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19th ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER
PROGRAM REVIEW
June 5-6, 2013
7R&
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Day 1: Wednesday, June 5, 2013
8:00 Welcome & Introductions
(20)Anna Stefanopoulou, ARC Director
Prof.
Prof. Volker Sick, Assoc. VP for Research, Natural Sciences and
Engineering, University of Michigan

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condition. When the cell to cell conduction
is
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R2u c f cs
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namely the
cell to cell heat conduction and the heat convection
coolant flow,
the former tends to have larger impact
through the
on the observability of the pack model. This may be related to
WPLQ
the fact that the cell to cell heat conduction is a two-way interfull observability condition. When the cell to cell conduction is
action, where the two adjacent cells can transfer heat between
missing, only 1 combination yields full observability. That comeach other. But the heat convection through the coolant flow is
bination would be placing the sensors at the 3th, 6th, 9th and
single directional, and only the previous cells along the coolant
12th cells. The sensors are actually evenly distributed along the
flow direction will affect the latter ones.
cluster, which agrees with intuition.
Consequently, greater cell to cell heat conduction will be faOf the two modeled thermal interconnections between cells,
Figure 11. OBSERVABILITY OF THE SAME SENSOR LOCATIONS
vored by the observability of the pack model. It is noted that
namely the cell to cell heat conduction and the heat convection
UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS
great cell to cell heat conduction can also reduce the temperature
through the coolant flow, the former tends to have larger impact
gradient between cells in the pack and thus help contain the imon the observability of the pack model. This may be related to
balance between cells induced by temperature non-uniformity.
Table 3. NUMBER OF SENSOR POSITION COMBINATIONS GIVING
the fact that the cell to cell heat conduction is a two-way interHowever, on the negative side, in case of a single cell thermal
FULL OBSERVABILITY FOR A STRING WITH 12 CELLS AND 4 SENaction, where the two adjacent cells can transfer heat between
failure, e.g. local overheating, the great cell to cell heat conducSORS
each other. But the heat convection through the coolant flow is
tion will facilitate the spread of such failure to other cells in the
single directional, and only the previous cells along the coolant
pack. This is not desirable from the safety perspective.
flow direction will affect the latter ones.
Conditions
No. of combinations
Consequently, greater cell to cell heat conduction will be faFigure 11. OBSERVABILITY OF THE SAME SENSOR LOCATIONS
vored by the observability of the pack model. It is noted that
giving full observability
8 Conclusion
UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS
great cell to cell heat conduction can also reduce the temperature
In thisgradient
paper, an
online cells
parameterization
methodology
for a the imFull interconnection
106/495
between
in the pack and
thus help contain
lumped thermal
of acells
cylindrical
ion battery
cell
balancemodel
between
inducedlithium
by temperature
non-uniformity.
Table 3. NUMBER OF SENSOR POSITION COMBINATIONS GIVING
Natural
convection
52/495
has been proposed,
and verified
simulation.
By usHowever, designed
on the negative
side, by
in case
of a single
cell thermal
FULL OBSERVABILITY FOR A STRING WITH 12 CELLS AND 4 SENing
online
parameterization
algorithm,
the
lumped
parameters
of conducNo cell
to
cell
conduction
1/495
failure, e.g. local overheating, the great cell to cell heat
SORS
the thermal
which cannot
be easily
measured
orother
calcu-cells in the
tionmodel,
will facilitate
the spread
of such
failure to
lated otherwise,
can be
identified
basedperspective.
on the curpack. This
is automatically
not desirable from
the safety
rent excitation of a real drive cycle and the resultant battery surNo. of combinations
ditions under differentConditions
scenarios, and the conclusion
is summaface temperatures. The identified parameters and the measured
rized in Table 3. The minimum number of sensors
thatobservability
gives full
cell surface temperature are adopted by an adaptive observer to
giving full
8 Conclusion
observability is 4.
estimate the unmeasurable core temperature of the cell. The estiIn this paper, an online parameterization methodology for a
interconnection
106/495
mated core temperature can be used as a more useful and critical
As shown inFull
Table
3, among all the 495 combinations
of
lumped thermal model of a cylindrical lithium ion battery cell
reference for the on-board thermal management system and even
4 sensor locationsNatural
in a cell
string of 12, if there
is both circuconvection
52/495
has been proposed, designed and verified by simulation. By usthe vehicle power management system. The next step will be to
lated coolant convection and cell to cell conduction, referred to
ing online parameterization algorithm, the lumped parameters of
No cell toin
cell
conduction
1/495 will give
validate the model and the methodology with experiments. Over
as full interconnection
Table
3, 106 combinations
the thermal model, which cannot be easily measured or calcuthe battery lifetime, such online identification scheme can be refull observability. Under natural convection, where the coolant
lated otherwise, can be automatically identified based on the curset on a monthly or yearly basis to track varying parameters due
is not flowing between cells, only 52 combinations can satisfy
rent excitation of a real drive cycle and the resultant battery surditions under different scenarios, and the conclusion is summaface temperatures. The identified parameters and the measured
rized in Table 3. The minimum number of sensors that gives full
cell surface temperature are adopted by an adaptive observer to
observability is 4.
estimate the unmeasurable core temperature of the cell. The estimated core temperature can be used as a more useful and critical
As shown in Table 3, among all the 495 combinations of
reference for the on-board thermal management system and even
4 sensor locations in a cell string of 12, if there is both circuthe vehicle power management system. The next step will be to
lated coolant convection and cell to cell conduction, referred to
validate the model and the methodology with experiments. Over
as full interconnection in Table 3, 106 combinations will give
the battery lifetime, such online identification scheme can be refull observability. Under natural convection, where the coolant
set on a monthly or yearly basis to track varying parameters due
is not flowing between cells, only 52 combinations can satisfy

8:15 “Army Research Needs”
Introduction by Dr. David Gorsich, Chief Scientist, U.S. Army TARDEC
Dr. Paul Rogers, Director, U.S. Army TARDEC
9:00 “From Discovery to Implementation”
Introductions by Ms. Jennifer Hitchcock, Executive Director, Research,
Technology & Integration, U.S. Army TARDEC
Industry Viewpoint
Dr. Joachim Kupe, Director, Advanced Hybrid Program, Cummins
Mr. Mark Pasik, CTO Engineering Design & Technology, General Dynamics
Land Systems
Academic Viewpoint
Prof. Walter Bryzik, Wayne State University
Prof. Georges Fadel, Clemson University
Prof. Zissimos Mourelatos, Oakland University
Prof. Panos Papalambros, University of Michigan
This event is free of charge. Register at
arc.engin.umich.edu
Inquiries
(734) 764-6579
[email protected]
Venue
Chesebrough Auditorium
Chrysler Center, North Campus
The University of Michigan
2121 Bonisteel
Ann Arbor, MI 48109 -2092
10:00 Break
10:30 Case Study Presentations
•
Embedding Energy Intelligence in Robotic Mobility
•
The Seated Soldier Study: New Data and Tools for Soldier-Centered
Design of Vehicles
12:00 Lunch
13:40 Technical Sessions
1A: Hybrid Powertrain & Cooling / 1B: Chemistry of Power
15:25-16:45 Poster Session
Day 2: Thursday, June 6, 2013
8:00 Semi-keynote
2A: Ms. Sonya Zanardelli, Energy Storage Research Team Leader, TARDEC
2B: Dr. David Lamb, Senior Technical Expert, TARDEC
8:30 Technical Sessions
2A: Electrical Energy Storage / 2B: Design, Optimization, Reliability
10:10 Break
In accordance with Cooperative Agreement
W56HZV-04-2-0001
U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development
and Engineering Center (TARDEC)
10:40 Technical Session
3B: Vehicle Dynamics and Control
Organized by the
Automotive Research Center
A U.S. Army Center of Excellence for Modeling
and Simulation of Ground Vehicles
12:00 Closing and Poster Award Presentation
Prof. Alec Gallimore, Assoc. Dean for Research and Graduate Education,
University of Michigan
Dr. David Gorsich, Chief Scientist, U.S. Army TARDEC
12:30-2:00 Post Review Reception
College of Engineering
19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW SPEAKER INFORMATION PROF. VOLKER SICK earned degrees in Chemistry and Physical Chemistry from the University of Heidelberg in 1988 (Diplom), 1992 (Dr. rer. nat), and 1997 (Habilitation). During a tenured appointment in Heidelberg, he spent a one-­‐year sabbatical in 1994/95 at the Combustion Research Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA and SRI International in Menlo Park, CA. He is an internationally recognized pioneer in laser-­‐based imaging diagnostics and engine research. The Combustion Institute recognized his novel ultraviolet particle image velocimetry technique with the Silver Medal. Amongst a broad variety of achievements are quantitative diagnostic techniques such as high-­‐speed imaging of fuel concentration, high-­‐speed particle velocimetry, and temperature imaging in engines. He serves as the Editor of the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute and on the editorial board of Experiments in Fluids. He is a Fellow of SAE International. At UM, Prof. Sick served as faculty advisor to the Formula SAE team and the SAE Collegiate Student Chapter for many years. He also held a partial appointment as the College of Engineering’s Faculty Advisor to International Programs in Engineering from 2007-­‐2012. His engagement for younger students has earned him awards at local, national, and international levels, including being named Arthur F. Thurnau Professor in 2013. Prof. Sick holds appointments as guest professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China and Friedrich-­‐
Alexander-­‐Universität Nürnberg-­‐Erlangen. TU Darmstadt, Germany, named him a Fellow at the Center of Smart Interfaces. DR. DAVID GORSICH was selected for a Scientific and Professional (ST) position in January 2009 and serves as the Army’s Chief Scientist for Ground Vehicle Systems. His current research interests are vehicle dynamics and structural analysis, reliability-­‐
based design optimization, underbody blast modeling, terrain modeling and spatial statistics. He is the primary technical advisor to the Director of TARDEC and responsible for the organization’s science and technology strategy, as well as the review of TARDEC’s basic research programs. He is the organization's primary focal point to organizations such as DARPA and Army Research Office (ARO), and serves as the technical expert for the U.S. Army National Automotive Center. Previously Dr. Gorsich was the Director of Strategic Plans and Programs at TARDEC, and the Associate Director for Modeling and Simulation. As TARDEC's Associate Director for Simulation, he also was responsible for the Center's High Performance Computing program. Before 2003, Dr. Gorsich served as a research scientist in TARDEC's Robotics Lab as well as the leader of the National Automotive Center's Vehicle Intelligence team. He has held positions within the Program Managers’ offices, and with the Army in Washington D.C. He has published over 150 conference and journal articles in the areas of simulation, reliability-­‐based design optimization, terrain modeling, spatial statistics and other approximation methods. He received his Ph.D. in applied mathematics from M.I.T. in 2000, his M.S. in applied mathematics from George Washington University in 1994, and his B.S. in electrical engineering from Lawrence Technological University in 1990. 19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW DR. PAUL ROGERS serves as the Director of TARDEC where he is responsible for providing executive management to deliver advanced technology solutions for all Department of Defense ground systems and combat support equipment. Dr. Rogers is a member of the Army Senior Executive Service. As the TARDEC Director, Dr. Rogers manages a workforce of more than 1,700 engineers, scientists, researchers, and support staff and sets strategic direction for a full range of investments that affect more than 270 Army systems. With an annual budget of more than $475 million, Dr. Rogers ensures TARDEC provides vigilance and resourcefulness to deliver solutions within cost and on schedule so our Soldiers can dominate on the battlefield. Dr. Rogers previously served as the Deputy Program Executive Officer for Ground Combat Systems where he managed the development, systems integration, acquisition, testing, fielding, sustainment and improvement of ground combat systems in accordance with the Army's transformation campaign plan. The Ground Combat Systems Program has an annual budget of over $2.9 billion with a total program cost of over $18.46 billion (POM FY14-­‐18). Dr. Rogers’ responsibilities included ensuring that all of the coordination and communication is achieved for a complex and diverse organization with two Pre-­‐MDAP programs (Armored Multi-­‐Purpose Vehicle and Ground Combat Vehicle) and four ACAT I programs, including the Paladin Integrated Management, Abrams Tank Upgrade, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle Upgrade and the Stryker Armored Vehicle System. Additionally, he oversaw four ACAT II programs as well as approximately 100 other weapons system programs. Prior to accepting his responsibilities as Deputy PEO GCS, Dr. Rogers served as the TARDEC Executive Director for Research and Technical Integration. In this capacity, Dr. Rogers led the organization in providing Army research and development in Ground Vehicle Power and Mobility, Survivability, Intelligent Systems, Vehicle Electronic and Architecture Systems, and Platform Concept, Analysis, and System Simulation. Dr. Rogers served as the key executive responsible for the center’s science and technology strategic planning, program selection, funding allocation, execution and transition to acquisition programs. He managed the technology base investments and led a 500-­‐person workforce through six technical business area associate directors. As a member of the Michigan National Guard, Dr. Rogers was activated and served in Iraq as the Battalion Commander for the 507th Engineer Battalion. His command included twelve separate companies/detachments at Balad, Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom 04-­‐06. The 507th Eng Bn was a joint force consisting of deployed forces from the Active Army and Air Force, Army National Guard, Army Reserve, and Marines. He commanded a total of 823 soldiers, 139 marines, and 114 airmen in combat operations during the deployment. His mission responsibilities included military fixed bridging, offensive assault float bridging, rafting operations, riverine operations, vertical and horizontal construction, well drilling, and asphalt production/paving. He also organized, trained, and deployed an armored D9 dozer task force in support of division offensive operations. The 507th Eng Bn served in Iraq from 1 January 2005 to 6 December 2005. Dr. Rogers’ military awards and decorations include the Bronze Star, Army Meritorious Service Medal, Army Achievement Medal, Iraqi Campaign Medal, Airborne Badge and the Bronze Order of the de Fleury Medal. His previous military assignments include, Brigade and Battalion Operations Officer, Company Commander, and Platoon Leader. He currently serves as the Commander of the 177th Regiment, Regional Training Institute, MIARNG. Dr. Rogers holds a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering-­‐Engineering Mechanics from Michigan Technological University (MTU), a Masters of Strategic Studies from the U.S. Army War College, a Master’s of Science in Engineering – Mechanical Engineering from the University of Michigan – Dearborn, and a Bachelors of Science in Mechanical Engineering from MTU. He is a graduate of the Army Engineer Officer Basic Course, Engineer Officer Advance Course, Combined Arms Services Staff School, Army Command and General Staff College and the U.S. Army War College. Dr. Rogers is currently serving the External Advisory Boards for the Mechanical Engineering Departments at Michigan Technological University, Lawrence Technological University and the University of Michigan. He has previously served as an Adjunct Professor of Mechanical Engineering at LTU. 19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW MS. JENNIFER HITCHCOCK was appointed to the Senior Executive Service in January 2011 as the Executive Director for Research and Technology Integration (RTI) at the U.S. Army Research Development and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). TARDEC is located at the Detroit Arsenal in Warren, MI, and is recognized as the premier laboratory for advanced military automotive technology for ground vehicle systems and logistics support equipment within the Department of Defense (DOD). Ms. Hitchcock brings more than 21 years of technical leadership and managerial experience in mobility and power and energy technologies, system engineering, acquisition and program management. Ms. Hitchcock has served as the Acting Director of RTI since April 2010, and is responsible for leading the research and integration of Army ground vehicle mobility, power and energy, survivability, robotic and vehicle electronic architecture technologies. She is responsible for ensuring concepts, analytics, analysis and system simulation are completed for all ground vehicle technology integration to drive system integration solutions to meet emerging Army battlefield challenges. She leads more than 500 associates in five technical business areas, and is the executive responsible for the planning, execution, funding and selection of technology programs the Army will pursue to align and transition to acquisition programs. Ms. Hitchcock’s previous assignments include: TARDEC Chief of Staff where she developed a staff organization, and as the Program Manager for the Army’s Electromagnetic Gun Program. She also served as the Associate Director for TARDEC’s Power and Mobility Organization from 2005 to 2008, and was responsible for the research, development, engineering and testing of engines, hybrid-­‐electric drive technologies, transmissions, propulsion system components, fuel cells, track and suspension systems, and auxiliary power units for both tactical and combat military ground vehicles. In her three years in this position, she led organization transformation by improving and increasing workforce capacity, improving facilities, developing tools and capabilities for more efficient technology analysis and development, realigning technologies to Army Programs of Record and developing a long-­‐term investment strategy for ground vehicle power and mobility technologies. Ms. Hitchcock was selected in 2005 to Chair the RDECOM Power and Engineering Integrated Product Team (IPT). In that role, she led a panel of power and energy experts from all Army Research and Development Labs, DOD, Department of Energy, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, other government organizations, industry and academia to advise Senior Army Leaders on power and energy technologies, issues and initiatives, and establish baseline Army technology roadmaps for several technology portfolios. Ms. Hitchcock earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Lawrence Technological University and her Master of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Oakland University. In 2008, she attended the Army’s Senior Service College Fellowship program and graduated with a Master’s degree in Leadership and Globalization. She is currently pursuing her Doctorate in Organization Development at Lawrence Technological University. In 2006, Ms. Hitchcock received the Commanders Award for Civilian Service. In 2005, she was awarded the Leaders and Innovators Award from Lawrence Technological University. That same year, Lawrence Technological University honored her with an Alumni Achievement Award, and is only the second women to ever receive this award. She has been a leader for many government-­‐industry-­‐academia IPTs, and has participated in many boards, workshops and symposiums as a military mobility and propulsion authority. She is a member of the National Society of Leadership and Success. 19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW DR. JOACHIM KUPE has 25 years of experience in engine management systems, exhaust aftertreatment, sensors, valvetrain products, electric motors, power electronics, hybrid powertrains, and automotive component and systems development. He started his career 1988 at the GM Technical Center in Luxembourg (Europe), where he worked for almost 10 years prior to moving to the US in 1997. He has held multiple leadership positions both at GM and later at Delphi, after the Delphi spin off from GM. He was Chief Engineer-­‐Advanced Powertrain Technology at Delphi when he joined Cummins Inc. in October 2011 as Director –Advanced Systems Engineering. He is leading the efforts in advanced hybrid and electrification technologies. Dr. Kupe has a Doctorate Degree (Dr.-­‐Ing.) in Electro-­‐Mechanical Engineering from the RWTH Technical University Aachen, Germany. He has been invited more than 10 times as key notes lecturer on powertrain and exhaust aftertreatment. He has more than 20 papers published, 23 patents awarded, with several pending, and one defensive publication. He is an inductee of the Delphi Hall of Fame and received the “National Black Engineer of the Year Award for Outstanding Technical Contribution” in 2009. He is fluent in English, German and French. MR. MARK PASIK is the Chief Technology Officer within Engineering Design & Technology at General Dynamics Land Systems, where he is instrumental in leadership of the design, development and integration of technologies for current and future ground combat vehicles. His background encompasses 30 years in Department of Defense programs, including work on the design/development of manned and unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s), helicopters, naval ships and fighter aircraft. His experience includes management of programs valued at over $1B, leading large program teams of multi-­‐function organizations, including multinational procurements and integrated system development. His technical background includes technology design, development, integration and test of advanced technologies for future military systems. Mr. Pasik is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and holds a BSEE from the University of Wisconsin, has advanced studies in Electrical Engineering from Washington University, Business Administration from the University of New Haven and Advanced Program Management from the Defense Systems Management College. PROF. WALTER BRYZIK has been serving as DeVlieg Chairman and Professor, Mechanical Engineering at Wayne State University, College of Engineering, Detroit, Michigan since Feb 2008. Dr. Bryzik was Chief Scientist of the U.S. Army Tank-­‐Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) in Warren, Michigan, encompassing all aspects of ground vehicle technology. He represented the Army worldwide within government, industry, and academia as its senior technical leader in ground vehicle technology. In 1997, Dr. Bryzik was promoted to the Army’s highest Scientific/Technical Rank . Promotion to this rank was competitively made at Secretary of the Army Level in recognition of his numerous pioneering technical achievements as an internationally recognized world class leader in the area of advanced ground vehicle technology. 19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW Dr. Bryzik has authored and co-­‐authored over 250 peer reviewed publications and has contributed to over 20 separate book issues through editing and individual technical paper contributions. He has chaired and/or organized numerous technical international and inter-­‐government conferences responsible for dealing with worldwide advanced automotive technology, and was technical chair of various senior level government committees, particularly with Japan, Germany, and France. Dr. Bryzik was the founder and President of the national Army ST chapter of the Senior Executive Association(SEA), is a member of the SEA national Board of Directors, and has acted as the national co-­‐chair of the Department of Defense Senior Level Scientists organization. He has served at TARDEC in various capacities of increasing responsibility since 1968. Dr. Bryzik is a Fellow Grade member of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), member of the SAE National Powerplant Committee, and an editorial reviewer for SAE, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Combustion Institute. He had been an Adjunct Professor and Graduate Faculty Member of Mechanical Engineering at Wayne State University from 1978 to 2007, both continuously teaching graduate courses and performing world class research. He is currently on the Board of Visitors of the University of Michigan’s Mechanical Engineering Department, and has served as a member of numerous significant National Academy of Engineering (NAE) panels on national advanced automotive technology policy. Dr. Bryzik was the recipient of the Distinguished Presidential Rank Award in 2004, with the award personally presented by President Bush in the White House Rose Garden, Washington D. C. This is the highest award given by the US Government for exceptional science and technology and its impact on society, and included an honorarium of 35% of yearly salary. He received a bachelors(highest honors), masters, and doctorate in mechanical engineering from the University of Detroit, and a masters degree in business administration and management from Central Michigan University. PROF. GEORGES FADEL is Professor of Mechanical Engineering and holds the ExxonMobil Employees Chair in Engineering at Clemson University. He obtained a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering and an MS in Computer Science from Georgia Tech., and a Diploma in Mechanical Engineering from the ETH, in Zurich, Switzerland. Dr. Fadel teaches design related courses and researches methods and tools to help designers deal with complexity (representation, coordination, and optimization) and globalization issues (collaboration and networked virtual environments). He deals particularly with topics in packaging optimization (under-­‐hood and underbody layout, component placement, and structural and vehicle dynamic performance optimization), multi-­‐material design and manufacturing, and design methodology (especially Affordance Based Design). He has published over two hundred research articles. He is member and fellow of the ASME, and past chair of its Technical Committee on Design Automation. He is member of AIAA, SAE, ISSMO, MCDM, the Design Society, Designers Accord and Sigma Xi. Dr. Fadel is on the editorial boards of the Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization Journal, the journal of Research in Engineering Design and the International Journal of Interactive Design and Manufacturing. 19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW PROF. ZISSIMOS MOURELATOS is the John F. Dodge Professor of Engineering and the Chair of Mechanical Engineering Department at Oakland University in Rochester, MI. Before joining Oakland University, he spent 18 years at the General Motors Research and Development Center. He conducts research in the areas of design under uncertainty, structural reliability methods, reliability analysis with insufficient data, Reliability-­‐Based Design Optimization (RBDO), vibrations and dynamics, and NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). Dr. Mourelatos has published over 150 journal and conference publications and a book entitled, “Decision Making under Uncertainty using Limited Information.” He is the Editor-­‐in-­‐Chief of the International Journal of Reliability and Safety, an Associate Editor of the SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing, and a SAE Fellow. He has also served as an Associate Editor and Guest Co-­‐Editor of the ASME Journal of Mechanical Design. PROF. PANOS PAPALAMBROS is the Donald C. Graham Professor of Engineering and a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Michigan. He is also Professor of Architecture and Professor of Art and Design and serves as Executive Director of Integrative Systems & Design in the College of Engineering. He has earned a diploma in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens (1974), and M.S. (1976) and PhD (1979) degrees in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University. He has been a faculty member at Michigan since 1979. During his tenure at Michigan he served as department chair (1992-­‐98 and 2007-­‐2008) and was the founding director of several laboratories and centers: The Optimal Design (ODE) Laboratory (1980 -­‐); the Design Laboratory (1990-­‐92); the Ford Durability Simulation Center (1992-­‐
94); the US Army Automotive Research Center (1994-­‐2003); the General Motors Collaborative Research Laboratory (1998-­‐2002); the Antilium Project (2003-­‐2006); and the Ford BlockM Sustainability Laboratory (2006-­‐
2009). In 2006 he became the founding chair of the University of Michigan interdisciplinary Design Science Doctoral Program. His research interests include design science and optimization, with applications to product design and development, automotive systems, such as hybrid and electric vehicles, architectural design, and design of large complex engineered systems. With D. J. Wilde, he co-­‐authored the textbook Principles of Optimal Design: Modeling and Computation (1988, 2000). He has published over 320 articles in journals, conference proceedings, and books. He serves on the Board of Management of the Design Society, and on the editorial boards of the journals Artificial Intelligence in Engineering Design and Manufacturing, Engineering Design, Engineering Optimization, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. He served as Chief Editor of the ASME Journal of Mechanical Design (2008-­‐2012). He is a Fellow of ASME and SAE, and the recipient of the ASME Design Automation Award (1998), ASME Machine Design Award (1999), and JSME Design and Systems Achievement Award (2004), and the ASME Joel and Ruth Spira Outstanding Design Educator Award (2007). Since 2000, he holds the Donald C. Graham Endowed Chair in Engineering, and in 2009 he received the Stephen S. Attwood Award, the highest honor in the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan. 19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW MS. SONYA ZANARDELLI received her B.S. from Wayne State University and M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from University of Michigan -­‐ Dearborn, in 2002 and 2005, respectively. She is currently working at US Army Tank Automotive Research Development Engineering Center (TARDEC) in Warren, MI and holds the position of Energy Storage Team Leader in the Research Business Group in the Ground Vehicle Power & Mobility Directorate and has worked at TARDEC for 12 years. Her research fields of interest include bidirectional converters and control and advanced energy storage research for military ground vehicle applications. DR. DAVID LAMB is an applied mathematician and computer scientist working for the U.S. Army. He is the Senior Technical Expert for military ground vehicle modeling and simulation (M&S), and his personal research is in optimization, especially optimization under uncertainty. He has a B.S. with honors from George Mason University in 1985, where he majored in mathematics. He earned a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-­‐
Madison in 1992, under the direction of Prof. Ken Kunen, with a major in mathematics and a minor in computer sciences. He is active with SAE, where he is currently the chairman of the Ground Vehicle Reliability committee, and also with SIAM, where he is the co-­‐
President of the Great Lakes Section. He has worked for the U.S. Army Tank-­‐automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) since 1994. PROF. ALEC GALLIMORE is an Arthur F. Thurnau Professor and is a Professor of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Michigan where he directs the Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory. Professor Gallimore is also an Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Education in Michigan’s College of Engineering. Professor Gallimore is on the faculty of the Applied Physics program and directs a number of multi-­‐institution centers including the NASA-­‐funded Michigan Space Grant Consortium and the Michigan/Air Force Center of Excellence in Electric Propulsion. He received his B.S. in Aeronautical Engineering from Rensselaer, and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Aerospace Engineering from Princeton. His primary research interests include advanced spacecraft propulsion, plasma physics and nanoparticle energetics. Professor Gallimore has graduated 35 Ph.D. students and 12 master’s students, and has written 300 journal articles and conference papers on electric propulsion and plasma physics. Professor Gallimore serves on the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Electric Propulsion Technical Committee and is a Fellow of AIAA. Professor Gallimore is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Propulsion and Power and for the JANNAF (propulsion) Journal, and has served on a number of advisory boards for NASA and the Department of Defense including the United States Air Force Scientific Advisor Board (AFSAB). He was awarded the Decoration for Meritorious Civilian Service in 2005 for his work on the AFSAB. He is co-­‐
founder of ElectroDynamic Applications, Inc. (EDA), a high-­‐tech aerospace firm in Ann Arbor, MI that specializes in plasma device engineering. 19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW POSTER COMMITTEE DR. THOMAS MEITZLER received his B.S. and M.S. in Physics from Eastern Michigan University, completed graduate coursework at the Univ. of Michigan, and received a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Wayne State University in Detroit. He has taught Physics, Astronomy and Engineering courses at The University of Michigan-­‐Dearborn and Henry Ford Community College. From 1988 to present he has been a research engineer at the U.S. Army RDECOM TARDEC in Warren in the department of Survivability. Dr. Meitzler is currently developing and integrating technologies for embedded armor health monitoring, armor NDE and embedded signal detection. His research interests include infrared sensor characterization, non-­‐destructive testing, nanoelectronics, and spintronics. Dr. Meitzler proposed a method for embedded armor plate health assessment that involves piezoelectric transducers and nanoelectronics and has built a laboratory around that idea. DR. DAWN TILBURY received the B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering, summa cum laude, from the University of Minnesota in 1989, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1992 and 1994, respectively. In 1995, she joined the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where she is currently Professor, with a joint appointment as Professor of EECS. She is Deputy Director of the US-­‐Army TARDEC Automotive Research Center. She won the EDUCOM Medal (jointly with Professor William Messner) in 1997 for her work on the Control Tutorials for Matlab. An updated version was recently re-­‐issued at the website http://ctms.engin.umich.edu. She is co-­‐author (with Joseph Hellerstein, Yixin Diao, and Sujay Parekh) of the textbook Feedback Control of Computing Systems. She received an NSF CAREER award in 1999, and is the 2001 recipient of the Donald P. Eckman Award of the American Automatic Control Council. She is the 2012 recipient of the SWE Distinguished Engineering Educator Award. She was a member of the 2004-­‐2005 class of the Defense Science Study Group (DSSG), and was a member of DARPA's Information Science and Technology Study Group (ISAT) from 2005–2008. Her research interests include distributed control of mechanical systems with network communication, logic control of manufacturing systems, reliability of ground robotics, and dynamic systems modeling of physiological systems. She was a member of the IEEE Control Systems Society Board of Governors from 2005–2008, and is currently Past Chair of the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division. She was Program Chair for the 2012 American Control Conference and will be General Chair for the 2014 ACC. She was elected Fellow of the IEEE in 2008 and Fellow of the ASME in 2012. DR. LAURENCE TOOMEY received his B.S. in Chemistry from State University of New York, College at Fredonia in 1992 and Ph.D. in Chemistry from State University of New York, University at Buffalo in 1997. He joined US Army, Tank Automotive Research Development Engineering Center (TARDEC) in Warren, Michigan in January 2010 where he works as an engineer on the Energy Storage team in the Ground Vehicle Power & Mobility Directorate. He currently manages multiple programs focusing on the development of advanced battery systems for military vehicle platforms. Prior to TARDEC, he held the position of R&D Manager at Cobasys, Inc./SB LiMotive in Orion, Michigan developing NiMH and Li-­‐ion battery systems for hybrid automotive applications. He also held a position of Senior Scientist at Lithium Energy Associates, Inc. in Waltham, MA developing advance Li metal batteries for military applications. His research interests include materials research to improve energy density, performance and safety characteristics of advanced energy storage technologies. 19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW
CASE STUDY ABSTRACTS
CASE STUDY 1
Embedding Energy Intelligence in Robotic Mobility
Case Study Lead - Tulga Ersal, The University of Michigan
with Matt Castanier, U.S. Army TARDEC
Ground robots have proven to be an invaluable technology for the Army, globally supporting missions that
range from detecting and disarming explosives to search and rescue operations. This case study will highlight an
integrated simulation framework for modeling, predicting, and controlling the energy and power during both
planning and execution of a mission. To create such a framework, this case study brings together four ARC
projects that span (1) algorithms for coverage planning with minimal energy, (2) battery electrothermal models for
managing the power source limits, (3) physics-based simulations of terramechanics for predicting the power
requirements of versatile terrains, and (4) online prognostics of remaining mission energy.
The benefits of having such an integrated simulation framework reach beyond improving the mobility of a
robot for a given mission through increased intelligence. The physics based nature of the models included in this
framework also allows for optimizing the system performance through trade space analyses as dictated by the
Interoperability Profiles effort of the Robotic Systems Joint Project Office (RS JPO), an effort to promote modular
design. The framework also enables studying the impact of communication latencies on the performance of the
robot during a remote teleoperation and developing new solutions to compensate for latencies.
CASE STUDY 2
The Seated Soldier Study: New Data and Tools for Soldier-Centered Design of Vehicles
Contributors:
The University of Michigan - Matthew Reed
U.S. Army TARDEC - Katrina Harris, Hollie Pietsch, Gale Zielinski, Harry Zywiol
The ARC is leading an effort to improve the methods used to assess the physical accommodation and
safety of Warfighters in vehicles. Detailed three-dimensional measurements of 310 soldiers in a range of vehicle
seating configurations were gathered to create a suite of new tools to represent the posture, body shape, and space
claim of encumbered soldiers. This presentation will introduce the Seated Soldier Study and highlight some of the
ways the new data and tools are being used in TARDEC programs.
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AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER ANNUAL PROGRAM REVIEW
TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM DAY 1
June 5
1:40
2:05
2:30
2:55 –
3:20
1A: Hybrid Powertrain & Cooling
Session Co-Chairs: Denise Rizzo, Wesley Zanardelli
165 Chrysler Center
Optimization of the Series-HEV system with Consideration of the Traction
Motor Design and the Impact of Cooling Auxiliary Losses, PI: Zoran Filipi
Powertrain Thermal Management – Integration and Control of a Hybrid
Electric Vehicle Battery Pack, E-Motor Drive, and Internal Combustion
Engine Multiple Loop Cooling System, PI: John Wagner
Advanced Models for Electric Machines, PI: Heath Hofmann
1B: Chemistry of Power
Session Co-Chairs: Peter Schihl, Eric Sattler
Chesebrough Auditorium
Simulation and Control of Combustion in Military Diesel Engines, PI: Naeim Henein
Improved Power Density and Temperature Range of In-vehicle Power
Converters: High Frequency Power Supplies for High Temperature
Environments, PI: Juan Rivas
High Energy Density Asymmetric Capacitors, PI: Levi Thompson
A Surrogate For Emulating the Physical and Chemical Properties of Jet Fuel, PI:
Angela Violi
Validation of JP-8 Surrogates in an Optical Engine, PI: Marcis Jansons
TECHNICAL SYMPOSIUM DAY 2
June 6
9:45 –
10:10
2A: Electrical Energy Storage & Thermal Studies
Session Co-Chairs: James Mainero, Larry Toomey
165 Chrysler Center
Semi-keynote
Ms. Sonya Zanardelli, Energy Storage Research Team Leader
Ground Vehicle Power & Mobility Group, U.S. Army TARDEC
Ultracapacitor Energy Storage for Improving Fuel Economy and Extending
Battery Life in Heavy Vehicles, PI: Ardalan Vahidi
Accomplishments and future challenges for high resolution neutron imaging
as an in situ measurement and validation technique for meso-scale models
of lithium ion batteries, PI: Anna Stefanopoulou
Electro-Thermal modeling of large-format Prismatic Cells, PI: Charles
Monroe
Combined Experimental and Computational Study of Battery Cooling in
Hybrid Electric Vehicles, PI: Lin Ma
June 6
-
10:40
-
11:05
-
11:30 –
11:55
-
8:00
8:30
8:55
9:20
2B: Design, Optimization, Reliability
Session Co-Chairs: David Lamb, Matthew Castanier
Chesebrough Auditorium
Semi-keynote
Dr. David Lamb, Senior Technical Expert (STE) in Modeling and Simulation
U.S. Army TARDEC
Optimal Crowdsourcing Framework for Engineering Design, PI: Panos Papalambros
An Accelerated Life Testing Methodology for Vehicle Systems using TimeDependent Reliability Principles, PI: Zissimos Mourelatos
An Efficient Variable Screening Method for Effective Surrogate Models for ReliabilityBased Design Optimization, PI: K.K. Choi
MultiObjective Decomposition Algorithm for the Battery Thermal Packaging
Design, Co-PIs: Margaret Wiecek, Georges Fadel
3B: Vehicle Dynamics and Control
Session Co-Chairs: Paramsothy Jayakumar, Denise Rizzo
Chesebrough Auditorium
Vehicle-Dynamics-Conscious Real-Time Hazard Avoidance in Autonomous Ground
Vehicles, PI: Jeffrey Stein
Off-Road Soft Soil Tire Model Development, Validation, and Interface to Commercial
Multibody Dynamics Software, PI: Corina Sandu
Flexible Multibody Dynamics Approach for Tire Dynamics Simulation, PI: Hiroyuki
Sugiyama
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW
TECHNICAL SESSION ABSTRACTS
Day 1 Technical Session 1.A – Hybrid Powertrain & Cooling
Session Co-Chairs: Ms. Denise Rizzo, Dr. Wesley Zanardelli
1A1: Optimization of the Series-HEV system with Consideration of the Traction Motor Design and the
Impact of Cooling Auxiliary Losses; Xueyu Zhang, Andrej Ivanco, and Zoran Filipi (Clemson U.)
The fidelity of the military hybrid electric vehicle simulation has been increased with the integration of the
finite element electric machine model, in order to address optimization of component design for system level goals.
In-wheel electric motors are considered because their duty cycles differ significantly from commercial HEV
applications. Optimization framework was setup by coupling the vehicle simulation with the constrained
optimization solver. The results guide design changes of the e-machine to achieve best vehicle fuel economy. In
addition, the battery cooling system is integrated with the powertrain to enable analysis of the auxiliary parasitic
loses, and their impact on optimal control strategy. Dynamic programming algorithm is extended to consider two
states, and the results are processed to extract the implementable strategy for maximizing fuel economy. This is a
part of the cross-cutting study in collaboration with ARC members working on thermal management and emachine modeling.
1A2: Powertrain Thermal Management – Integration and Control of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Battery Pack, E-Motor Drive, and IC Engine Multiple Loop Cooling System; William Tao and John
Wagner (Clemson U.)
Hybrid electric vehicles combine an internal combustion engine with electric motors and battery pack to
propel the vehicle. This project investigates control strategies for thermal management systems to stabilize the
battery package, e-motor(s), and engine temperatures while minimizing the cooling power consumption.
Mathematical models and controllers have been developed for this integrated vehicle subsystem. A three-state
battery model, with Kalman observer, describes the battery surface and core temperatures plus the cooling air
flowing around the cells. A model predictive controller regulates the refrigerant compressor speed and achieves the
ideal cooling air temperature. Numerical results show reduced compressor power consumption while maintaining
desired battery core temperature can be realized. Finally, e-motor and ICE temperatures must be controlled to
desired ranges.
1A3: Advanced Models for Electric Machines; Heath Hofmann (PI) Kan Zhou (U. of Michigan),
Wesley Zanardelli, Matthew Castanier, Denise Kramer (TARDEC), Lei Hao (GM)
The thermal limitations of electric machines in powertrain applications make knowledge of internal
temperatures in the machine critical. In previous work we developed a thermal model of electric machines using an
eigenmode-based model-order-reduction technique. The result is a thermal model with the accuracy of finite
element models but orders of magnitude faster. Recent efforts have involved the development of a
computationally-efficient loss model for electric machines. The loss and thermal models have been designed so
that their results can be easily and quickly scaled, both in size and in the number of turns, allowing a variety of
machine designs to be quickly generated and simulated. The models above are being used in collaboration with
Prof. Zoran Fillipi’s and Prof. John Wagner’s research groups to conduct an HEV powertrain-level design and
optimization study.
1A4: Improved Density and Temperature Range of In-vehicle Power Converters: High Frequency
Power Supplies for High Temperature Environments; Juan Rivas, Wei Liang (U. of Michigan), M.
Abul Masrur (TARDEC), John Glaser (GE Global Research)
This work presents the design and implementation of a high density 150 V-200 V to 28 V, 200 W-400 W
resonant dc-dc converter with embedded inductors. The converter switches at 13.56 MHz and uses air–core
toroidal inductors fabricated with printed circuit board (PCB) technology. Implementing the inductors with the
PCB eliminates inductance variation, minimizes unwanted stray magnetic fields and parasitics, and reduces
undesired coupling. Hence, the tuning and implementation of the converter are simplified while achieving high
levels of performance and power density. The inductors also maintain stable values over a wide temperature range
without magnetic cores. We describe the advantages of resonant power converter topologies in applications
requiring high density and high performance in demanding environments.
19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW
Day 1 Technical Session 1.B – Chemistry of Power
Session Co-Chairs: Dr. Peter Schihl, Mr. Eric Sattler
1B1: Simulation and Control of Combustion in Military Diesel Engines; N. A. Henein, A. Shrestha,
Z. Zheng, U. Johsi, R. George and S. Mekhael (Wayne State U.)
The goal of this project is to develop combustion control strategies for military diesel engines to operate
properly on alternate fuels including low-cetane JP-8. Operation on low-CN JP-8 causes power loss, increased fuel
consumption, soot and white smoke which affect survivability, mobility and mission readiness in the field. The
approach is interactive between computer simulations, analytical and experimental investigations. The
investigations utilize IQT constant volume vessel, PNGV single cylinder engine and two production diesel engines.
The developed control strategies include, combustion phasing, pilot injection, split injection, injection rate shaping,
and operation at higher temperatures and pressures.
1B2: A Surrogate For Emulating the Physical and Chemical Properties of Jet Fuel; Angela Violi,
Jason Martz, Doohyun Kim (U of Michigan)
The use of jet fuel in ground vehicles with diesel engines is mandated by the Army’s single battlefield fuel
policy. To model the jet fuel combustion process with CFD, two four-component surrogates, UM1 and UM2, were
formulated to emulate both the physical and chemical properties of a representative real jet fuel. The surrogate
target properties include cetane number, lower heating value, hydrogen to carbon ratio, molecular weight and
temperature dependent density, viscosity, surface tension and distillation characteristics. Properties of the newly
developed surrogates and existing surrogates obtained from the literature were compared to real jet fuel properties.
Simulations of non-reacting jet fuel sprays within a constant volume bomb were performed with the newly
developed and existing surrogates and compared to experimental liquid and vapor spray penetration data.
1B3: Validation of JP-8 Surrogates in an Optical Engine; PI: Marcis Jansons (Wayne State U.)
Validation of JP-8 surrogates is a requirement to establish the fidelity of predictive numerical simulations
used in the design and analysis of combustion systems. In an optical engine, physical and kinetic behaviors of
surrogates are evaluated and compared against the target JP-8 fuel under temperature and pressure history
conditions representative of a combustion cycle. Optical diagnostics are applied to quantify parameters key to the
various phases of the engine combustion process for both target fuels and surrogates. Numerical combustion
simulations using the surrogates are compared against experimentally determined values of liquid lengths,
obtained from laser-induced Mie-scattering images, low temperature reactivity measured by HCHO
chemiluminescence intensity, ignition location determined by laser-induced OH fluorescence, cylinder pressure,
and heat release rate. .
1B4: High Energy Density Asymmetric Capacitors; Levi Thompson (PI), Paul Rasmussen,
Abdoulaye Djire, Priyanka Pande (U. of Michigan)
Batteries are the principal devices used for military and commercial energy storage applications. While
these devices can have energy densities exceeding 100 Wh/kg, this energy is difficult to fully access in pulsed and
high power applications due to the relatively slow kinetics associated with their redox processes. Supercapacitors
offer much higher power densities and could complement batteries in pulsed power applications, however, their
low energy densities are only sufficient for relatively short pulses (a few seconds). Our research is exploring the
feasibility the using asymmetric cell designs and new, high capacity materials to produce asymmetric
supercapacitors with energy densities that out-perform currently available devices and enable applications with
longer pulses. This paper will describe our progress during current funding year including initial results on the
temperature dependence of equivalent series resistance (ESR) for pouch cells, as well as a summary of solution
based chemistries for facile synthesis of VN with high surface areas.
19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW
Day 2 Technical Session 2.A – Electrical Energy Storage
Session Co-Chairs: Mr. James Mainero, Mr. Larry Toomey
2A1: Ultracapacitor Energy Storage for Improving Fuel Economy and Extending Battery Life in
Heavy Vehicles; Ardalan Vahidi, Yasha Parvini (Clemson U.), Aric Haynes (TARDEC), Vasilios
Tsourapas (Eaton)
In this presentation, an electro-thermal model consisting of an equivalent-circuit electrical model and a
lumped thermal model is proposed and parameterized for cylindrical double layer ultracapacitors. The electrical
and the thermal sub-models are coupled through heat generation and temperature dependency of the electrical
parameters. The electrical and the thermal models are parameterized by pulse-relaxation and drive cycle tests
separately, where the electrical parameters are identified as dependent on temperatures ranging from -40C to 60C,
SOC and current direction. In the next step using the validated battery and ultracapacitor models the sizing of
hybrid energy storage for a hybrid electric heavy duty military vehicle will be addressed..
2A2: Accomplishments and Future Challenges for High Resolution Neutron Imaging as an In Situ
Measurement and Validation Technique for Meso-scale Models of Lithium ion Batteries; Jason
Siegel, Anna Stefanopoulou (U. of Michigan), Yi Ding (TARDEC), Patrick Hagans (Navitas)
Neutron imaging is an in situ measurement technique, similar to X-ray imaging, which is sensitive to
hydrogen and lithium. The changes in intensity of the detected image during cycling of the battery are related to
changes in the local lithium concentration along the beam path. The measurement noise is governed by neutron
counting, which can be modeled as a Poisson random process, allowing us to calculate the measurement
uncertainty as a function of the image exposure time. To improve the signal to noise ratio of the intra-battery
snapshots, spatial averaging over uniform regions of the cell is combined with a novel stroboscopic averaging of
periodically acquired images. Finally techniques to address the challenges of extracting quantitative data to locate
edges in the image with a sub-pixel resolution, and to detect small changes in lithium concentration have been
developed and applied within the last 3 years to a variety of battery cells and duty cycles for validating the dualfoil model.
2A3: Electrochemical-thermal Modeling of Large-format Prismatic Cells; Charles Monroe, Sun Ung
Kim, Lynn Secondo, Anna Stefanopoulou, Jason Siegel (U. of Michigan), Yi Ding (TARDEC), Dyche
Anderson (Ford)
Large-format prismatic Li-ion cells exhibit significant in-plane temperature variation during operation at
high power, which may impact performance and battery life. We will present both experimental data and analytical
theory to illustrate how thermal response is determined by the characteristic properties of materials within the
battery cell. A theory that uses three key parameters (rather than the tens of parameters other models use) predicts
the steady-state temperature distribution in an A123 prismatic cell at various C-rates. The effect of ambient
temperature on thermal response will be investigated in detail. Also we will touch on coupling between the
temperature and interfacial charge-transfer resistance, which may lead to situations in which the in-plane
temperature distribution in a prismatic cell is unstable, causing thermal runaway.
2A4: Combined Experimental and Computational Study of Battery Cooling in Hybrid Electric
Vehicles; Frank He, Yi Ding, Lin Ma (Virginia Tech)
This project studied the thermal management of lithium ion batteries both numerically and experimentally.
Numerically, a high fidelity CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model has been developed to simulate the
detailed dynamics within a battery pack. Experimentally, systematic tests were performed in a wind tunnel to
validate the CFD model. The major contributions from this combined numerical-experimental study are threefold.
First, the CFD model has been shown to capture the dynamics of battery modules consisting of multiple cells,
including temperature non-uniformity. Second, the CFD simulations have been compared directly against
experimental data to quantify its accuracy and validity. Third, the CFD and test data were used in collaborative
efforts to develop reduced-order models for in situ monitoring and control purposes.
19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW
Day 2 Technical Session 2.B – Design, Optimization, Reliability
Session Co-Chairs: Dr. David Lamb, Dr. Matthew Castanier
2B1: Optimal Crowdsourcing Framework for Engineering Design; Panos Papalambros (U. of
Michigan)
Crowdsourced evaluation is a promising method for evaluating attributes of design concepts that require
human input. One obstacle to obtaining both accurate and comprehensive design evaluations is the signal to noise
ratio of high ability to low ability participants within the crowd. In this paper we introduce a Bayesian network
capable of finding participants with high design evaluation ability, so that their evaluations may be weighted more
than those of the rest of the crowd. The Bayesian network also estimates a score of how well each design concept
performs on each required attribute. Monte Carlo simulation studies were conducted to test the quality of the
Bayesian network on a variety of crowds consisting of participants with different evaluation ability. The results
suggest that the Bayesian network estimates design attribute performance scores much closer to their value than
simply weighting the evaluations from all participants in the crowd equally. This finding holds true even when the
subgroup of high ability participants is a small percentage of the entire crowd..
2B2: An Accelerated Life Testing Methodology for Vehicle Systems using Time-Dependent
Reliability Principles; Zissimos P. Mourelatos1, Igor Baseski2,3, Monica Majcher1,2, Jing Li1, Amandeep
Singh3; 1Oakland U., 2PhD Candidate, Oakland U., 3TARDEC
Reliability usually degrades with time, increasing the product lifecycle cost. It is desirable to use
accelerated testing to predict vehicle reliability using a few tests of short duration. Because vehicle parameters and
excitation are random, many vehicles must be tested which is impractical. To address this challenge, we are
developing an accelerated testing approach based on both experiments and analysis. Our approach uses available
tests to calibrate an approximate simulation model which is then used to determine the failure rate of the vehicle
fleet. We will present an overview of our approach including recently developed methods to estimate failure rates
over a long time using information from tests of short duration, and a subset simulation technique with splitting.
Our goal is to institutionalize our methodology at the TARDEC Physical simulation lab.
2B3: An Efficient Variable Screening Method for Effective Surrogate Models for Reliability-Based
Design Optimization; Hyunkyoo Cho, Sangjune Bae, K.K. Choi (U. of Iowa), David Lamb (TARDEC),
Ren-Jye Yang (Ford)
Surrogate models are often utilized to perform the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) in
affordable time and cost. However, the dimension of the RBDO problem has to be limited to obtain accurate
surrogate models. Thus, an efficient and effective variable screening method has been developed to identify
important variables in the RBDO process. For variable screening, output variance is calculated efficiently based
on univariate dimension reduction method (DRM); and the variables that induce larger output variance are selected
as important variables using hypothesis testing. Moreover, a quadratic interpolation method is studied in detail to
calculate output variance more efficiently. Using a 44-dimensional example, it is shown that the proposed method
finds important variables efficiently and effectively.
2B4: MultiObjective Decomposition Algorithm for the Battery Thermal Packaging Design; Brian
Dandurand, Paolo Guarneri, Georges Fadel and Margaret M. Wiecek (Clemson U.)
Battery design requires the optimization of cell layout inside the pack while considering thermal aspects.
Simultaneously optimizing the battery shape and position in the vehicle subject to geometric constraints would
result in better overall designs. Since the vehicle and battery design problems are typically addressed by separate
teams and each design is driven by multiple performance criteria, a MultiObjective Decomposition Algorithm
(MODA), coordinating computations based on level-specific information, is developed for computing the Pareto
set of this bilevel problem. A quadratic scalarization, adapted for solving multidisciplinary, multiobjective design
problems, addresses the nonconvexity of the packaging subproblem. Convergence of MODA to Pareto designs
representing tradeoffs within and between the subproblems and the effect of MODA parameters are examined
through numerical runs.
19
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ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW
Day 2 Technical Session 3.B – Vehicle Dynamics and Control
Session Co-Chairs: Dr. Paramsothy Jayakumar, Ms. Denise Rizzo
3B1: Vehicle-Dynamics-Conscious Real-Time Hazard Avoidance in Autonomous Ground
Vehicles; Jiechao Liu, Tulga Ersal, Jeffrey L. Stein (PI) (U. of Michigan), Paramsothy Jayakumar
(TARDEC), James Overholt (AFRL), Steve Rohde, Mitchell Rohde (Quantum Signal
Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are gaining importance and finding increased utility in both military
and commercial applications. Historically, UGVs have often been small and teleoperated but current interest is in
much larger fully autonomous vehicles. Due to their size, higher operating speed and ability to navigate more
complicated terrain, these larger size vehicles have significantly different dynamic and, therefore, require
significantly different approach to hazard avoidance algorithms. This talk will present the development of a model
predictive control (MPC) based hazard avoidance algorithm that is aware of the dynamic limitations of the vehicle
and can thus push the vehicle to its limits to maximize its performance. To achieve this, higher fidelity models are
needed to accurately predict the dynamic limitations of the vehicle as previous work by Jayakumar, et al. at
TARDEC shows. The developed MPC obstacle avoidance algorithm is evaluated as a function of the incorporated
model fidelity. Results indicate that mixed fidelity models can potentially be used to achieve good obstacle
avoidance behavior while simultaneously reducing the computation required. A discussion of future research work
will be outlined.
3B2: Off-Road Soft Soil Tire Model Development, Validation, and Interface to Commercial
Multibody Dynamics Software; Shahyar Taheri, Scott Naranjo, Corina Sandu, Saied Taheri (Virginia
Tech), Paramsothy Jayakumar (TARDEC), Brant Ross (MotionPort), Daniel Christ (Michelin)
The dynamics of tire-terrain interaction plays a significant role in studying off-road vehicle performance.
Tire dynamics is influenced by tire structure and tire-terrain interaction. The proposed model consists of three
layers, each containing discrete masses connected with springs and dampers in various combinations. The
interaction with the terrain is obtained using an innovative dynamic ground contact model, with adaptive boundary
conditions based on tire elements dynamics. Experimental testing has been done to supply data for model
validation. The work was performed using the indoor terramechanics test rig at AVDL that can control slip and
normal load applied to an instrumented tire driving over a deformable soil bed. The tests provided data for tire
deflection, sinkage, drawbar pull, other forces, and moments caused by the tire-soil interaction under various
conditions.
3B3: Flexible Multibody Dynamics Approach for Tire Dynamics Simulation; Hiroyuki Sugiyama (U.
of Iowa), Paramsothy Jayakumar (TARDEC), Ryoji Hanada (Yokohama Rubber)
The structural deformation of tires causes significant changes in the normal and tangential contact pressure
distribution under severe braking and maneuvering conditions, thus the evaluation of the limit performance of tires
requires a comprehensive tire model that accurately accounts for the dynamic coupling between the structural
deformation and the transient tire forces. For this purpose, a nonlinear flexible tire model was developed using the
finite element absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) that is suited for the large deformation analysis of
flexible multibody systems and the dynamic tire friction model is integrated into this model. Several numerical
examples are presented along with the comparison with experimental results in order to demonstrate the use of the
ANCF tire model. Future research potential of expanding the use of ANCF tire model for offroad mobility use is
also outlined along with its high performance compute potential.
19TH ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW For your internet needs on campus • Connect to MGuest WiFi network • Open your web browser; the MGuest login page will appear • Enter your email address and agree to the terms to gain access North Campus Map Key 19TH ANNUAL AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH CENTER PROGRAM REVIEW Poster Session LocaGon: Chrysler Center Gallery # Poster Title PI 3.7 Advanced Models for FaGgue Life PredicGons of Hybrid Electric Vehicle BaYeries Epureanu 3.8 Light weight vehicle structures that absorb and direct destrucGve energy away Vlahopoulos from the occupant 3.9 Meta-­‐material design for tank track pads Fadel 4.3 Oil Film Rupture, ReformaGon, and Hydrodynamic Pressure Induced by the Chalhoub InteracGon of the Piston-­‐Assembly with the Liner LubricaGng Oil film in Internal CombusGon Engines 4.4 OpGmizaGon of the Series-­‐HEV system with ConsideraGon of the TracGon Motor Filipi Design and the Impact of Cooling Auxiliary Losses 4.6 A surrogate for emulaGng the physical and chemical properGes of jet fuel Violi 4.8 Powertrain Thermal Management-­‐ IntegraGon and Control of a Hybrid Electric Thompson Vehicle BaYery Pack, E-­‐motor Drive and Internal CombusGon 4.9 Engine MulGple Loop Cooling System Wagner # Poster Title PI 1.2 Internet-­‐Distributed Hardware-­‐in-­‐the-­‐Loop SimulaGon Ersal 1.6 Neutron Imaging (NI) for In Situ ValidaGon of Meso-­‐Scale Models Stefanopoulou for Lithium Ion BaYeries 1.8 Control and System IntegraGon of SOFC/GT-­‐based APUs Sun 1.9 Off-­‐Road Sod Soil Tire Model Development, ValidaGon, and Sandu Interface to Commercial MulGbody Dynamics Sodware 1.10 Electro-­‐Thermal Modeling of Double Layer Ultracapacitors Vahidi 1.12 Vehicle-­‐Terrain InteracGon Model for SUGV Design and Control Peng 1.13 Reconfigurable Control for Failure PrevenGon and Recovery Tilbury 1.15 Vehicle-­‐Dynamics-­‐Conscious Real-­‐Time Hazard Avoidance in Stein Autonomous Ground Vehicles 1.16 Flexible MulGbody Dynamics Approach for Tire Dynamics Sugiyama SimulaGon 2.4 EvaluaGon and Performance Modeling of User Interfaces for UGVs Tilbury 3.1 MigraGon of Reliability Sodware I-­‐RBDO to TARDEC’s HPC System Choi 3.2 Variable Screening Method for RBDO & Choi Accuracy Improvement Strategies for the Dynamic Kriging 4.12 Advanced Models for Electric Machines and Drives Hofmann 4.13 Combined Experimental and ComputaGonal Study of BaYery Cooling in Hybrid Ma Electric Vehicles 4.14 Improved power density and temperature range of in-­‐vehicle power converters: Rivas High frequency power supplies for high temperature environments 4.15 Electro-­‐Thermal Planar Dynamics and Control of PrismaGc Li-­‐ion Cells Monroe 4.17 ReacGon Pathway and Elementary IgniGon Behavior of Surrogates for JP-­‐8 and Boehman AlternaGve JP-­‐8 Fuels 4.18 SimulaGon and control of combusGon in military diesel engines Henein 4.19 ValidaGon of JP-­‐8 Surrogates in an OpGcal Engine Jansons 4.A7 Scalable BaYery Model for Military Robot Pack Thompson 4.A11 Fault Tolerant Hydraulic Hybrid Systems Filipi 5.3 Development and Laboratory ImplementaGon of an Accelerated TesGng Method for Vehicle Systems using Time-­‐Dependent Reliability/Durability Principles Mourelatos 5.5 BaYery Thermal Packaging Design Wiecek/Fadel 5.6 Mission energy predicGon for unmanned ground vehicles using prior knowledge Jin/Ulsoy and real-­‐Gme measurements 5.7 Reliability, Maintenance and OpGmal OperaGon of Repairable Systems with Mourelatos ApplicaGon to a Smart Charging Microgrid 5.8 A SimulaGon Based EsGmaGon of Crowd Ability and its Influence on Papalambros Crowdsourced EvaluaGon of Design Concepts 
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