# Document 13660887

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2.004 Dynamics and Control II
Spring 2008
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering
2.004 Dynamics and Control II
Spring Term 2008
Lecture 51
Reading:
• Class Handout: Modeling Part 1: Energy and Power Flow in Linear Systems
Sec. 1 (Introduction)
Sec. 4 (Electrical System Elements)
1
Modeling of Physical Systems
We will develop a uniﬁed modeling method that will allow the generation of a transfer
function in several energy domains. The method is based on an extension of impedance
concepts used in electrical systems. For that reason we will start with electrical systems.
Lumped parameter modeling involves approximating physical elements (where the param&shy;
eters may be distributed in space) with discrete elements that are assumed to be concentrated
at poins (or “lumped”) in space. For example, a real electrical inductor is made from a coil
of wire.
T h e c
o f in d
th e m
(e n e r
o il o
u c ta
a g n
g y d
f w ir e h a s p r o p e r tie s
n c e ( e n e r g y s to r a g e in
e tic fie ld ) a n d r e s is ta n c e
is s ip a tio n ) .
i
The coil has the primary property of electrical inductance, BUT it also has property of
resistance associated with the wire - this resistance is distributed throughout the coil. In
lumped parameter modeling we approximate the coil as having two elements - an inductance
L and a lumped resistance R.
2
Modeling Electrical Systems
Step 1: Identify the variables to be used. We will concentrate on the use of power
variables, that is a pair of variables whose product is power. In electrical systems:
P = vi
where P is power, v is the voltage drop (volts) across an element, and i is the current
(amps) through an element. We therefore use v and i as our modeling variables.
1
c D.Rowell 2008
copyright �
5–1
Step 2: Identify the ”primitive” lumped modeling elements. In each energy do&shy;
main we will identify 3 elements, two elements that store energy, and an element that
dissipates energy. In the electrical domain the energy storage elements are the capacitor
and the inductor, and the dissipative element is the resistor.
The Capacitor: The capacitor stores energy in the electrostatic ﬁeld between its
“plates”.
A re a
A
+
+
_e _ A _
d
C =
d
D ie le c tr ic
p e r m itiv ity
i
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
- - - - - -
- - - - - -
-
e le c tr ic fie ld
E
-
e
For a capacitor the current and voltage drop are related by
i=C
dv
dt
where C is deﬁned as the capacitance (Farad), or alternatively
�
1 t
v=
idt + v(0)
C 0
�t
Also, if we deﬁne charge as q = 0 idt then
v=
1
q
C
For a parallel plate capacitor,where the plates have area A, and are separated by
a distance d
A
A
C ∝ =⇒ C = �
d
d
where � is deﬁned to be the permittivity of the (non-conducting) dielectric material
between the plates.
Note that power can ﬂow in and out of a capacitor, since
P = vi = Cv
dv
dt
and v and dv/dt may have same or opposite signs. The capacitor is therefore an
energy storage element. The energy stored in a capacitor is
� t
1
EC (t) =
P dt + E(0) = Cv 2 .
2
0
5–2
Notes:
1) The Farad is a very large unit. Most practical capacitors are mea&shy;
sured in units of
• microfarads (&micro; F) = 10−6 F,
• nanofarads (nF) = 10−9 F, or
• picofarads (pF) = 10−12 F
2) A capacitor will not pass a dc current. Current only ﬂows when
the applied voltage is changing.
The Inductor:
v 2
L
i
2
v = v2
v1
- v1
1
Inductance is a property that represents energy stored in the electromagnetic ﬁeld
in a current carrying conductor. A practical inductor consists of a coil of wire
N
tu r n s o n le n g th l
C o re o f a re a A
a n d p e r m e a b ility m
2
_ m _ N _ _ _A
l
H e lic a lly w o u n d c o il
L =
Lenz’ Law relates the voltage across an inductor to yje current ﬂowing through
it:
di
v=L
dt
or
�
1 t
i=
vdt + i(0)
L 0
where L is the inductance, with units of the Henry. Power can ﬂow in and out of
an inductor since
di
P = vi = Li ,
dt
and i and di/dt may have the same or opposite signs. The stored energy is
� t
1
E=
P dt + E(0) = Li2
2
0
5–3
Notes:
1) The Henry is a very large unit. Practical inductors have values in
• millihenrys (mH) - 10−3 H
• microhenrys (&micro;H) - 10−6 H
di
2) Notice that a pure inductance will have v = 0 if dt
= 0 (a dc current)
3) Practical inductors are wound with (copper) wire and will have a ﬁnite
resistance R. The lumped model including both phenomena is
L
R
The relative importance of the resistance is dependent on the operating con&shy;
ditions.
The Resistor:
v 2
R
i
2
v = v2
v1
- v
1
1
The current and voltage in a resistor are governed by Ohm’s law:
V = iR
or
i=
1
v
R
Resistance is a dissipative property since v and i always have the same sign, and
the power is always positive
P = i2 R = v 2 /R &gt; 0
Energy always ﬂows into a resistor, and cannot be recovered.
Summary: In modeling electrical systems we use three passive modeling elements:
+
+
+
i
i
i
-
d v
i = C d t
R
L
C
v = L
d i
d t
v = R i
The capacitor and inductor are energy storage elements in that power can ﬂow into the
element, and recovered. The resistor is a dissipative element because the voltage an current
are algebraically related and power always ﬂows into the element.
Sources: In addition to the three passive elements we will use two ideal electrical power
sources:
5–4
The Voltage Source:
v
(t)
2
2
+
V s (t)
-
v
1
(t)
v 2 (t) - v1 (t) = Vs (t)
1
A voltage source will maintain the voltage at its terminals regardless of the current it
must supply to the connected load.
v
i
+
V
s
(t) = V o
R d e c r e a s in g
R = &yen;
V o
i in c r e a s in g
R
-
i
0
The Current Source:
v (t)
2
2
Is (t)
1
v 1 (t)
A current source will maintain the current supplied to the attached circuit regardless
of the voltage at it must generate to do so.
v
Io
I s (t) = Io
+
-
R
V o = R Io
R in c r e a s in g
V o
V o in c r e a s in g
R = 0
0
5–5
Io
i
```