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15.094J/1.124J/SMA5223 Systems Optimization: Models and Computation Assignment 1 (115 p oints) Due February 19, 2004 1 An Exercise using OPL Studio (Portfolio Optimization) (20 p oints) The purpose of this question is to give you an introduction to using OPL Studio with a simple LP model. Consider the following problem. Last year, Ellen Grunbaum purchased si shares of stock i at price qi , i = 1; : : : ; n. The current price per share of stock i is pi , i = 1; : : : ; n. Ellen Grunbaum expects that the price per share of stock i one year from now will be ri , i = 1; : : : ; n. If she sells any shares, she must pay a transaction cost of 1% of the amount transacted. In addition, she must pay a capital-gains tax at the rate of 30% on any capital gains at the time of the sale. For example, suppose that Ellen Grunbaum sells 1,000 shares of a stock today at $50 per share, that she had originally purchased at $30 per share. She would receive $50,000. However, she would have to pay capital gains taxes of 0.30(50,000 30,000) = $6,000, and she would have to pay 0.01(50,000) = $500 in transaction costs. Therefore, by selling 1,000 shares of this stock, she would have a net cashow of $50; 000 $6; 000 $500 = $43; 500. Now suppose that Ellen would like to sell enough shares of the stock in her portfolio today, to generate an amount of cash C today for use as a down payment on a home. The problem of selecting how many shares of which stocks she needs to sell in order to generate the cash amount C , net of capital gains and transaction costs, while maximizing the expected value of her portfolio for next year can be formulated as follows. Let xi be the number of shares of stock i that she needs to sell. PO : maximize subject to Xn r (s i i xi ) i i 0:3 i=1 n Xp x i=1 Xn (p i=1 i qi )xi 0:01 0 xi si ; i = 1; ; n Xn p x C i i i=1 Suppose that Ellen needs at least $100,000 for a down payment and that she has the following data about the stocks she is holding. 1 Stocks i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Shares si 3,000 200 200 1,500 600 500 1,200 400 200 2,100 Initial prices qi 50 73 40 80 140 60 82 24 100 33 Current prices pi 70 60 42 65 160 60 57 50 102 45 Future prices ri 75 65 40 85 170 60 68 55 100 50 (a) and portfolio.dat are an OPL model le and the data le for the above optimization problem, respectively. Download and unzip the zip le Prob1.zip from the assignment section and go over the codes and the data to understand how to write an optimization model using OPL and how to associate a data le with a model le. Now create a project le and run the model. What is the optimal objective value? What is the optimal solution? For MIT students using MIT Server, the following two commands will open OPL Studio. (Please use SUN workstations. SGI machines do not support OPL Studio.) portfolio.mod % add oplstudio % oplst & If you need help in working with OPL Studio, contact the teaching assistant. Also, you might want to look at online reference guides for OPL Studio. P (b) The PO model has one drawback: Suppose ni=1 (pi qi )xi is negative. This means that Ellen has negative capital gains if she sells xi shares of stock i, i = 1; ; n. In this case, Ellen should neither pay taxes nor receive tax savings. In order to reect this, the PO model should be re-formulated as follows: MPO : maximize subject to X r (s n i=1 n i i xi ) i i 0:3 maxf Xp x i=1 Xn (p i=1 i qi)xi ; 0g 0:01 0 xi si ; i = 1; ; n Xn p x C i i i=1 How would you modify MPO to convert it to a linear program? Modify portfolio.mod, solve it using OPL Studio, and report the optimal objective value and the optimal solution. Does the optimal objective value increase or decrease? Why? 2 Radiation Therapy Model (40 points) The purpose of this question is to give you more experience in using OPL Studio by solving a relatively large-scale linear optimization model, using a variety of dierent solution methods, and making some changes to the model in the process. On the assignmen t section, you will nd the zip le Prob2.zip which contains the following les: 2 regular5.mod This is the OPL model le for the \base case" radiation therapy model small5.mod discussed in the rst lecture of the course. This is the \small" version of the radiation therapy model discussed in the rst lecture of the course. opl505.dat This is the data le for the radiation therapy problem. This is a C-program that is used to automatically allow the output of the radiation therapy model to be turned into a \picture" that can be displayed in MATLAB. display5.c BOUNDARY5.hlp This is a supplementary le that is used to produce visual images of the model output. Part I. Run the \base case" model and produce a picture of the optimal solution. In order to do so, proceed as follows: First, download all les from the assignment section. Then open OPL Studio. Prior to running the model, click the \Options" menu and the \Customize Active Project Options" submenu. Change the project options in the following four ways: Next, create a new project using the model le opl505.dat. { { { { regular5.mod and the data le (i) Under \MP General", change the \LP Method" to \Primal" (ii) Under \Simplex", change \Pricing candidate list size" to 200 (iii) Under \Simplex", turn \Perturbation" to the on position. (iv) Under \Preprocessing", change \Simplication with pre-solve" to the o position. Now you are ready to solve your optimization model. Do so by clicking the green Run button. After the model is solved, you will need to save the solution. First, click the green \proceed" button. Then choose the \File" menu, and choose the \Dump Active Model and Result . . . " submenu. Give your solution le a name such as \coolmodel.out". In order to create a picture of the model output, compile the program display5.c using the MIT Server commands add gnu and gcc display5.c. This will create the executable le a.out. Execute this le by typing the command a.out . You will next be prompted to supply an input le, for which you should type your model solution output le coolmodel.out (or whatever name you called your output le). You will need to specify the name of the new output le, such as \hotmodel" without an extension. 3 Now you can open MATLAB by typing the commands add matlab and matlab. Once MATLAB is open, type the commands load hotmodel and pcolor(hotmodel). MATLAB will produce and display a picture of the optimal solution of the radiation therapy model. Part II. Experiment with the \base case" and \small" versions of the radiation therapy model. Run the models regular5.mod and small5.mod using the two dierent LP methods \Primal" (which is the primal simplex algorithm) and \Barrier" (which is the interiorpoint logarithmic barrier algorithm described in the second lecture of the course). These solution method options can be found in OPL Studio under \Options" then \Customize Active Project Options" then \MP General". Fill in the following table: Number Number Running Number of of time of Constraints Variables (seconds) Iterations MODEL Base Case Algorithm Primal Simplex Barrier Small Model Primal Simplex Barrier Part III. Experiment with dierent versions of the model to see if you can produce solutions that look \better" to you. Here are two ideas for dierent versions of the model: Idea #1. You might want to change the weights on the dierent pixel regions (T , C and N ) in the objective function, to see if you can produce better solutions. Try to weight more on the tumor part and the critical part, respectively, and see what happens. Idea #2. In the rst lecture, you were shown several dierent linear optimization models for this problem. In one of those models, the objective function was to minimize the maximum dierence between the delivered dose and target dose at each pixel. This model was: minimize w;D; s:t: Dij (Target)ij Dij = Xn Dp w p=1 w0 4 ij p (i; j ) 2 S (i; j ) 2 S With slight changes, you can modify the given model les to become a version of this formulation. How does your solution change? Is it better than any other of your solutions? If you have any questions about the model, please send an email to the MIT Teaching Assistant . 3 Variable Upper and Lower Bounds (20 points) Consider the general linear programming problem with upper and lower bounds as follows: LP : minimize z = cT x Ax = b lxu: s.t. Suppose that the simplex tableau for such an instance of this problem is as shown in Table 1. Answer the following questions: UB LB RHS 7 11 25 20 3 0 8 1 10 2 8 1 6 2 10 1 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 3 2 5 3 4 5 4 6 5 2 Table 1: A simplex tableau. 1. What is the basic solution corresponding to the tableau in Table 1? Why is this solution feasible? 2. Why is this basic solution also optimal? 3. Suppose that the tableau objective coeÆcient on x4 is changed from 1 to 1. Then the tableau would look like that shown in Table 2. What would be the next change in the basis for this tableau that would improve the objective function value? Compute the next tableau. 4. Now suppose that the lower bound on x4 is changed from 0 to 2. Then the tableau would like that shown in Table 3. What would be the next change in the basis for this tableau that would improve the objective function value? Compute the next tableau. 5 UB LB RHS 7 11 25 20 8 1 10 2 8 1 3 0 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 3 2 5 3 4 5 4 6 5 2 6 2 10 1 Table 2: Another simplex tableau. UB LB RHS 7 11 25 20 8 1 10 2 8 1 3 2 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 3 2 5 3 4 5 4 6 5 2 6 2 10 1 Table 3: A third simplex tableau. 4 Lagrange Duality Problems (20 points) A. Construct a Lagrange dual of the following problem: BP43 : minimumx;s cT x 43 Pm ln sj i=1 Ax + s = b s>0 s.t. B. Consider the following problem: P : minimizex;y cT x s.t. Gx Nx + My y binary integer f d It is helpful in this problem to think of the variables x as production decisions and the binary integer variables y as set-up decisions. The constraints \Gx f " are ordinary resource and/or capacity constraints on the production levels x, and the constraints \Nx + My d" can be thought of as arising from the eects of set-up decisions y on the production activities x. 6 x0 d (5; 7) (1; 2) ( 30; 50) (1; 1) (20; 10) ( 1; 0) u 2:3 1:5 5:6 Table 4: Starting points, directions, and step-size upper bound. (a) (b) (c) 5 Construct a \good" dual of this problem. What makes your choice of dual problem \good"? For a given value of your dual variables u, how would you solve for the value of L (u)? What type of algorithm might you use to solve the dual problem? Bisection Line-Search Algorithm (15 points) Consider the function: f (x) = 25 4x1 6x2 + (3x1 6x2 10)2 + (x1 + x2 + 15)2 +(x1 x2 + 4)4 + 101 (5x1 + x2 6)6 : Given a current point x0 = (x01 ; x02 ) and a direction d = (d1 ; d2 ), we are interested in solving the 1-dimensional minimization problem: P: min h() := f (x0 + d) Construct a bisection algorithm, coded either in OPLScript or Matlab, to solve this problem. The algorithm should be designed to take as input a starting point x0 , a direction d, and an initial value for the upper bound u . Be certain to specify a stopping criteria for your algorithm. Your code should check whether or not d is a descent direction (and terminate if it is not), and should check that u is a valid upper bound on the optimal step-size . Solve for the minimizing value of using your algorithm for the three problem instances shown in Table 4. Hand in a hard copy of your code. 7