communications
service
“Security
and network
management
represent
architectural
3. The Internet
architecture
must accommodate
a variety
of
gaps networks
in today’s Internet”
4. The Internet architecture must permit distributed management
of its resources
-- NSF FIND Observer Panel Report 4/2009
5. The Internet
mustGreenberg,
be cost effective
byarchitecture
Cerf, Davie,
Landau, Sincoskie
6. The Internet architecture must permit host attachment with a
low level of effort
7. The resources used in the Internet architecture must be
accountable
8
Internet’s Enormous Unwieldy Complexity
Makes Network Management Hard
• Traffic processing behavioral complexity
– Routers no longer just forward packet with “best effort”
– New features are being shoehorned into the network
Control Plane Architecture
• e.g. Detecting and blocking unwanted traffic, balancing network
and server load, enabling virtual private networking
– Accidental inconsistencies/interactions can be catastrophic
• Failure mode complexity
– Routers, like everything else, have bugs
– They don’t always stop upon failure
Data Plane Bug Detection
• e.g. mis-forward or mis-filter some packets
– Such complex failure modes are hard to discover or
diagnose
9
Internet Control & Management Today
10
State of the Art
Shell scripts
Management Plane
Traffic Eng
Planning tools
Databases
•
•
Figure out what is happening in
network
Decide how to change it
Configs SNMP
netflow modems
OSPF
Control Plane
• Multiple routing processes on
Link
Routing
OSPF
each router
metrics
policies
BGP
• Each router with different
configuration program
• Huge number of control knobs:
OSPF
OSPF
metrics, ACLs, policy
BGP
BGP
FIB
FIB
Data Plane
FIB
Packet
filters
•
•
•
Distributed routers
Forwarding, filtering, queueing
Based on FIB or labels
11
Sta
Shell scripts
t
State of the Art
Management Plane
e e Traffic Eng
•D
v er
• Figure out whatoislshappening in
ynatools yw Databases
c
Planning
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t
h
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o
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• Decide
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it
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Configs
r
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red
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h
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IBisntoControl
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o inoulic lbaectew n•sciscHuge
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Data
Plane
o
a
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n tr a
FIB
• P way
FIB Packet • Distributedlizrouters
ed
filters • Forwarding, filtering,
No
wa queueing
y!
• Based on FIB or labels
12
Circular Dependency: Management Plane
Depends on the Data Plane!!!
Management
Plane
ssh, SNMP, netflow,
Control Plane
Forwarding Table
IP Service
Data Plane
I/O Card
I/O Card
13
Better Way: An “Operating System” for a
Network
Control & mgmt
communications
•
Idea 1: BIOS for a network
– Enables control and management communications
– “Meta-Management System (MMS)”
•
Idea 2: Operating Platform for network controls
– Network controls as applications
– Operating Platform provides services and protections
– “Maestro”
Logically centralized !=> Physically centralized
14
MMS: BIOS for a Network
15
Internet Hourglass Architecture
Management Apps
Applications
TCP, UDP,
IP
Link Layer
Interfaces
16
A Better Architecture!
Other
Applications
Management Plane
Applications
IP
TCP, UDP,
MMS
Link Layer
Interfaces
17
Want Plug-and-Play Ease of Use
MA
MMS
MMS
MMS
MMS
MMS
MA
MMS
• Needs to provide a secure
and robust management
communication channel as
long as there is physical
network connectivity
• Service provided on powerup, no complex manual
configuration
• Independent of IP services
• Same familiar socket
programming interface
18
Design Choices
• Design for “few MAs, many NEs”
• Design for MA <-> NE communications only
• Asymmetric crypto for authentication; Symmetric
crypto for securing data
– Simple configuration, good data performance
– NE only needs network certificate, its own public/private key
pair
– Studies showed 60-70% outages caused by config errors
– MA needs own key signed by network certificate and NE
keys
• Onion encrypted source route
– MA in control of routes
– Misbehaving NEs only know local connectivity
– Misbehaving NEs can be by-passed easily with a different
source route
• Malicious end hosts cannot talk to MA
– MA doesn’t have an IP address!
– No DDoS
19
MMS Authentication & Secure Source Routing
Step 0: MA discovers directly
connected NEs, issues
authentication challenge
Step 3: Secure MMS
zone discovers new
neighbors
Step 6: Alternate
source-routes setup to
MA
Step 1: First-hop nodes authenticate
to MA; secure MMS zone established
Step 2: Secure default source routes are setup to MA
Step 4: New neighbors authenticate to MA via secure zone
Step 5: Secure default source-routes setup between MA
and new neighbors
Step 7: Subsequent NEs discovered and
authenticated recursively
20
Performance – Channel Setup Time
21
MMS Latency
Bandwidth: Achieving 800Mbps over 1Gbps links
22
Maestro: Operating Platform for Network Controls
23
Fundamental Need for Control Component
Collaboration (SLA Compliance Example)
• Routing
• Load balancing
• DDoS filtering
S
o
DD
24
Control Component Collaboration is Tricky
• Pair-wise collaboration does not scale
• Lack of state consistency
Routing
Protocol
IGP Link Weight
Optimization
Packet Filter
Configuration
MPLS VPN
Optimization
25
Maestro
Unified Network State Management
Logic 1
Logic 2
Logic 3
……..
Logic N
Virtual Network States
Environmental
State
Performance
State
Computed
State
Underlying Network States
26
Requirements
• Synchronized access to state
– Granularity of locking
• Consistency of input state of collaborating controls
– Even when underlying network state changes
• Maintaining a history of state
– For trend analysis and incremental computations
• Extensible network state
– Support new state associated with new network functions
• Extensible control logic
– Programmatic, reusable, reconfigurable logic
27
Maestro Architecture Overview
CLG
Logic
CLG
Logic
Logic
Logic
Logic
Logic
Local Environment
Snapshot
Local Environment
Transactional Update
Snapshot
Global Environment
BSG
Driver
BSG
BSG
Driver
BSG
Driver
State Dissemination
Physical Network
28
Application to SLA Compliance
• DPC Coordination Protocol
– Regulates forwarding table changes
– Ensures routers adopt consistent
forwarding tables
Logic
Logic
Maestro
DPC Driver
29
CLG 1: Evaluates Acceptability of
Routing State on New Observed Topology
From local env
Connectivity
Activation
Connectivity
From local env
TrafficDemandMatrix
Connectivity
ApprovedIntraDomainRoutingTable
From temp env
PredictedIntraDomainRoutingTable
OSPF
Routing
Prediction
To temp env
PredictedIntraDomainRoutingTable
SLA Compliance
Analysis
To temp env
Null
From local env
Connectivity
AccessControlPolicy
ApprovedAccessControlConfiguration
From temp env
PredictedIntraDomainRoutingTable
Predict
Predicte
Access Control
Configuration
To temp env
PredictedAccessControlConfiguration
Appro
Appro
30
CLG 2: Computes IGP Link Weights for
Load Balance
From local env
Connectivity
TrafficDemandMatrix
Activation
Connectivity
Compute or Select
Precomputed
OSPF Link Weights
for Improved SLA
Compliance
To temp env
OSPFLinkWeights
From temp env
OSPFLinkWeights
Terminal
To global env
OSPFLinkWeights
31
Fraction of flows with SLA violations
Reduction in SLA Violations
1
0.8
CONTRACT
Maestro
No coordination
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
SLA delay guarantee (X min prop. delay)32
Even if Your Control Plane is Perfect
Bugs Can Still Haunt You...
33
Survey of Router Bugs
• Cisco bugs examples
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
500+
– Bugs cause packets sent to wrong recipients
– Bugs cause packet filters to stop working
– Bugs cause legal packets being dropped
200+
Cisco (2000-)
200+
Quagga (2006-)
# of bugs
XORP (2003-)
Publicly reported router bugs
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/products_security_advisories_listing.html
34
Router Bugs Cause Forwarding Loops
HR
IT
Payroll
CS
Internet
ECE
History
Bugs cause network applications to fail!
35
Router Bugs Stop Filters from Working
“ Block all traffic to Payroll coming from outside”
HR
IT
Payroll
CS
packet
ECE
Internet
History
Bugs may create security loophole!
36
What Are Needed For Error Detection?
Intended Trajectory?
flow1
RA
Drop flow1
RB
Rc
Filter-bypass
FIBs of R ,R
Filters on R ,R
B
A
B
ControlA States
Collector
Actual Trajectory?
Trajectory Collector
RD
flow1: RA=>RB
flow1: RA=>RB=>RC
Trajectory
TrajectoryError
ErrorDetector
Detector
Inconsistency: Error detected!
37
Naive Trajectory Monitoring
•
Turn on the monitoring function on all routers.
Flow2
Flow1
Trajectory collector
38
Interesting Observation
•
One trajectory error can be redundantly observed by multiple routers
along its wrong trajectory.
Flow1
How to reduce redundant monitoring?
39
Idea of Router Group Monitoring
•
•
A router group: a set of routers forming a connected subgraph
Only need monitor periphery interfaces of a router group
Flow1
Pros: monitor more routers using fewer interfaces
Cons: some errors may hide and larger groups may not always better
40
detection rate
Detection Rate with 1 Forwarding Misbehavior
Router groups containing 50% nodes of network: > 85% detection rate
Size of router groups / size of network
41
Observations
• Detection rates of groups vary from ~30% to 100%
– Random selection will not pick out good ones
• Brute-force simulation to calculate detection rates is
expensive
– 1000 groups from largest RocketFuel topology: 9 hours
• Need a fast method to predict detection rate!
• Develop a predictive model
42
It Depends on the Network Structure
(Some Intuition)
If2
If1 in
If1 in
RA
RA
RB
RB
RC
RD
Out’
If2
RC
RD
If4
RE
If3 out
Network with loops
May or may NOT detect
out’
If4
RE
If3 out
Network with tree topology
Guarantee to detect!
43
Modeling Detection Rates of Groups
“Divide and Conquer” strategy: Approximate probabilities of
different scenarios and corresponding detection rates of
those scenarios
Scenario 1
Scenario 2
Probability of Scenario 1: p1
Estimated detection rate:d1
Probability of Scenario 2: p2
Estimated detection rate:d2
Detection rate =
∑(pk x dk)
Scenario n
Probability of Scenario n: pn
Estimated detection rate:dn
44
Example Scenarios
• Buggy router is an exiting router
RA
IF1
RF
RC
IF2
RD
RB
RE
• Buggy router not an exiting router, but it misforwards
pkts to a periphery interface in its first hop
• Buggy router not an exiting router, and it misforwards
pkts to one router inside group in first hop, then pkts
stuck in a loop
45
Average Prediction Error of the Model
Prediction error = |predicted detection rate - real detection rate|
Average prediction error across all topologies < 0.05
Computation speedup varies from 20 to 160.
Compute detection rates for 1000 groups from RF-6: 6 minutes V.S. 9 hours
46
Resource constraints: monitor at most MaxIF interfaces
Question: How to select a set of router groups to
monitor so that
1) All trajectory errors are detected: correctness
2) Errors are detected as quickly as possible: performance
47
Sufficient Condition for Complete Coverage
• A set of router groups is said to have complete coverage, if
every interface is a periphery interface for at least one selected
router group.
R3
IF5
R1
IF1
IF3
R2
IF4
IF2
48
Router Group Selection Algorithm
Input: (1) MaxIF (2) a list of good groups predicted by model
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
G7
G8
G9
Output: a subset of groups that satisfy sufficient condition.
They are organized into m sets of router groups, T1; T2; ::; Tm,
for m monitoring periods, where Ti is a subset of groups from group
candidates
T1:
G2
T2:
G4
T3:
G3
G5
G7
Finding smallest m is NP-hard optimization problem.
49
Monitor All Interfaces vs Router Group Monitoring
• Monitoring all interfaces: all
interfaces 1% sampling rate,
100 monitoring periods
Monitoring all interfaces simultaneously
• Router group monitoring: vary
percentage of monitored interfaces
(e.g., x%) & sampling rate (e.g.,
(100/x)%)
Router group monitoring
50
Detection Speedup: Router Group Monitoring vs Monitoring All
Interfaces
All errors are detected using router group monitoring.
Router group monitoring achieves 2-4x detection speedup.
51
Ongoing Work
•
Control Plane
– Maestro for OpenFlow switch
– Inferring network-wide congestion from data packets
– Better architecture for data center networks
• Measuring Amazon EC2 performance
• Integrating optical circuit switching into data center
• Optimizing for parallel virtual machine migration
•
Data Plane
– Fast trajectory verification with efficiently shared data structure for
router state
– Identifying false detections
– Localizing faulty router
– System prototype compatible with Juniper’s JUNOS
•
Many thanks to my graduate students Zheng Cai, Florin Dinu,
Guohui Wang, Bo Zhang, Jie Zheng
– Talk to them at the Poster Session!
52
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