Characterizing Collaboration in the Klamath Basin, USA An Exercise in Institutional Mapping *Image of Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge by ex_magician under creative commons license Brian C Chaffin Department of Geosciences Oregon State University Presentation Outline • Identification of a Problem: Complexity • Case Study: The Klamath Basin • Investigation Technique: Institutional Mapping • Next Steps: Defining Space for Coordinated Restoration • Expected Research Outcomes: Restoration Planning • Broader Impacts: Effective Basin-Scale Restoration Across the Pacific Northwest, restoring rivers to some form of historical function is becoming increasingly important to a wide audience of human actors and institutions. The concept of river restoration takes on very different meanings for different groups: The return of anadromous fish Connectivity Historical flows Habitat Dam removal Spiritual renewal Elwha River: Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries Service http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/features/elwha_river/elwha-restoration.cfm Klickitat River, Yakima Native Fishermen: Rob Finch/The Oregonian http://www.oregonlive.com/environment/index.ssf/2008/05/_fidelia_andy_was_a.html Marmot Dam Removal: American Rivers http://www.americanrivers.org/newsroom/blog/ San Juan River http://moldychum.typepad.com/moldy_chum/2008/06/coalition-of-ag.html In Oregon, River restoration is important to... • • • • • • Tribes Agriculture Recreationalists Public land management agencies Environmental groups Commercial fishing industry Problem Statement • The function of a large river ecosystem is a product of complex interactions between social and ecological processes throughout the watershed • Current governance institutions such as the Clean Water Act (CWA) fail to provide a unified governance approach to regulate and coordinate restoration efforts across a large river basin • Local approaches to river restoration governance exist but are not well coordinated across large river basins Can multiple, locally based institutions or stakeholder groups collaborate across both space and time to manage a large-scale river basin restoration program? “...the traditional, segmented approach [to large natural systems restoration] was largely ineffective. The only way to proceed is to use the best available science to comprehend the interconnected problems and to work on all aspects of restoration simultaneously and comprehensively.” -Mary Doyle from Large-Scale Ecosystem Restoration (2008) The Klamath Basin: A Case Study Outbreaks of Blue-Green Algae Agricultural Runoff (NPS) Large Dams Endangered Species Habitat Graphic created for a three part series on the “issues surrounding the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement” Channel 12 KDRV, Medford, OR – April 2009 The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement • 2010 – The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) & Klamath Basin Hydroelectric Settlement Agreement (KHSA) • Taken together, these agreements comprise one of the most comprehensive restoration projects and water management agreements ever envisioned (Gosnell & Kelly 2010) • Reflects need to address social, economic, and ecological stressors in an integrated manner Initial Research Goal • Review the KBRA & KHSA • Explain the institutional structure of the agreements • Determine if the provisions within the KBRA & KHSA create sufficient legal & jurisdictional space to allow locally-based institutions the ability to collaborate and focus efforts toward holistic basin-scale restoration Simple, right? Operational structure of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Institutional Mapping: What is it? • Institutional Mapping is a process • A method employed to create a model of a real world operational environment • Involves research and presentation about what actually happens among resource users • No single preferred method to map institutions • Multiple ‘maps’ can be equally accurate • Common forms include flow charts, tables, Venn diagrams, and cartographic maps Institutional Mapping: History • Stems from long history of ‘mapping social space’ in Geography (Claval 1984) • “Charting the diverse forms of accountability, representation and participation” (Wilks-Heeg 2005) • Informed by underlying meta-theory (Aligica 2006) • Compared with similar techniques such as social network, mobility, and cognitive mapping (The World Bank 2011) Institutional Mapping: Components • Organizations: groups of people organized to achieve a common goal (governments agencies, communities of practice, NGOs, Tribes, firms, etc.) • Sets of rules: institutions that govern ownership and use of resources, production, exchange, and consumption under which economies work (statutes, common and administrative law, social ethics, values, norms, etc) Institutional Mapping: Process 1. An inventory of institutions 2. An analysis of institutional roles and linkages including power, influence, and position in space (physical or perceived) 3. A textual or visual depiction of the institutional environment—a map (Aligica 2006) C.L. Smith 2002 • Argued that institutional mapping is a process that builds on the logic of GIS though not distinctly cartographic • He layered three “coverages”– qualitatively derived measures of scale, power, and capital– over four institutions involved in watershed management • Analysis yielded a ranking of institutional influence on watershed management Stimie et al. 2001 • Study of water users in the Olifants and Steelport River Basins in Africa • Coined the term “hydro-institutional mapping” • Conducted qualitative research (interviews, surveys, document review) to determine an actual, quantified relationship between institutions and water use • In the process, defined previously unknown blockages to collective management of water resources Operational structure of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Operational structure of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement Next Steps 1. Through qualitative field work and extensive document review, further catalog and define institutions involved in the KBRA & KHSA including a characterization of relationships between institutions 2. Create a similar ‘map’ based solely on stakeholder perceptions of how the KBRA & KHSA will function if implemented (use cognitive mapping techniques) 3. Combine the informed KBRA & KHSA ‘map’ with the perception map to define the space within which Klamath stakeholders will operate under the agreements Expected Outcomes • Apply the ‘mapped’ dimensions of the institutional environment to an on the ground issue of basin-scale restoration such as improvements in water quality • Based on the results of the institutional mapping exercise, propose a scenario that allows for: – The coordination of existing collaborative institutions – Basin-scale management of collaborative restoration activities – A plan to monitor the aggregate effects of coordinating collaboration for restoration, both ecologically and institutionally Broader Impacts Why does this matter: Define the people, processes, level of influence, and any institutional relation to the resource that led the Klamath Basin stakeholders to take on Basin scale restoration Provide the academic community and resource stakeholders with a practical model for defining and mapping the pattern of governing collaboration across a varied yet connected ecological space To replicate this process for coordinating collaborative restoration in other geographic contexts References Aligica, Paul Dragos, 2006. Institutional and Stakeholder Mapping: Frameworks for Policy Analysis and Institutional Change. Public Organization Review 6:79-90. Claval, Paul, 1984. The Concept of Social Space and the Nature of Social Geography. New Zealand Geographer 40(2):105-109. Gosnell, H., and E. C. Kelly, 2010. Peace on the River? Social-Ecological Restoration and Large Dam Removal in the Klamath Basin, USA. Water Alternatives 3(2): 361-383. Smith, C. L., 2002. Institutional Mapping of Oregon Coastal Watershed Management Options. Ocean & Coastal Management 45(6-7):357-375. Stimie, C., E. Richters, H. Thompson, S. Perret, M. Matete, K. Abdallah, J. Kau, and E. Mulibana. 2001. Hydro-Institutional Mapping in the Steelport River Basin, South Africa. In Working Paper 17 (South Africa Working Paper No. 6). Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute. The World Bank. 2011. Tool Name: Institutional Perception Mapping. In Poverty & Social Impact Analysis Sourcebook. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. 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