Relation of farm tenancy to size of farm, farm practices... by Homer E Brunk

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Relation of farm tenancy to size of farm, farm practices and soil grades
by Homer E Brunk
A THESIS Submitted to the Graduate Committee in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
Degree of Master of Science in Agricultural Economics at Montana State College
Montana State University
© Copyright by Homer E Brunk (1939)
Abstract:
The growth of farm tenancy in the last half century has been one of the outstanding problems of
agriculture. This growth has been the same in times of prosperity as well as during seasons of low
prices. Various causes have been given for our tenancy situation such as over valuation of land,
uneconomical farming units, farming of sulmarginal land, drouth, high taxes, high interest rates, poor
management, and low prices for farm products.
Tenant farmers in many parts of Montana have a low standard of living. They do not have adequate
farm machinery. Many of these tenant farmers have very few livestock. They plant a large percentage
of their farms to soil depleting crops, which are conducive to soil erosion. In many parts of the state,
the lend is owned by absentee owners who have purchased the land for speculative purposes, and are
not interested in the land e cept for its monetary returns.
In the area studied, consisting of Roosevelt, Gallatin, and Musselshell counties, farm tenancy was
among the highest in the state, Gallatin Comty had almost two-thirds of the farmers as tenants and
Roosevelt and Musselshell almost fifty per cent farm tenants. These tenants (except Roosevelt,
1936-57) farmed larger farms than did the owners. In Roosevelt County the tenants operated lees of the
second and third grade farming land but had more of the fourth grade farming land, and also more of
all grades of grasping land except grade three which showed a larger percentage to the owner.
The tenants plant more soil depleting oropa and less soil conserv ing crops. The tenants also plant less
feed crops such as com, oats, barley, end the sorghum crops which would indicate that they have less
livestock on their farms than have the owners.
Farm tenancy is not undesirable in itself but can be made so by misuse. We need a certain percentage
of tenancy because all farmers cannot own land. In recent years, the United States government has been
helping many worthy tenants to become land owners. This has bean dona through loaning of money at
a low rate of interest and a long period of time in which to pay.
The tenant fanners make up a large part of the farming population. Their situation is one that cannot be
overlooked. It behooves society to recognise these problems end to offer aid in their solution. am B SK # # m a a sm m m r go s m s
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- 2 TABLE OF CfflITKITS
Page
L i s t o f I l l u s t r a t i o n s . .................... .................................... .......................
4
ACBDiOfiIUJXSIBJiTS................................. ..............................................................
5
ABSTRACT...................................................................... .........................................
6
PART I .
IRTSODDCTIQM. . . . ....................................... .......... .......................
7
A Comparison o f th e G roeth cmd Causes o f F a ra Tenancy
~ in V arious P&rfcs o f th e L n ite d S t a t e s ........... ...............
7
Advantag e s o f T en an cy ...................................................................
10
D isad v an tag es o f Toiam oy.............................................
10
C o n d itio n s t h a t id 11 make Tenanoy Taoro S a t i s f a c t o r y . .
11
PART I I .
A STUDY OF FARM TENASCY.. .................................................. ..
13
O b jectiv es o f the Study . ..............................................
13
TI o Sam ple.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
Source o f F a t e . . . . . . ......... ...................................... ..
16
L iia ita tlo n s o f th e Data UBed. . . . .................................................... ..
17
Method o f ..................................................................................... .................
18
PART I I I .
FARM TESASCY XH MfflITAHA..................................................................
19
Aoretge in 1 1 rna.........................................................................................
20
P ero en tag e o f Owners and Tena t o . ......................................... . . . . *
24
T^rpes o f L o o se s..................................
28
Fara c r o c t io e s .................................... ................................
29
Grades o f Farming and Graslng Land................................
51
j
62345
- 5 •
Pegse
SOmWRY MD CONCLUSIONS................................................................................
34
APPENDIX......................................................
37
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................
SO
4
L is t of I llu s tr a tio n s
PS£«
F ig u re I . —R ise in farm ten an cy I n t h e U nited S t a t e s , 1880 t o
1950....................................................................................
F ig u re 2 , — P ero en tag e o f f a r e s o p e ra te d by te n a n ts in Montana
o o tm tie a , 1 9 5 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
16
F ig u re 5 , —D istrib td b io n o f farm s a c c o rd in g t o th e number o f
farm s in v a rio u s e l s e groups on b a s is o f B creai e p e r
farm i n R o o se v e lt end G a lla tin c o u n tie s , 1955-57, and
M u ss e lsh e ll C ounty, 1 9 5 3 - 3 5 . . . . . . ...........
21
F ig u re 4 . —Comparison o f ow nership s t a t u s in G a lla t in and
R o o se v e lt c o u n tie s , 1933-37, and M u sse lsh e ll C ounty,
1933-35............................................................................................. ...............
26
F ig u re 5 . —A com parison o f t h e t o t a l number o f a c r e s o f e a c h
grade o f la n d o p e ra te d by te n a n ts and owners i n R o o sev elt
County in 1937 e x p re ssed by p e rc e n ta g e o f th e t o t a l la n d ..
33
ACl
■MENIS
The a u th o r w ishes t o acknow ledge th e a s s ls ta n o e o f th e Works
P r o tr e s s A d m in is tra tio n , Work P r o je c t O .P. 665-91-3-43 (w .P . 2 5 7 ),
f o r g ath erin g t h e d a ta u sed and f o r a s s i s t i n g in th e co m p ilin g and
ta b u la tin g o f th e f i e l d re c o rd s and f o r prept*rin, th e c h a r ts and
maps u sed in t h i s t h e s i s .
The a u th o r a l s o w ish es t o e x p re s s M s th a n k s and a p p re c ia tio n
t o C r. R. a . S e m e , Mr. R alph D. M eroer, Mr. G eo rte A. W oolley,
W e H arold C alcrow , and Mr. L . F* G e ise k e r, f o r a s s is ta n c e and c o u n c il
d u rin g t h e s tu d y , and t o Mr. H arold V. Bowm f o r h e lp i n s e c u rin g d a ta .
6
RELATION OF FARM TEiiANCT TO SIZE Oi FARM,
FARM PRACTICES ASD SOIL GRADSS
ABSTRACT
The grow th o f farra te n a io y in th e l a s t M l f oenttury h a s been one
o f t h e o u ts ta n d in g problem s o f a g r i c u l t u r e . T h is growth h as been th e
sane i n tim e s o f p r o s p e r ity a s w e ll a s d u rin g seaso n s o f low p r i c e s .
V ario u s c au se s have M en giv en f o r o u r te n a n c y s i t u a t i o n su ch a s over
v a lu a tio n o f la n d , uneconom ical farm in g u n i t s , farm in g o f subm arginal
la n d , d ro u th , h ig h ta x e s , h ig h i n t e r e s t r a t e s , poor management, and low
p r ic e s f o r farm p ro d u c ts .
T enant fa rm e rs In many p a r t s o f Montana have a low s ta n d a rd of
l i v i n g . They do not have ad eq u ate farm m ach in ery . Many o f th e s e te n a n t
fa rm e rs have v e ry fow I Iv e -to o k . They p la n t a la r g e p e rc e n ta g e o f t h e i r
farm s t o s o i l d e p letin g , c ro p s , which a r e conducive t o s o i l e r o s i o n . I n
many p a r t s o f t h e s t a t e , th e le n d i s owned by a b se n te e owners who have
p u rch ased th e laral f o r s p e c u la tiv e p u rp o s e s, and a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d In
th e la n d e c e n t f o r i t s m onetary r e t u r n s .
In th e a r e a s tu d ie d , c o n s is tin g o f R o o se v e lt, G a l l a t i n , and
liu s s e ls h e ll c o u n tie s , farm te n an c y was amon, t h e h ig h e s t i n th e s t a t e .
G a lla t in County had alm ost tw o -th ird s o f th e fa rm e rs a s te n a n ts and
R o o se v e lt and M u ss e lsh e ll a lm o st f i f t y p e r c e n t f e n t e n a n t s . These
te n a n ts (e x c e p t R o o se v e lt, 1936-57) farm ed l a r g e r farm s th a n d id th e
ow ners. In R o o sev elt County th e te n a n ts o p e ra te d l e s s o f th e second
end t h i r d grade fa rm in g la n d b u t had more o f th e f o u r th grt.de farm ing
la n d , and a l s o more o f a l l Ln id e e o f • r a s in g la n d e x ce p t grade t Ixree
w hich showed a l a r g e r p e rc e n ta g e t o th e ow ner.
The t e a n t s p la n t more s o i l d e p le tin g c ro p s and l e s s s o i l c o n se rv ­
ing c r o p s . The t e a n t s a l s o p la t le e s fe e d cro p s such a s c o m , o a ts ,
b a r le y , end th e sorghum c ro p s which would I n d ic a te t h a t th e y have l e s s
l iv e s to c k on t h e i r fa ro s th a n have th e ow ners.
Farm ten an cy la n o t u n d e s ira b le i n I t s e l f b u t can be made so by
m isu se . We need a c e r t a i n p e rc e n ta g e o f te n an c y M cau se a l l fa rm e rs
c a n o t own la n d . In r e c e n t y e a r s , th e h a lte d S ta te s government has been
h e lp in g many w orthy te n a n ts t o become la n d ow ners. This h as been dons
th ro u g h lo a n in g o f money a t a l o w r a t e o f i n t e r e s t and a lo n g p e rio d o f
tim e In w hich t o p ay .
The te n a n t fa n n e rs make up a la r g e p a r t o f th e fa rm in g p o p u la tio n .
T h e ir s i t u a t i o n i s one t h a t c an n o t M o v e rlo o k e d . I t M hooves s o c ie ty
t o re c o g n ise th e s e problem s and t o o f f e r a id i n t h e i r s o l u t i o n .
- 7 RELATIG® OF FARM TERASCY TO SIZE OF FARM,
FA®it PRACTICES ARD SOIL GRADES
FABT I .
INTRODUCTION
Ai Comparison o f th e Crowth and Causos o f F f jn Teaisj^ey
"
In ' V arious P a r ts o f 'i W i nlfcod States^
Tenancy In th e U n ite d S ta te s h as in c re a s e d
rom 2 5 .6 p or c e n t in
1880 t o 4 1 .2 p e r c e n t i n 1935 ( f ig u r e I , a ls o t a b l e I ) .
T h is in c re a s e
h a s been c a u se d by*
1.
I n h e r ita n c e Iasw i n th e U n ited S ta te s which g iv e each h e i r a
p o r tio n o f -Wie la n d .
I h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s s e l l i n g th e lan d o r p u ttin g heavy
m ortgages on i t t o pay th e h e i r s t h e i r e q u ity .
2.
Economic d e p re s s io n s which caused p r ic e s t o d ro p w h ile o p e r a t­
in g c o s ts rem ained c o n s ta n t, o r d e c lin e d v e ry l i t t l e .
The r e s u l t s were
d w in d lin g s a v in g s , d e c lin in g e q u ity i n th e farm s, and f i n a l l y f o r e c lo s u re
s a le s ,
3.
S p e c u la tio n and h i # la n d v a lu e s i n a l l p a r t s o f th e U alted
S t a t e s , b u t e s p e c i a l l y i n th e s e t t l i n g o f th e W est, in r e l a t i o n t o farm
incom e.
Land s p e c u la tio n h as th e e f f e c t o f r a i s i n g le n d p r ic e s t o le v e l s
c o n s id e ra b ly above th e p r ic e s j u s t i f i e d by th e p ro d u c tiv e c a p a c ity o f th e
la n d .
Durittf th e la n d s e t t Iemo i t o f th e % e st, Ctm gress t r i e d in e v e ry
way p o s s ib le t o e l lm in a te s p e c u la tio n b u t was n o t v e ry s u c c e s s f u l.
4.
High ta x e s and I n t e r e s t r a t e s .
6.
H i # r a i l r o a d r a t e s ( e s p e c ia lly t r u e i n re g io n s lo n g d is ta n c e s
from c e n tr a l m a rk e ts ).
6.
Farm p r a c tic e s n o t a d ap ted t o th e re g io n .
■
8
—
PER CENT
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
I93U
I . —R ise in farm te n an c y i n th e U n ited S t a t e s , 1880 t o 1930 l /
l / Farm Tenancy R eport o f th e P r e s i d e n t 's Committee, 1937, p re ­
p a re d under th e a u sp ic e s o f th e N a tio n a l R esources Committee, W ashington.
9
TABLE I . - P m CMT Oi FAiKS OPERATE! BY TESjBTS,
IiT GEOGRAPHIC AREAS, 1880 TO 1936 l /
1880
1890
1900
1910
1920
1930
1936
The S o rth
Sew England
Middle A t la n tic
Er a t S o rth C e n tra l
SFest >orth C e n tra l
1 9 .2
8 .6
19.2
2 0 .5
2 0 .6
22.1
9 .3
22.1
22.8
2 4 .0
2 6 .2
9 .4
2 6 .3
2 6 .3
2 9 .6
2 6 .5
8 .0
2 2 .3
27.
30 .9
2 8 .2
7 .4
2 0 .7
28.1
34 .2
3 0 .0
6 .3
1 4 .7
2 7 .3
2 9 .9
3 1.8
7 .7
16.2
29 .4
4 2 .6
The South
South A tla n tic
E a st South C e n tra l
West South C e n tra l
3 6 .2
36.1
3 6 .8
35.2
3 8 .6
38.6
3 8 .3
3 8 .6
4 7 .0
4 4 .2
46.1
49.1
4 9 .6
4 5 .9
6 0 .7
52.8
4 9 .6
4 6 .8
4 9 .7
62 .9
6 5 .5
48.1
5 5 .9
6 2 .3
53 .6
4 6 .3
54.8
59 .5
The West
M ountain
P a c if ic
1 4 .0
7 .4
18.8
12.1
7 .1
1 4 .7
1 6 .6
12.2
1 9 .7
14.0
1 0 .7
17 .2
1 7 .7
15 .4
20.1
2 0 .9
24 .4
1 7 .7
23 .8
2 6 .6
21.2
A reas
4- o V
I / Teicen from kIarra Termnoy k e p o rt
fs *.
th e P r e s i d e n t s
C oE saittee", F e b ru a ry , 1937.
10 AdViuitr-.t c f: o f 'I energy
Th* p r in c ip a l advantape* o f tenancy are*
1.
Many fa ro ers us© th e tenu re system o f f Bnainr a s a steppin g
atone t o th e ownership o f lend a t eorae fu tu re d a te .
: any young farmers
r en t land end In t h is ramner save zscstey to buy a farra le t o r In l i f e .
The census o f 1930 shows alm ost tw o -th ird s o f a l l ten a n ts under 45 years
o f age.
Of a l l farmers under 25 years o f a g e , sev e n -eig h th s were ten a n ts
and o f thoeo over 66 years o f a g e , o n ly about one-B irth wore te n a n ts. \ J
2.
There are many fa m ilie s which p r e fe r the s e c u r ity end p r o f it s
o f ten a n t farm ing, on good lan d , under a good landlord to ven tu rin g upon
th e precarious task o f buying a farm cm c r e d it , w ith no assurance a s t o
th e fu tu r e o f p r ic e s fo r farm products In r e la t io n t o th e fir e d indebted­
n ess which iKmld have to be in cu rred . 2 /
3.
a fa r o .
Many young farmers do not have th e managerial a b i l i t y t o mm
I t would be much b e tte r fo r then t o r en t from a good landlord
who in many oases g iv e s t h e ir ten an ts inform ation through y ea rs o f e x p e ri­
ence o f farming th em selv es.
D isadvantages o f Tenancy
I.
eFrom th e stan d p o in t o f s o i l co n serv a tio n , th e development o f
farm f a maay and ab sen tee ownership i s o f s ig n ifin e n o e primarily through
I t s e f f e c t s upon land use p r a c tic e s .
In th e ea se o f tenancy a t le a s t
two p a r t ie s are lo o k in g to th e land a s a sou rce o f lnocme.
I f a l l p a r tie s
T e n a n c y ' t ’: e Vrosi r o o t’s "domni t to o , 3.937*, p r e pared under th e a u sp ices o f th e N ational Reeouroes Committee, Washington.
2 / T aylor, R. C ., eJoiarnal o f Faro Economics", V ol. XX, No. I ,
February, 1938.
-1 1 having t o depend fo r t h e ir income cm a g r lcu ltu re had th e r ig h t a ttitu d e
toward th e le n d , th a t l a , a Ica g tim e I n te r e s t in th e maintenance o f th e
produolnj powers o f th e la n d , tenancy would not be a s so c ia te d w ith erod­
in g s o i l end n e g le c te d s t r u c t u r e s ." 3 /
As I t l a , however, tenancy ceuaea
th e ten an t t o be In te r e s te d on ly In the h ig h e s t p o s s ib le income from th e
land r e g a r d le ss o f i t s futizre p r o d u c tiv ity .
Many lan d lord s are ao s i t u ­
ated f in a n c ia lly th at th ey i n s i s t t h e ir te n a n ts p la n t cash cro p s, and
s e l e c t t h e ir ten a n ts on th e b a s is o f th e g r e a te s t p o s s ib le crop la th e
y e a r im m ediately contracted fo r (s e e ta b le I l ) .
2.
o n ers,
Tenant farmers are l e s s in t e r e s t e d in eorau n ity l i f e than are
Tliey tak e l e s s I n te r e s t in s c h o o ls , churches, Oomnmlty c e n te r s,
good r o a d s, and th e general w e ll-b e in g o f th e o o m u n ity because alm ost
o n e -h a lf o f th e te n a n ts s ta y on th e sosae farm one year o r l e s s . ■%/
5,
Tena it s are I e s e I n te r e s te d la b u ild in g up th e s o i l or im­
proving th e land fo r fe a r th ey w ill have t o move or th e r e n t w i l l be
r a is e d .
Co d it io n s tlm t w il i ^rake Tenancy noro S a tis fa c to r y
We must r e a li s e th a t tenancy i s a p a r t o f our a g r ic u ltu r a l system
a s many larmers do n o t have the n ecessary c a p it a l t o become land owners.
C onditions th a t would mice tenancy more s a tis fa c to r y are*
1.
w r itte n le a s e s a im e d by the owner and te n a n t.
2.
An understanding on the p art o f th e owner and ten an t w ith regard
t o upkeep o f Improvements, payment fo r s o i l conserving p r a c tic e s performed
*
3 / "t.d.'D.A.' Year
t / I b id .
ook,'' wS o iis euuf '3on'f,' 19&8.
12
TABLE I I . —
AND PROPORTION OF TBIAST FARMS JM TEE IMPORTBfT
TTPS-O F-FA ai XXG REGIONS IM THE UWITEl STATES IS 1935 l /
Tenant farm s
P er c e n t
of a ll
Per cen t
te n a n t
of a ll
farm ers
farm ers
Type- o f - f e r n l e g
r e ^ lo a s
S u ab er o f
farm s
Number
U n ite d S ta te s t o t a l
6 ,8 1 2 ,3 5 0
2 ,8 6 6 ,1 1 6
1,8 2 4 ,0 5 4
928,416
654.642
1 ,1 8 6 ,6 4 3
416,764
264,540
4 1 .4
14 .6
7 .9
65.1
44 .9
4 7 .6
746,211
799,221
350,010
220,448
149,467
147,466
7 .7
6 .2
6 .1
2 9 .5
18.7
42 .1
33,861
11,716
1,5 8 4 ,2 1 0
19,867
5,329
464,639
.7
.2
16 .2
5 8 .7
4 6 .5
29 .3
C o tto n
Corn
Tnbaooo
G eneral fa n n in g
D airy
Wheat
R ice
Sugar cane
O th ers
I.
’!Teimncy
' , A . t:R eport o f
X j ' Taken" from H
ffFena
F e b r u e r ., 1937.
100
42.1
Vroe ia© i t 's C o m m ittee/
13 such ea a p p lic a tio n , o f com m ercial f e r t i l i z e r s and b arn y ard m anure.
3.
-tim e le a s e s j iv e more s e c u r ity t o th e te n a n t a s lie does
n o t need t o w orry ab o u t a farm f o r th e o a rin g y e a r .
4.
A f a i r cash r e n t a l which w i l l v a ry f o r d i f f e r e n t farm s, and
i n cfteos o f s h a r e te n a n c y a t h i r d o r a f o u r th i s custom ary in cash cro p
a re as.
5.
Com pensation f o r b u ild in g c o n s tr u c te d on th e lan d by th e
te n a n t.
PART I I .
A STUDY OF FARM TEBAilCY
In B eekini a s o l u t i o n f o r any problem i t i s n e c e s s a ry t o know some
o f th e o u ts ta n d in g c a u s e s .
There may be some f a c t o r s i n th e P la in s Region
which a re more conducive t o te n a n c y t h a t a re o n ly o f m inor importance in
o th e r p a r t s o f th e c o u n try .
Montena h a s some c o n d itio n s t h a t may be
c o n tr ib u tin g f a c t o r s t o te n an c y such a s d ro u th se a s o n s, i n s e c t p e s ts ,
p la n t d i s e a s e s , farm s t h a t a re to o sm all t o s u p p o rt a fa m ily , farm ing
o f t h e p o o re r grades o f la n d and a one crop system o f fa rm in g .
In t h i s
s tu d y sene o f th e s e f a c t o r s have been s tu d ie d to s e e i f th e y Imve any
r e l a t i o n s h i p t o te n a n c y .
O b je c tiv e s of th e Study
I n 1680 t h e p e rc e n ta g e o f te n a n c y in Montana was 5 .3 end in 1955
i t had in c re a s e d t o 27*7.
I h ls r a p id r a t e o f in c re a s e i s n o t o n ly t r u e
in MonttJia b u t i s a l s o tru e i n o th e r s t a t e s .
T h is in c r e a te has been g r e a t­
e r i n t h e cash crop a r e a s , e s p e c ia ll y c o tto n , to b a c c o , and t h e sm all g ra in
' 6/
"Farm ten an o y Im port o f tk e P r e s i d e n t 's CotBnitJteew, Op. c i ¥ . ' "
14
re g io n s (s e e t a b l e I I ) .
Some
a r t s o f Mo ta n a have a h ig h e r p e rc e n ta g e
o f te n a n c y th a n o th e r s .
In th e e a s te r n p a r t o f th e s t a t e , o r th e s p r in g
w heat a r e a , ten an cy ra n g e s from 20-24 p e r c e n t in H oosevelt , MoCtKie, and
C u ste r c o u n tie s t o o v er 35 p e r c e n t I n D a n ie ls , Wibaux, and F a lle n
c o u n tie s .
The i r a s e la n d a re a w est o f th e s p r in g w heat a r e a i s th e low­
e s t In th e s t a t e w ith l e s s t h a i 20 p e r c e n t.
The c o u n tie s i n th e m iddle
o f th e s t a t e ru n from 20-30 p e r c e n t e x c e p t G a lla t in County which i s over
SB p e r c e n t ( f ig u r e 2 ) .
I t i s e v id e n t t h a t th e r e a re c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n
some p a r ts o f th e s t a t e t h a t a re more co n d u civ e t o te n a n c y th a n in o th e r s .
The purpose and e f f e c t o f t h i s s tu d y a re s
1.
To d e te rm in e th e r e l a t i o n s h i p betw een s i s e o f farm and farm
te n a n c y .
2.
To determ in e th e r e l a tio n s h ip betw een farm p r a c t i c e s , cro p s
p la n te d , and te n a n c y .
5.
To d eterm in e th e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o i l £re d e s and farm
te n a n c y .
The b a s ic d a ta were s e le c te d a s a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e sam ple o f th e
s ta te .
Tiie Sample
Due t o th e la r g e number o f farm s In th e s t a t e o n ly a few farm s
could be s tu d ie d .
C o u t i e s a s r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f th e s t a t e In clu d ed
R o o se v e lt, G a l l a t i n , and M u s s e ls h e ll.
These c o u n tie s a re g e o g ra p h ic a lly
w e ll d i s t r i b u t e d in v a rio u s p a r ts o f th e s t a t e and d i f f e r e n t farm in,
c o n d itio n s p r e v a i l .
R o o sev elt C ounty, which I s lo c a te d i n th e n o r th -
F ig u re 2 , —P e rcen tag e o f farms o p e ra te d by te n a n ts in Montana C o u n tie s, 1935, i /
I / Compiled by R. R. Renne, "A d ju stin g M ontana's A g ric u ltu re , IV.
and T enure", Montana A g r ic u ltu r a l Experim ent S ta tio n , B u lle tin No. 310.
Land Ownership
* 16 —
w estern p a r t o f th o s t a t e , i s In th e s p r in g w heat d ry le n d a r e a .
M u ss e lsh e ll C ounty, lo c a te d n e a r t h e c e n te r o f th e s t a t e . I s dom inated
by li v e s t o c k b u t has some g e n e ra l a r r ! c u l t u r e as w e ll,
G a lla t in County,
I oate d i n so u th w e ste rn Montana, has a co m b in atio n o f d ry la n d and I r r i e t l o n fa rm in g .
The y e a rs 1933-3?, i n c l u s i v e , Jrore used a s t h e b a s ic
p e rio d o f th e s tu d y f o r R o o se v e lt and G a lla t in c o u n tie s .
a n a ly s is o f 1937 was a v a il a b le f o r R o o sev elt County.
The s o i l grade
The M u sselsh e ll
County d a ta were a v a il a b le f o r th e y e a r s 1953-35, in c l u s i v e , f o r th e
s iz e o f farm s end farm p r a c t i c e s .
The c h ie f so u rc e o f d a ta was farm
s ig n -u p e on th e A g rio u ltu ra l A djustm ent / ! m in is tr a tio n , 1933-35, and th e
A g r ic u ltu r a l C cm servation Program , 1936-37.
Source of fata.
E lse o f f a r e , t e u a c y , name o f owner and t e n a n t , I c a tio n o f farm
a s t o s e c tio n , to w n sh ip , and ra n g e , a c re a g e o f ty p e s o f cro p s
ro a n and
p e r c e n t o f crop la n d dev o ted t o s o i l c o n se rv in g cro p s were secu red from
th e A r i c l t u r a l A djustm ent A d m in is tra tio n r e c o r d s .
D ata on s o i l
ratio s
w ere se c u re d from s o i l s maps a v a i l a b l e a t th e Montana E xperim ent S ta tio n .
So primary d a ta were used f o r th e s tu d y .
Some h e lp fu l in fo rm a tio n f o r
p u rp o ses o f ln tc r p r e t a t l o r i was o b ta in e d from v a rio u s f i e l d w orkers in
th e s t a t e .
No d i r e c t c o n ta c ts w ith t h e fa rm e rs in th e re g io n s tu d ie d were
p o s s ib le .
The d a ta >e re se c u re d from th e co u n ty o f f ic e s by Wnrics P ro g re ss
A iM in is tra tie n h e lp and tr a n s f e r r e d t o mimeographed MMrds.
These c ard s
were used i n s e c u rin g In fo rm a tio n f o r farm s s tu d ie d i n v a rio u s c o u n tie s .
- 17 L im ita tio n s o f th e Lfeta Used
R e A g r ic u ltu r a l A djustm ent A d m in is tra tio n re c o rd s used wore
c o n sid e re d t h e b e s t so u rc e o f ln fo rra atlo ri a v a il a b le a t th e tim e th e s tu d y
ToS s t a r t e d .
T h is program was an emergency program and was s e t up p r i n c i ­
p a l l y f o r w heat fa rm e rs .
Many em ployees who had v e ry l i t t l e e x p e rie n c e
In t h i s ty p e o f work com piled th e re c r d e .
S lnee th e program w e c h ie f ly
f o r w heat fa rm e rs , many o f th e o th e r cro p s grown on th e farm w ere n o t
g iv e n .
In fo rm a tio n on some o f th e farm s was so lim ite d t h a t t h e farm
was n o t u s e d .
I n some o ases th e t o t a l farm lan d d id n o t check w ith th e
c ro p s l i s t e d .
A lthough th e re c o rd s were in co m p lete in many r e s p e c t s ,
th e y w ere t h e same f o r th e owner a s w e ll a s th e te n a n t .
F o r us in <. d a ta from more th a n one s o u rc e i t i s n a tu r a l t h a t th e
same ty p e o f in fo rm a tio n w i l l n e t be given on b o th .
th e d a ta u s e d ,
T h is was t r u e in
I o r th e 1933-35 in fo rm a tio n f o r R o o sev elt and M u eeelah ell
c o u n ties i t was n e c e s s a ry t o ta k e a group o f p a rt-o w n e r farm s o r owners
t h a t le a s e d a p a r t o f t h e land th e y o p e ra te d .
In t h e c ase o f th e 1933-37
In fo rm a tio n f o r G a lla t in and R o o sev elt c o u n tie s f o r 1936-57, owners who
le a s e d p a r t o f t h e i r land were t r e a t e d in a s e p a ra te c a te g o ry .
The A g r ic u ltu r e C o n serv atio n Program re c o rd s w ere used f o r R o o se v e lt
end G a lla t ln c o u n tie s .
1933-35.
These d a ta were more com plete th a n th e d a ta f o r
In fo rm a tio n was n o t a v a ila b le f o r M u sse lsh e ll County f o r th e
y e a r s 1936-37.
Many re c o rd s u sed f o r 1933-37 l i s t e d o n ly th e c ro p s p la n te d and
p r a c t i c e s p e rfo rm ed .
T here was a p o r tio n o f lan d in each f a n n o t l i s t e d
such a s r o a d s , la n e s , fe n c e row s, perm anent p a s tu r e and i d l e la n d .
R te
* 18 «■
In fo rm a tio n u sed f o r th e s e f a m e f o r th e f iv e y e e re m s a d u p lic a tio n a s
BBBQr o f t; o f a m e wore sig n ed up i n a l l f i v e y e a r s .
The p r a c t i c e s , a s shown f o r th e y e a r s s tu d ie d , were n o t ty p ic a l o f
farm p r a c t i c e s o v er a lo n g p e rio d o f tim e .
T h is i s e s p e c i a l l y tr u e o f
some s o i l c o n se rv in g p r a c t i c e s t h a t were perform ed f o r b e n e f it paym ents.
The y e a r s s tu d ie d may n o t be t y p i c a l o f th e re g io n due t o d ro u th
c o n d itio n s .
Lead In R o o sev elt Cotatty I n th e In d ia n R e s e rv a tio n m e l e f t
i d l e d u rin g th e d ry y e a r s t o keep from p ay in g r e n t .
fe e d c ro p s w ere p la n te d due t
In some a re a s more
d ro u th and I n o th e r s l e s s feed cro p s due
t o th e d e c re a se d number o f liv e s to c k .
The y e a r 1937 f o r Roooevalt. County w e th e only county s tu d ie d f o r
s o i l g ra d e s .
F m * th e m ost p a r t , la n d sig n e d up i n 1937 in c lu d e d th e lan d
s ig n e d up in th e program in p re v io u s y e a r s .
I n 1937 th e m u ltip le farm s
were a l l grouped u n d er one nans and p t i n th e some c o n tr a c t.
Lend
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in O a lla t in end H u s s e le h e ll c o u n tie s was n o t s tu d ie d due
t o in a d e q u a te maps o f th e s o i l c l a s s e s .
Method o f A n a ly sis
As th e o r i g i n a l d a ta were a n a ly s e d i t became a p p a re n t t h a t th e r e
w ere d if f e r e n c e s i n th e farm s a s l i s t e d .
F o r th e p u rp o se s o f t h i s s tu d y
th e farm s were d iv id e d in to ( I ) owner o p e ra te d farm s, and (2 ) te n a n t
o p e ra te d f a m e .
In R o o se v e lt and M u sse lsh e ll c o u n tie s f o r 1933-35 i t was
n e c e s s a ry t o make a t h i r d c la s s o f o w n e r-te n a n t o p e ra te d .
The c o u n tie s were a n a ly se d s e p a r a te ly f o r th e e n t i r e p e rio d a s
w e ll a s by in d iv id u a l y e a r s .
F o r th e p u rp o se o f t h i s s tu d y , com parisons
IS o f th e owners and t e n a n t s have been ?sade w ith in th e c o u n tie s r a t h e r th en
t o o o ip a re th e c o u n tie s .
I t would be r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t to compare d i f f e r ­
e n t y e a rs a s th e d a ta were n o t s e t up f o r t h i s p u rp o se .
The a r ith m e tic se e n and th e model group were used a s a means o f
com parison and c o n t r a s t .
Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n and ra n g e s were used t o
show th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each group.
Farms were d iv id e d
s iz e i n t o 80 a c r e groups t o show th e o u t­
stan d in g s iz e groups o f farm s f o r th e d i f f e r e n t c o u n tie s .
The a r ith m e tic mean m s u sed t o show th e average s i z e o f f e r a e in
th e c o u n tie s .
T his a v erag e was somewhat b ia s e d due to a tim b e r o f la r g e
farm s I n e ac h c o u n ty .
S o il g rad e com parisons were In c lu d e d f o r R o o se v e lt County f o r 1957.
S o il s maps, p re p a re d by L. F . C e ie e k e r, A s s o c ia te A gronom ist, Mtmtana
S ta te C o lle g e , C o c p c ra tin
w ith th e bureau o f S o il s , U n ite d S ta te s D ep art­
ment o f A g r ic u ltu r e , were used f o r th e r i u d y .
These maps d iv id e d la n d
a c c o rd in g t o g ra d e s o f fa rm in g and g ra z in g la n d .
The a c re a g e o f each
g rad e o f la n d and th e p e rc e n ta g e o f each g rad e a s a p a r t o f th e t o t a l
land f o r th e owner and te n a n t wore com puted.
Graphs were p rep ared t o
show th e p e rc e n ta g e o f each g rad e o f le n d o p e ra te d by owners and te n a n t s .
PAST m .
FARM TENANCY IS MCtiTAMA
A ll a r e a s have c h a r a c t e r I s t i e s t h a t a re s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h a t a re a
& -d which must b e s tu d ie d w ith t h i s f a c t i n Blind.
The a r e a u n d er stu d y
i s o n ly a s n a il p a r t o f th e s t a t e and i t i s v e ry re a s o n a b le t o s u sp e c t
t h a t some c o n d itio n s would be found t h a t a r e n o t ty p i c a l o f th e s t a t e a s
20
e w hole.
iicreti e in l a m s
Muoh h a s been p u b lis h e d c G uoem ing th e uneconoctic a l u n i t s In th e
G reat P la in s a r e a .
cause.
S u c c e ssiv e cro p f a i l u r e s have c o n trib u te d t o t h i s one
T h is i s one o f th e re a so n s th e Homestead Law was changed I n 1909
g iv in g th e hom esteader 320 a c re s In s tw u i o f 160 a c r e s .
T h is in flu e n c e
i s v e ry n o tic e a b le in B o o se v e lt County a s o n e - f i f t h o f th e farm s a re in
th e 320 a c r e s i t e group.
The a llo tm e n t o f 320 a c r e s o f g r a tin g land to
on oh In d ia n was a ls o a n o th e r f a c t o r in f lu e n c in g th e la r g e number o f 320
a c r e f a m e (s e e t a b l e IV ).
The a v e ra g e s i t e o f farm s in R o o se v e lt Cotmty f o r th e y e a rs 1933-37
im s 454 a c r e s ( s e e t a b l e I ) .
T his a c re a g e i s w eighted by a few la r g e
farm s t h a t had a s many a s 8 ,0 0 0 a c r e s p e r fa rm . C /
The te n a n t s in B o o ee v e lt County farm ed l a r g e r farm s th a n d id th e
owners in 1933-36 (s e e appendix t a b l e I ) .
I n 1936 and 1937 u n d e r th e
A g r ic u ltu r a l C o n se rv a tio n Program th e owners w ere r e p o r te d a s o p e ra tin g
l a r g e r farm s th a n th e t e n a n t s .
T h is change i s th e r e s u l t o f com bining
th e m u ltip le farm s u n d er one c o n tr a c t i n th e o w n e r's name.
The a v e rt ge e l s e farm i n G a lla t in County In 1933-37 was 403 a c re s
is a c re a g e i s v e ry lnr.deyuc.te b ecau se th e d a ta used were so
in c o n s is te n t* I n th e A g r ic u ltu r a l A djustm ent A d m in is tra tio n r e c o r d s , 19333 6, th e farm s w ere l i s t e d under ow ners, o p e r a to r s , and owners who le a s e d
some la n d t h a t th e y fa m e d * In 1936 and 1937 s e p a ra te c o n t r a c t s were made
f o r an owner i f he r e n te d la n d . In 1937 in R o o sev elt C ounty, a l l m u ltip le
farm s were c o n fin e d u n d er th e n a e o f th e owner and a l l o th e r c o n tr a c t
numbers w ere c a n c e lle d . T his made few er s ig n e r s i n 1937 th s n in 1936.
However, th e r e was more a c re a g e s h o rn i n 1937 th e n in 1 936. The modal
group i s more n e a r ly th e t r u e av erag e a s found i n R o o sev elt Couasty o r
th e 320 a c r e group.
3,000
2 ,5 0 0
NUMBER OF FARMS
2000
40
TO
120
121
TO
200
201
TO
280
281
TO
360
361
TO
440
441
TO
520
521
TO
600
601
TO
680
681
TO
760
761
TO
840
841
TO
920
921
TO
IOOO
IOOI
TO
1080
1081
TO
1160
1161
TO
1240
1241
TO
1320
1321
TO
1400
OVER
1400
ACRES PER FARM
F ig u re 3 , —D is tr ib u tio n o f farm s a c c o rd in g t o th e number o f farm s in v a rio u s s iz e groups
on b a s is o f a c re a g e p e r farm in R o o sev elt and G a lla tin c o u n tie s , 1933-37,
M u sse lsh e ll County, 1933-35 \ J
l/
N um erical d a ta , appendix t a b le IV.
TARTf I I I . —A COMPARISON OF LASD DEVOTED TO VARIOUS PRACTICES 18 PER CENT Oi TOTAL LASD
IH THE THREE COlfflnES BY COlMTY AHD OitoBRSHIP STATUS l /
Couzrty and
ow nership
s ta t u e
T o ta l
T o ta l
lan d
p o t.
100
Feed
cro p s
p e t.
P a s tu re Legumes
p e t.
p o t.
Green
manure
p e t.
O th er
cro p s
p o t.
T o ta l
c ro p s
p e t.
Lend
not
l i s t e d 2/
p o t.
S heat
p o t.
F allo w
p o t.
27,8
1 3 .9
5 .7
1 0 .9
1 .7
1 .0
.4
61 .4
38 .6
.5
.3
.2
.5
00 .6
60 .6
5 3 .8
7 2 .0
39 .4
39 .4
46.2
28.0
.8
1 .2
.5
6 6 .4
64.3
68.6
43 ,6
46 .7
4 1 .4
78.2
83 .8
7 8 .2
72.2
21.8
16.2
21.8
27.6
R o o sev elt
T o ta l
Owner
O p e reto r
P e r t owner
68.2
62.8
2 9 .8
17.4
3 1 .8
31.6
30.6
3 6 .0
1 3.1
1 2 .5
1 2 .4
19 .5
6 .3
7.1
4 .3
7.1
6 .1
6 .9
4 ,9
8 .8
,7
1 .0
.6
.1
1 .6
2 .2
1 .0
C ra lle tln
T o ta l
Owner
O p e rato r
2 1 .6
3 9 .4
6 0 .6
20.7
17.6
23.1
1 5 .4
1 3 .6
1 6 .7
4 .6
6 .4
3 .1
9 .2
8 .1
10.1
8 .6
7 .3
4 .6
.2
.2
.2
M u sse lsh e ll
T o tal
Owner
O p erato r
P a r t owner
10.2
3 7 .4
2 7 .8
3 4 .8
1 4 .3
12.2
17.5
14,0
12 .3
1 1 .6
1 4 .6
11 .0
8 .2
6 .8
4 .0
6 .0
4 1 .4
6 4 .4
42.1
4 1.2
i
$3
j 7 Tarc-' fro*--.
.1 FTniT ‘ iuet:::o~t ^ n l u i s t r a t io n Rwwrii** 195^-1935, mnd A g ri- '
C iilturtiT C o ase rv e tio n Program re c o rd s , 1930-1937. N u n e rlc el i a f o m e t l o a . (s e e t& tilee V I I I , IX,
end X)
2 / T hle p e rc e n ta g e Is M tM because o f many o f th e farm s o n ly th e w heat a crea g e was g iv e n .
t
TABLE IV .—DISTSIBUTICffl CF ACRKAOE K FAEKS BY COliSTIKS l /
D is tr ib u tio n o£ ffenas by s i t e
281
361
601
441
521
360
440
dOO
520
C0
T o ta l
46
120
lfcl
200
SKl
280
9878
929
1929
660
2757
422
771
289
B ooaovelt
6987
465
1556
420
2170
260
518
G a lla tlm
2404
173
561
249
495
149
537
I
32
11
94
13
Comtgr
T o tal
S u a s e la h e ll
I/
b
- W “ ifisT T i g r - T i r r - T S S T " Over
1400
1400
1320
1080
1160
1240
1000
W
760
' 1ST"
840
&41
920
879
200
289
98
247
87
95
93
74
73
284
195
601
129
163
75
169
65
75
45
64
62
157
190
86
196
65
84
19
35
13
11
21
10
4
44
63
9
82
6
42
6
43
9
9
27
7
83
For a d d itio n a l d a ta f o r y e are and oranersiilp s t a t u s eee %pp«ndl x ta b l e IV.
621
24
(s e e ap p en d ix ta b le I l ) *
T his a c re a g e m s w e ig h ted
farm s o f a much
l a r g e r a c r e a g e , and a s t h i s county i s c h a r a c te r is e d by a la r g e ,.roup o f
q u a rt e r - s e c t i o n and h a l f - s e c tio n fa rm s, tdhe l a t t e r groups a r e store
t y p i c a l titan th e a r ith m e tic mean.
M u ss e lsh e ll C ounty, w hich i s l a r g e l y a ,r a s i n g a r e a , h a t only a
few l o c a l i t i e s where fa rm in g i s p r a c tic e d .
e i t h e r R o o se v e lt o r G a lla tin c o u n tie s .
I t h as l a r g e r farm s th an
Much o f th e la n d l i s t e d I s e r a s ­
in g la n d b u t i s in c lu d e d a s p a r t o f th e fa rm ,
th e a v erag e s i s e farm f o r
1953-55 was 863 a c r e s (se e ap p en d ix t a b l e H i ) *
by la r g e farm s o f from 6,000 t o 8,000 a c r e s e ac h .
T his a c re a g e I s w eig h ted
Out o f th e 557 farm s
s t u d ie d , 83 ware o v e r 1,400 a c r e s I n s i s e (s e e ta b le H f ) .
la r g e farm s w ere p a rt-o w n e r fa rm s.
Many o f th e
T h is group o p e ra te d th e l a r g e s t farm s
w ith th e t e n a n t s h a v in g th e n e x t l a r g e s t .
The ra n g e o f e l s e o f farm s i n t h i s s tu d y was from 40 a c r e s t o
8 ,0 0 0 a c r e s .
A la r g e p e r c e n ts e o f t h e 40 a c r e farm s were o p e ra te d by
owners r a t h e r th a n by te n a n ts a s i s t r u e i n many s e c tio n s o f th e U n ited
S ta te s . T j
Tlie la r g e farm s w ere o fte n p a r tn e r s h ip farm s and a la r g e
p e rc e n ta g e o f t h e la n d was u sed f o r g ra a in g .
As shown in ap p en d ix t a b l e s I , I I , and I I I , th e te n a n ts w ith a
few e x c e p tio n s o p e ra te l a r g e r farm s th a n do th e ow ners.
P e rc e n ta g e o f 'Jm e rs and Tenants
G ra in crop fa rm in g in a ll p a r t s o f th e U nited S ta te s shows a h ig h
p e rc e n ta g e o f te n an c y ( t a b l e I I ) .
■"
T h is i s a l s o t r u e o f th e sam ple s tu d ie d
'ij.S.jj.A'L Voar Dook, Op. o i t .
-
25
-
PER CENT
IOO
75
OPERATOR
50
OW NERS*
25
0
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
GALLATIN
100
75
OWNER
\
I
\
\
OPERATOR
25
____ I
50
PART O W N ER |
0
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
ROOSEVELT
IOO
75
OW NER
50
I
25
P A R T "OW NER
1933
,O P E R A T O R
I
1934
1935
1936
1937
MUSSELSHELL
F ig u re 4« —Comparison o f ow nership s t a t u s in G a lla t in and R o o sev elt
c o u n tie s , 1933-37, and M u sse lsh e ll County, 1933-35 \ j f
l/
For n u m erical d a ta see appendix t a b le s I , I I , and I I I .
•
f o r TioutRoa.
26
■
The c o u n tie s s tu d ie d have a h ig h e r a v erag e o f ten an o y
th a n does th e s t a t e a s a w hole.
D ata from th e s tu d y f o r R o o se v e lt C ounty, 1953 t o 1937, show t h a t
65 p e r c e n t o f th e far?"is w ere farm ed by owner# (a p p m d ix t a b l e V) compared
t o 75 t o 80 p e r c e n t f o r R ooeevelt Couaty a s a whole (s e e f ig u r e 2 ) .
G rain farm ing seems to be more eo n d u eiv e t o to n e toy th a n sorae o f
th e o th e r ty p e s o f fa rm in g found i n th e s t a t e .
Caeh c ro p s suoh as s n a i l g r a in s , c o tto n , to b a c c o , a r e more con­
d u c iv e t o wind e ro s io n th a n t r e d a ir y fa rm in g , hay o r th e le g a a e c ro p s .
T enants grow c ash c ro p s b ecau se th e r e I s l e s s cash in v e s te d and
a q u ic k e r r e tu r n can bo o b ta in e d th a n in m ost o f th e o th e r farm ing t y p e s .
I n many p a r t s o f th e C n ite d S ta te s th e la n d lo rd r e q u ir e s h i s te n a n ts t o
p la n t c a sh c r o p s .
The p ereo n ta g e o f te n a n c y I n G a lla t in County was v e ry h ig h (s e e
f ig u r e 4 ) .
The s e c tio n o f th e coun ty s tu d ie d I s th e h ig h e s t l a th e
county (s e e appendix t a b l e V I).
M u ss e lsh e ll County hed very l i t t l e g r a in fa rm in g .
Only 557 farm s
were s tu d ie d f o r th e t h r e e y e a r s 1953-35 (s e e ap p en d ix t a b l e I I I ) .
These
farm s a r e l a r g e r th e n t h e a v e ra g e s i t e farm s found In e i t h e r R o o se v e lt o r
G a lla t in c o u n tie s .
These la r g e farms w ere due t o a p p ro x im a te ly 50 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l
la n d was shown i n perm anent p a s tu re (s e e ap p en d ix ta b l e V I I ) .
In M ussel­
s h e l l County 26.1 p e r c e n t o f th e farm s w ere o p e ra te d by fa rm e rs who w ere
p a rt-o w n e rs .
In 1936, 18 p e r c e n t o f a l l owners le a s e d some a d d itio n a l la n d a s
27
TABLE V .—TOTAL LATiD IH FARMS, 'IUUBEB O l FARMS AHD
AVERAGE ACREAGE PER FARM, BT COUHTIES l /
T otal land
In farms
t o t a l ntmbeir
o f farms
4 ,4 7 7 ,6 8 7
9 ,8 7 8
463
3 ,0 4 9 ,9 1 4
6 ,9 3 7
464
O a lla tln
969,439
2 ,4 0 4
403
Mussel s h e ll
460,234
637
053
County
T otal
R oosevelt
I/
Average a cres
per form
If or huner io a l d ate see ta b le s I , t l , and i n .
* 28 *
compared t o 12 p e r c e n t In 1900*
I n 1935 th e s e ow iere r e n te d 2 6 .5 p e r
c e n t o f t h e t o t a l la n d un d er l e a s e .
C o n d itio n s see® t o show t h a t th e s e
p a rt-o w n e r fa rm e rs a r e l i k e l y more i n ju r io u s t o th e la n d th a n a re th e
te n a n ts who r e n t a l l th e le n d th e y farm .
The l a t t e r do n o t Imvo th e
same in c e n tiv e t o farm p a r t o f th e la n d a t th e expense o f t h e r e s t o f i t .
P a rt-o w n er o p e ra to rs f in d i t ad vantageous t o m a t la n d n e a r t h e i r
fa rm s, and i n re c e n t y e a r s w ith th e u se o f th e t r a c t o r , can go s e v e ra l
B dlee and p t i n a wheat cro p w ith v e ry l i t t l e added e x p en se ,
sheet l a
a c ro p t h a t r e q u ir e s v e ry l i t t l e work e x c e p t d u rin g c e r t a i n s e a s o n s o f
th e y e a r .
Types o f Leases
D ata wore n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l y e a rs a s t o ty p e s o f le a s e s o f
R o o se v e lt and M u sse lsh e ll b u t a . enercd p e r u s a l in d ic a te d t h a t th e o u t­
sta n d in g le a s e agreem ent was on & s h a re r e n t b a s is d iv id e d a s follow s*
two t h i r d s t o th e te n a n t and o n e - th ir d t o th e owner o r t h r e e - f o u r t h s t o
th e te n a n t and o n e -fo u rth to th e ow ner.
In
G a lla tin C ounty, however,
cash r e n t was q u ite a oommnn p r a c tic e .
In th e U n ited S ta te s i n 1930, 62 p e r c e n t o f th e te n a n t fa n n e rs
r e n te d la n d on a crop s h a re b a s i s .
T h is ,p r a c tic e many tim e s encouraged
th e p ro d u c tio n o f cash c ro p s and d isc o u ra g e d th e p ro d u c tio n o f c ro p s
th a t oa
be m arketed th ro u g h liv e s to c k , o /
S h o rt tim e le a s e s seem t o be predom inant in t h i s s t a t e .
o f le a s e g iv e s le e s s e c u r ity t o t h e t e n a n t .
" I y r tj.S .i-.A . Year ik>bk. Op. c i t .
T his ty p e
I t ta k e s some tim e f o r th e
29
te n a n t t o become a d ju s te d in th e o ccrm n ity end a t l o e s t one y e a r i s
n e e e s sa ry fo r t h e te n a n t t o become a c q u a in te d w ith th e f a m he i s o p e r­
a tin g ,
S h o rt tim e le a s e s d is o o u ra e s o i l e o n e e rv in g p r a c t i c e s , u se o f
f e r t i l i s e r s , and Improvements on th e la n d .
Fam
T a c tic e s
Farr, p r a c tic e s a s found In t h i s s tu d y may n o t b e t y p i c a l o f th e
p r a c t i c e s perform ed o v er a Ion^ p e rio d o f tim e (s e e ap p en d ix t a b l e s V I I I ,
IX , and X ).
In many cases p r a c tic e s were c a r r ie d o u t because payments
made under th e A y rieu ltx u rel C o n serv atio n Program re q u ire d ad h eren ce t o
c e rta in p ra c tic e s .
The y e a rs s tu d ie d w ere u s u a lly d ry and p r ic e s fo r g r a in w ere low .
In th e s e c o u n tie s many Csras w ere l e f t i d l e b ecau se o f d ro u th c o n d itio n s ,
E o o s e v e lt i s p r i n c i p a l l y a w heat p ro d u cin g c o u n ty .
Wheat was th e
o u ts ta n d in g c ro p in 1933 a s w e ll a s f o r th e o th e r y e a r s , a lth o u g h th e r e
was a d e c re a se e v e ry y e a r when compared w ith th e p re v io u s y e a r e x c e p t in
th e ease o f 1935 (s e e a p p en d ix t a b l e V I I I ) .
The p e rc e n ta g e o f w heat
p J a n te d in R o o se v e lt County C u rin i th e y e a r s 1936 a d 1937 shows v ery
l i t t l e d if f e r e n c e f o r owners and te n a n ts (s e e appendix t a b l e V I I I ) .
T h is
t a b l e a ls o shows t h a t th e owners p la n t more s o i l c o n se rv in g cro p s end
more fe e d crops th a n do t h e te n a n ts ( t a b l e I I I ) .
The owners seeded more
g ra s s f o r p a s tu r e which would in d ic a te t h a t th e owners a r e doing more to
* -jJ mY a l b S G in lio o so v o lt C ounty, w heai e s p e c i a l l y was plowed tinker
a s a ruon manure cro p a s th e o p e ra to r was payed so much a n a c r e f o r
t h i s p r a c t i c e . O ther p r a c tic e s a s s e e d in g g r a s s e s , e l e v e r , and a l f a l f a
w ere a ls o perform ed f o r paym ent.
*» 30 •
prevent s o i l e r o sio n then are th e te n a n ts .
The f a c t th a t th e owners
p la n t more feed crops euoh as cor , yorghume, and o a ts would in d ic a te
th a t th ey have more l i v e s t o # on the farm than have th e tenant s .
Ihe land in fa llo w in R oosevelt County in 1934 and 1935 c o n siste d
o f about on e-fou rth to ta l land in th e average e ls e farm (s e e appendix
ta b le T i l l ) .
This acreage decreased in 1936 end 1937.
The la r g e a c r e -
a ,e in f a llo w in 1934 and 1955 was l i k e l y due t o sev ere drouth c o n d itio n s
during th e se y e a r s .
Suzaasr fa llo w i s used t o good advantage on dry land
f arris fo r th e con servation o f m oisture and c o n tr o l of weeds.
The rod vroodor, d u ck -fo o t c u lt iv a t o r , and rotary hoe have been
used to good advantage in p reparation o f summer f a llo w land a s they ere
very e f f e c t i v e in k i l l i n g w eeds, and producing a d e s ir a b le olod mulch. 1 0 /
InorMLsc in y ie ld due t o s i m e r fa llo w w i l l depend upon th e m oisture held
in th e s o i l and th e n e t hods o f c u lt iv a t io n .
Wheat i s th e la r g e s t cash crop in G a lla tin a s w e ll a s R oosevelt
County, however, a la r g e r percentage o f th e t o t a l acreage la devoted to
wheat in Ho 3e v e I t County (soe ta b le I I I ) .
Tenants show a higher p ercen t­
age o f wheat in a l l f i v e yea rs than do th e owners.
Cereal cro p s, legumes,
and oth er crops grown fo r feed show a h igh er percentage t o th e owner in
G a lla tin County than th e o th er c o u n ties stu d ie d (s c
ta b le I I I ) .
a g rea ter d iffe r e n c e in cro p s plan ted by th e ovmer and ten a n t i n
County than in R oosevelt (s e e fig u r e 5 ) .
There I s
a l l a t in
These fig u r e s show th a t the
owners are performing more s o i l con servin g p r a c tic e s and v ery l i k e l y
have more liv e s t o c k on t h e ir farms than do th e ten e t s .
IO / U .S.C .A . te a r Book, Op. c i i .
A w ider v a r ie ty
- 31
o f crops I j yrcma in O a lla tin County th a
t
In a itlte r H oosevelt or
23usaolshell c o u n ties (eoe t a b le I I I ) .
M bsselahel I County, which i s Ia r l Oly a liv e s to c k county, shows
a la r g e r p ercentage o f permanent,
R oosevelt cou n ties*
a stu ro than e it h e r G a lla tin or
S u a s e ls h e ll C om ly a ls o shows & la r g e r percentage
o f wheat screed by th e te n a n ts.
L lvestook in M u sselsh ell County i s one o f th e c h ie f so u rces o f
income.
Duo to the drouth in l u s s e l s h e l l County in the l a s t few y e a r s ,
liv e s t o c k r a is in g has boon d i f f i c u l t .
In t i d e county, due t o th e short
g razin g p eriod and th e n e c e s s ity o f eupp amentary fe e d , th e r a is in g o f
liv e s t o c k Ims not bee
so p r o f it a b le .
Grain sorghums and co m ere being
grown as a supplementary crop but have met w ith o n ly lim ite d su c c e s s, as
i t ta k es to o much dry fe e d t o w in ter c a t t l e where g ra sin g i s lim ite d .
In 1925 in th e D nited S ta te s o n ly 3 8 ,6 per cen t o f th e farmers
were te n a n ts , y e t on th e farms th ey operated th ere was harvested over
tw o-th ird * (6 7 ,6 p er cen t) o f th e c o tto n aorea e , 4 9 ,9 per cen t of th e
tob acco a c r e a g e , 4 7 ,3
c en t o f th e
per een t o f th e corn acreage fo r g r a in , 4 1 ,6 per
a t s fo r g r a in , 3 8 .1 per e en t o f th e w heat, 3 5 .5 per cent
o f th e fla x s e e d and 4 3 ,8 per cen t o f th e sugar b e e ts , l i /
These fig u r e s
fo r 1935 show th a t th e ten a n ts produced a la r g e percentage o f th e cash
crops in th e U nited S ta te s fo r th a t y e a r.
Grades o f l araing and e ra sin g Land
Montana farms have been c l a s s i f i e d in to various grade based upon
ll/
H .S.D .A . te a r Book, Op. c i t .
"
«•
52
*
e s o i l re c o n n B ie a en c e . 1 2 /
Farm la n d i s d iv id e d I n to g ra d e s on th e b a s is o f th e y i e l d o f
w heat p e r a c r e on summer f a llo w la n d .
The f o u r g rad es a r e a s fo llo w s i
f i r s t g ra d e , la n d y ie ld in g 22 o r more b u s h e ls p e r a o r e ; second g ra d e ,
16-21 b u s h e l# ; t h i r d g ra d e , 12-16 b u s h e ls , f o u r th
a d e , 8-11 b u s h e ls .
G razin g le n d h as been c l a s s i f i e d on th e b a s i s o f th e number o f a c re s
r e q u ir e d t o c a r r y a I OCX) pound s t e e r f o r a t e n month
e r io d —f i r s t g ra d e ,
18 o e re s o r l e s s ; second g ra d e , 19-27 s e r e s ; t h i r d g ra d e , 28-57 a c r e s ;
f o u r th grade 56-54 a c r e s ; f i f t h g ra d e , 56 a c r e s o r m ore.
R o o se v e lt was
used f o r t h i s s tu d y . 1 5 /
Upon a n a ly s is o f th e g ra d e s o f la n d o p e ra te d by owners and te n a n t s .
I t m s found t h a t a l a r g e r p e rc e n ta g e o f each farm o p e ra te d by th e owner
was second and t h i r d g rade farm lan d w h ile th e te n a n ts farm ed a l a r g e r
p e rc e n ta g e o f t h e f o u r th g ra d e l a i d .
T w o -th ird s o f th e t o t a l farm la n d in
th e county was c l a s s i f i e d a s second and t h i r d grade la n d (s e e f ig u r e 6 ) .
R o o se v e lt County shows no f i r s t , ro d e farm la n d .
Most o f th e la n d o f th e p la in s a r e a would be v e ry p ro d u c tiv e i f
i s / ^ l s ' o l a s s i Y \ c a t i « i '¥t^~ Tieeti
c p ^ l ^ T )T T e p a rt.a e ;tt of
Agroncmy end th e D opartcient o f A g r lo u ltu r a l Eeemoni c e , Montana S ta te
C o lle g e , on th e b a s is o f a s o i l s r o c o in a ies&nce conducted by L . F . O le se k e r,
A s s o c ia te A gronom ist, Montana S ta te C o lle i e , Bozeman, M ontana.
1 3 / Due t o la c k o f tim e and in a d e q u a te maps o f M u ss e lsh e ll and
G a lla t in c o u n tie s , o n ly B oo so v elt County was u sed . As m ost o f th e farm s
In R o o se v e lt Couniy f o r 1933-37 were a d u p lic a tio n o f th e fa rm s i n 1937,
o n ly 1937 wee u se d . The d isc re p a n c y i n th e a c re a g e used i n t h i s stu d y
and th e a c re a g e shown i n appendix t a b l e V l I l f o r R o o sev elt County f o r
1937 i s becau se a few o f th e farm s l i s t e d had some lan d i n S h erid an
C o m ly o r N orth Lekota and naps w ere n o t a v a il a b le f o r th e s e fa rm s.
These f a r m w ere p u t i n R o o se v e lt County b ecau se th e improvem ents were
i n R o o se v e lt C ounty. T h is i s a r u l i n g o f th e A g r ie u ltw t I C o n serv atio n
Program .
—
Fl
33
■
F2
F3
F4
GRADES OF FARM LAND
g 50
<
OWNERS
^ 4 0
tenants'
0 30
LU
0 20
1
IO
IT
£
0
Gl
G2
G3
G4
SB.
GRADES OF GRAZING LAND
F ig u re 5 . --A com parison o f th e t o t a l number o f a c r e s o f each grade o f la n d
o p e ra te d by te n a n ts and oneners in R o o se v e lt County in 1937
e x p re ssed by p e rc e n ta g e o f t o t a l la n d I /
l/
N um erical d a ta , appendix t a b le X I.
54
s u f f i c i e n t ciQotmts o f m oistu re could be o b ta in ed .
lim it in g fa c to r in crop produ ction.
F e r t i l i t y i e not th e
SLudies made in th e P la in s Area
show th a t th ere i s no e stim a te o f th e d u ration o f th e p r o d u c tiv ity o f
th e lan d . 1 4 /
The te n a n ts in S e o s e v e lt County in 1957 had a la r g e r percentage
o f e l l trades o f g ra zin g land excep t th e th ird grade which m s M fher
fo r tho owners. I S /
TMs was e s p e c ia lly tr u e o f land c l a s s i f i e d a s
swamp bottom land (s e e fig u r e 5 ) .
H o f i r s t grade grazing land was shown
fo r R oosevelt County.
SUMMARY ASD CONCLUSIONS
B iis i s a study o f th e r e la tio n s h ip o f farm tenancy t o s i z e o f
farm, farm p r a c tic e s , and s o i l grades.
w ith a t o t a l o f 4 ,4 7 7 ,5 8 7 a c r e s .
The study ! e l u d e d 9 ,878 farms
Ihe c o u n tie s Included were R oosevelt
and G a lla tin fo r tho years 1933-37 and M u sselsh ell Cknmty f o r 1955-36.
This sample I s on ly a sm all part o f the s t a t e o f M o.tena.
I.
Taking th e te n a n ts a s a , roup th e data show them t o be
p r a c t ic a lly equal or in many oases b e t t e r s itu a te d than are th e owners.
They have la r g e r farm s, except in R oosevelt County, 1956-37.
!h ere i s
com paratively l i t t l e difference in th e farm p r a c tic e s o f th e Ovners and
ten a n ts although th e ten a n ts do p la n t so r e s o i l d e p le tin g crops and l e s s
s o i l conserving cro p s.
The te n a n ts , however, do not have a s such over-
1 4 / ^iraprove'rati'i^'sI - - ' -'Llnniti o f T illa g e to
on th e Torthera Great P la in s " , Farmers B u lle tin Mo.
1 5 / Comparison o f th e t o t a l land in pastu re
ta b le T ll would be inadequate as very few o f th e s e
p a stu re .
LJntiTd TTTI lowing
1797, u.S.D .A .
as g iv e n in appendix
farm s show perm anent
Sg head exponaes such a s in t e r e s t , t a x e s , and up-keep o f th e land as do th e
ownerSe
2.
th e s t a t e .
The fo ra tenancy In th e area stu d ied I s anion £ th e M=Hest In
Thie i s due to cash crop farming in t h is a r ea .
Tlie p rin cip a l
crop on th e most o f th e faras was wheat.
3.
The variou s government program* from 1933-37 Increased th e s o i l
coaoerving crops end decreased th e s o i l d e p le tin g c ro p s.
S o il conserving
p r a c tic e s such as sowing c r e s te d wheat g r o ss, a l f a l f a , c lo v e r , and plow­
in g under green manure crops were performed fo r payment.
4.
te n a n ts .
th e farm.
6.
wheat
Owners plan ted l e s s wheat and more feed crops t la n d id th e
This would in d ic a te th a t th e owne re have more liv e s t o c k on
The owners a ls o plan ted a la r g e r v a r ie ty o f crop s.
The owners p lan ted more s o i l conserving crops such as c re sted
r a a s , a l f a l f a , and c lo v e r than d id th e te n a n ts.
6.
The s l s e o f farms fo r th e c o u n ties stu d ied ranged from 40
acrcB to SeCkfO a c r e s .
There were th r e e o u tstan d in g s iz e s o f
s i s t In, o f 160-320 and 640 a cres eaoh.
arms con­
Although the average s i z e o f farm
fo r th e th ree c o u n ties was 463 a c r e s , th e modal =Toup c o n s is t in g o f about
m e - f i f t h o f th e farms in th e area was th e 320 acre group.
Kany la rg e
fa m e e s p e c ia lI y in M u sselsh ell County, caused th e average fo r th e group
a s & whole to be much h i, her.
7.
Prouth co n d itio n s probably a ff e c te d th e acreage o f crops
grown in th e cou n ties stu d ie d .
fe e d fo r liv e r to o k .
6.
Feed crops were p la n te d f o r supplementary
Much land was l e f t id le due t o d ro u th .
Spring wheat was rhe ou tsta n d in g s o i l depleting crop In th e
36 ■»
t h r e e c o u n ti e e .
Com and sorghua cro p a w ere a ls o g ro m t o some e x te n t
o v e r moet o f th e a r e a .
9.
S o il c o n serv in g c ro p s c o n s is te d o f a l f a l f a , o lc v e r , and
c r e s te d w heat g r a s s .
The a c re a g e o f c r e a te d w heat ^ ra s s sown has i n -
oreap ed I n th e I u a t few y e a rs due t o governm ent payment f o r t h i s p r a c t i c e .
10.
The owners o p e ra te b e t t e r la n d a c c o rd in g to th e d a ta s tu d ie d
th a n d id tlie t e n a n t s .
In 1937 i n B o o aev elt C o m ty th e owners farmed ab o u t
2 2 .0 p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l second g rad e la n d o p e ra te d by th e owners a s
OOTipared t o 1 6 .4 p e r oe it f o r th e te n a n t s .
The owners a l s o o p e ra te d
e l l # i t l y more o f th e t h i r d grade lan d th a n d id th e te n a n t s w h ile fo r th e
f o u r th g ra d e farm la n d th e te n a n ts farm ed th e la r g e r p e rc e n ta g e .
The te n a n ts o p e ra te d a c r e o f a l l g rad es o f p a s tu r e la n d e x ce p t
t h i r d g ra d e .
T h is e s p e c i a l l y i s t r u e o f th e p o o re r g rad e o f p a s tu r e la n d
l i s t e d a s swamp bottom la n d .
Io la n d was r e p o r te d a s f i r s t g rad e farm o r g r a tin g le n d in
R o o se v e lt C om ty i n 1937.
T his i s l i k e l y due t o i n s u f f i c i e n t r a i n f a l l
a s th e v a rio u s g ra d e s o f lan d were d eterm in ed cm a p ro d u c tio n b a s i s .
37
A P P E H D n TABLE I , - TOTAL LAND B I FARMS, StiMBER OF FARMS M D AVERAGE
ACREAGE PER FARM I B ROOSEVELT COUNTY BY O # E R S K IP S T A T U S , 1 9 3 5 - 3 7 l /
Y ear and ow nership
s ta tu e
T o ta l lan d
i n farm s
(a c re s)
T o ta l number
o f farm s 2/
3 ,0 4 9 ,9 1 4
6 ,9 3 7
464
1933
T o ta l
Owner
T enante
P a r t owner
657,331
252,212
125,496
179,623
1 ,0 9 4
604
285
206
509
417
440
876
1934
T o tal
Ormer
T a ie n te
P a r t owner
563,441
254,281
130,523
170,627
1,100
698
293
209
512
425
445
891
1936
T o ta l
Owner
T en an ts
P a r t owner
566,683
250,171
133,705
173,807
1 ,1 0 7
612
304
191
507
421
439
912
1936
T o ta l
Owner
T enants
663,979
398,383
255,596
1 ,8 4 3
1,022
821
355
389
311
1937
T o tal
Owner
T enants
709,490
443,920
266,570
1 ,793
929
864
394
477
307
T o ta l
Average a c re s
p e r farm 3/
i y b a te were ta k e n from County A.A.A. re c o rd s a n d ' County' / .C eP.
re c o rd s f o r 1953-37.
2 / ?4eny o f Lheee f e r a e e r e d u p lic a tio n s a s some f e r a e wore sig n e d
up I n a l l f i v e y e a r s , 1933-37.
3 / T hle a v e ra g e Ie w i l t e d by a number o f farm s w ith a s h ig h a s
8 ,000 a c r e s e a c h .
38
A P P E N D !) T,*BLE I I . — TOTAL IA S D I S IA H sI S , NUMBER OT FARMS AfiD AVERAGE
ACREAGE PER FORM K GALLATIli CODHTT BY ( M i l S H IP S T A T U S , 1 9 3 3 - 3 7 l /
Year end ow nership
s ta tu s
T o ta l lan d
i n farm s
!a c res)
T o ta l number
o f farm s 2 /
Average a c r e s
p e r farm S /
T o ta l
969,439
2,404
403
1933
T o ta l
Owner
T en an ts
152,806
51,093
101,712
358
129
229
424
396
444
1934
T o ta l
Owner
T en an ts
146,175
48,108
98,067
368
130
228
408
370
450
1935
T o ta l
Owner
T enants
161,557
49,843
101,714
358
130
228
422
383
446
1936
T o ta l
Owner
T enants
165,938
79,022
86,916
377
168
209
437
470
416
1937
T o ta l
Owner
T e ie n ts
352,971
163,333
189,633
963
461
492
380
356
386
l / D sta w ere o b ta in e d from Cousaiy .A .A . reco rd * f o r 1933-36 Bad
A .C .P . re c o rd s f o r 1936-37.
2 / fifany o f th e s e farm s were d u p lic a tio n s a s th e y w ere S iiBed up
i n a l l l i v e y e a r s , 1933-37.
3 / T h is a v e ra g e i s w eighted by a number o f la r g e farm s w ith as
many as"*9,000 a c r e s .
39
APPEND!* TkSLZ I I I . —TOTAL IAiD IS FAMS, HOMBER DF FARMS AHB AVERAGE
ACREAGE PER FAR!! IS MLSSELSHELL COlHTY BT ORMERSRlP SIAliUS, 1333-56 l /
T e a r end ow nership
s ta tu s
T o ta l lan d
in f a m e
(a c r e s )
T o ta l number
o f farm s 2 /
Average a c r e s
por f a m 3 /
T o ta l
458,243
637
853
1933
T o ta l
O sner
T enants
P a r t owner
151,983
SC ,235
42,599
63,361
179
77
56
46
848
730
768
1 ,1 5 7
1934
T o ta l
Owner
T enants
P a r t owner
154,216
69,566
41,991
62,660
179
77
57
46
861
773
749
1,144
1936
T o ta l
Owner
T en an ts
P a r t owner
152,036
65,745
43,219
63,071
179
77
57
45
849
724
758
1 ,1 7 9
V D eic w ere ta k en frora tk e County A»/»A» ra o o rd e fo r 1935-^5.
%/ Many o f th e s e farvis a re d u p lic a tio n * a s th ey were sig n e d up
in a l l t h r e e y e a r s , 1933-36.
3 / T h ia a c re a g e l a w eighted by a maaber o f f e r a e w ith an average
o f 600 t o 8,000 a c r e s e a c h .
V
«• 40 *»
U V m d l TABLE I V . — B I S T H m r i OS 05 ACHtACE IN FAMS
IH H O O S E m r AHB CALLATIH COUSTI ES, 1933-57, AHD
MUSSELSHELL CWKTT, 1935-56 BT (M E H SH IP STATES
Cotffitiea by y e a rs
and ow nership
status
T o tal
iic r
T o tal
M a t r l b u tio n ' o f f arras W s i z e t /
28T
361
Sn
E r
WU
“M
761
I3 o !
IE n
n il
THI
TSST
over"
4. W V
f UV/
9878
629
1929
660
2759
422
771
289
98
247
87
96
247
87
95
93
74
73
284
B ooaevelt
1935
T o tal
Ovmer
Tenant
P a r t oisner
3501
1814
882
605
174
120
48
6
453
294
148
13
176
119
49
8
909
561
284
64
128
72
28
28
305
178
77
50
125
64
30
31
362
ITS
107
70
97
54
20
45
108
36
15
57
47
26
5
16
114
30
32
52
50
30
0
20
44
9
10
25
29
7
7
16
43
10
5
28
66
19
6
SI
91
30
13
48
R oosevelt
1956-57 2 /
T o ta l
O m er
T m ant
5636
1951
1685
281
151
ISO
883
364
519
224
121
103
1261
601
660
132
91
41
213
165
58
70
52
18
249
157
92
52
24
8
56
47
8
26
22
4
66
39
16
15
14
I
31
21
10
16
14
2
21
19
2
6
6
66
63
13
C a lla tin
1933-55
T o ta l
Oenaar
Tenaut
1074
389
686
40
20
20
218
82
136
95
44
51
241
77
164
74
41
33
103
34
69
40
8
32
108
59
69
35
18
17
49
7
42
8
0
8
19
13
6
6
I
5
5
6
I
5
3
6
12
3
9
12
I
11
G a lla t in
1956-57
T o ta l
Oteier
Tenant
1330
629
701
133
83
50
343
170
173
154
74
80
254
97
157
75
42
S3
87
41
46
45
19
26
80
27
61
80
12
18
35
16
20
11
7
4
16
8
8
7
3
4
6
4
2
9
4
6
4
2
2
I
537
231
169
137
I
I
32
20
11
I
11
6
4
I
94
66
24
15
13
9
3
I
63
18
33
12
9
8
I
0
62
36
25
23
6
42
21
6
15
6
S
3
0
43
14
20
9
9
6
9
3
S
S
27
3
15
9
0
0
0
M u sselsh ell
1935-56
T o tal
Owner
T enant
P a r t owner
i '/
2/
-
6
r ,e. ^ - aCre° ® Groups sere ta k e n t o show th e 160-320 end 640 e ls e f e r a e ,
Itt 1937 in Booeenr*! f!**%*%+?» mil
4.4 ^
__ _____ __
_ ■_
£ ni d \ S i * 2 : l r 1F ' ' w * n t h *
^ her
oo^ rot —
3
3
I
32
21
11
7
S
4
0
83
25
19
59
A P P E S D IX TABLE V .--P E R C L B T A G E GF TOTAL LAND DEVOTED TO VARIOUS PRA CTICES IN
ROOSEVELT COUNTY, 1 9 5 5 - 3 7 l /
'
Year and
ow nership
s ta tu s
R o o se v e lt, 1953
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
P a r t owner
T o ta l
lan d
p o t.
Wheat
p c i.
F a llo w
p e t.
100.0
65.4
26.0
18.6
44.1
45.1
45.9
4 0 .9
1 0 .4
9 .4
9 .8
1 2 .0
' Uaes o f I r 6 in p e r c e n t
'
Ve'ed
'"" '"
' '
OthVr
Green
orope
orope P a s tu re
manure
Let-Uiaee
4/
2/
y/
p o t.
p c i.
p o t.
p e t.
p o t.
7 .2
8 .2
6 .5
6 .7
8 .6
9 .9
6 .9
7 .8
*0
.0
.0
.0
.5
•4
.2
.2
' ^ 1 ...........' "
! and
T o ta l
not
orope l i s t e d 6 /
p o t.
p c i.
70.6
75.0
6 6.5
67 .6
2 9 .4
27 ,0
35.7
3 2 .4
i
R o o se v e lt, 1934
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
P a r t owner
100.0
64.4
2 6 .6
19.0
32.2
31.8
3 2 .0
3 1 .4
24.5
24.8
2 4.7
2 3,9
7 .3
8 .6
5 .6
6 .5
10.1
11.2
9 .0
9 .1
.U
.1
.08
.OS
.3
.4
.2
.2
75.6
76.9
74,0
71 ,4
24.6
23.1
26 ,0
2 8 .6
R o o se v e lt, 1956
T o tal
Owner
Tenant
P a r t owner
100.0
5 4 .8
2 7 .4
1 7 .6
33.8
3 3 .9
33.2
33.0
23.7
2 4,2
24.2
2 2 .4
8 ,7
9 .4
7 .7
8 .3
10.4
10 .6
9 .2
8 .3
.11
.1
.0
.08
.6
.6
.7
1 .0
78.6
78.8
76.0
73,8
21.6
21.2
2 6.0
26.2
R o o se v e lt, 1956
T otal
Owner
Tenant
100.0
6 5 .4
4 4 .6
29.1
3 0 .0
27.6
6 .6
4 .5
7 .5
5 .4
7 .5
2 .4
3 .6
3.1
1 .4
.2
.2
.1
62 .6
66.6
43.8
4 7 .4
4 3 .4
66 .2
1 .6
2 .0
1 .0
7 .1
9 .3
3 .9
$
I
APPENDIX TABLE Yt s h e e t 2________________________
___ ___ ____ ______________
Tises o t lt i c i In per o#o%
Tear and
ow nership
s ta t u s
R o o se v e lt, 1937
T o tal
Owner
T enant
T o tal
la n d
p e t.
Wheat
p o t.
F allow
p o t.
100.0
5 1 .8
4 8 .2
23.2
2 2 .6
24.1
7 .1
7 ,7
6 .0
Voea
c ro p s
2/
p o t.
3 .4
3 .8
2 ,8
~ ..
^ ” "r"" r, r " Dther
P a s tu re
Green
crops
Legumes manure
4/
-V
p o t.
p o t.
p o t.
p e t.
.8
.4
.6
1 .3
1 .6
.8
.1
.1
.0
T o tal
crops
p e t.
35.6
36.2
33.9
l and
not
lis te d 6 /
p o t."
64,4
63,8
66.1
y ' I a t a la k o n from' C o i A( T i ru i t %,ra] Acj s tiie n t /dnilra s t r a t i # ! re c o rd 's, 19^3-35, t. ,J
A g r ic u ltu r a l C onaervatiou Program re c o rd s , 1936-37,
2 / Feed c ro p s in c lu d e s cro p s a s o a t s , r y e , b a r le y , c o rn , h a y , s p e l t s , m i l l e t , and c o rn ,
t / P a s tu re l i s t e d i s p a r t l y perm anent p a s tu r e and p a r t l y g ra s s t h a t was p la n te d i n th e
g iv en year* The re c o rd s were n o t C o n s is te n t, some farm s perm anent p a s tu re was given.
V O ther c ro p s in c lu d e cro p s a s f l a x , p o ta to e s , g a rd e n , and p e a s,
Iy L a n d n o t l i s t e d in c lu d e s i d l e la n d , fe n c e ro w s, wood l o t s , la u e s , farm s te a d s , and
perm anent p a s tu r e s n o t l i s t e d .
m
«
APPODIX TABLE V I .—PERCHfi TAGE OF TOTAL LAHD DEVOTED TO VARIOUS PRACTICES IN
GALLATIN COUNTY, 1955-37 l /
V ses ofTfcnd Yn per ,'c ant"
Year and
ow nership
s ta t u e
O ther
crope
p e t.
T o tal
crops
p e t.
Land
not
lis te d
p e t.
1 .1
.2
.1
1 .0
.0
.0
90.3
87.2
88,8
9 .7
1 2.8
1 1 .2
7 .3
4 .0
8 .8
.3
.1
.0
.3
.0
.0
38.9
28.2
33.5
61.1
7 1 .8
66 .5
7 .2
1 0 ,3
5 .7
10 ,9
3 .8
6 ,5
.0
.0
.0
.7
.0
.0
72.7
69.0
73.7
27.3
4 1 .0
2 6 .3
1 9 .4
1 7.2
2 1 .3
3 .4
1 .6
1 .9
4 .3
4 .4
3 .6
10 .9
1 1.6
1 0.3
1 .1
1 .3
.9
66 .4
62,4
66.2
4 3 .6
4 7 .6
4 3 .8
11.4
8 .6
1 3 .3
2 .8
2 ,0
1 ,6
5 .4
6 .4
4 .4
10 .3
11 ,3
9 .3
.9
2 .8
1 .1
46.8
44 .8
47.8
5 3.2
56.2
62.2
T o tal
la n d
p e t.
Wheat
p o t.
F allow
p o t.
Feed
cro p s
p e t.
G a lla t in , 1933
T o ta l
Owner
T enant
100.0
3 6 .0
6 4 .0
26.5
25.2
27.2
2 3 .6
2 1 .7
2 4 .6
1 0 .6
1 5.0
8 .2
2 7 .6
25.1
28 ,7
G a l l a t i n , 1934
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
100.0
3 6 .4
6 3 .6
2 1 .3
2 0 ,6
21,5
2 .6
2 .2
2 .8
7.1
1 .3
.4
G a l l a t i n , 1936
T o ta l
O m er
Tenant
100.0
3 6 .4
63.6
30.1
22.9
34,1
23 .8
2 2.0
2 6 .4
G a l l a t i n , 1936
T o ta l
O m er
T enant
100,0
4 4 .6
6 6 .4
16,3
13.5
18.2
G a l l a t i n , 1937
T o tal
Owner
Tenant
100,0
4 6 .3
6 1 .7
1 6 ,0
13,6
18.2
P a s tu re Lef1Uaee
p e t.
p e t.
Green
manure
p e t.
1 .0
.7
1 .3
V r e taken from Countreo crd s, 1953-33, and
records' Yor 1630-67.------2 / O a l y lim it e d Inform ation vms eb o m on A.A.A. re c o rd s In 1934. Cto many o f th e farm s
only the wheat a c re a g e was ^ iv e n .
APPEHDH TABLE V I I .•
Il
T ear and
ow nership
s ta tu s
p e t.
Wheat
p o t.
.PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL LAND DEtTOTBi> TO VARIOUS PRA C TIC ES I S
MUSSELSHELL COUNTY, 1 9 3 3 - 3 8 l /
Uaca o f tIan^i In p a r o m t
Feed
cro p s P a s tu re
Green
O ther
FSJLl cw ... J Z Legtmiee manure crops
M
p o t.
p e t.
p c i.
p c i.
p o t.
p e t.
T o tal
crops
p c i.
Lancl
not
lis te d 4 /
p c i.
M u s s e ls h e ll, 1953
100.0
T o ta l
Chseuor
43.1
31.2
Tem m t
2
6 .7
P a r t owner
17.5
14.7
2 2 .7
1 6 .4
6 .3
5 .0
7 .7
6 .4
6 .4
7 .6
5 .0
6 ,0
4 6 .4
53.2
46 .1
4 0 .6
76.6
8 0 ,6
80.6
69.4
2 3.4
19.4
19.5
3 0.6
Mussel s h e l l , 1934
T o ta l
100.0
Owner
43.1
T enant
51.2
P a r t owner
2 5 .7
1 1 .6
9 .4
14.3
12.0
1 5 .3
1 5 .6
1 7 .4
1 3 ,3
3 .7
4 .0
3 .0
4 .2
4 6 .8
52 .0
4 1 .4
4 2 .3
76.4
8 1 .0
76.1
61 .0
23 .6
19.0
23,9
39.0
M usselsh o iI , 1935
T o ta l
100.0
Owner
43.1
Tenant
31.8
P a r t owner
26.1
1 3 .7
1 2 .5
15.4
1 3 .6
15 ,1
1 3 ,7
1 8 .6
13 .8
5 .7
4 .9
5 .2
7 .4
4 6 ,8
5 8 .7
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
81.3
89.8
79.1
74.8
1 8 .7
10.2
2 0.9
25.2
a t a H koii fpon C ouii^ A g r ic u ltu r a l A djustm ent A c in in ia tre tion re o o rd e , 1935-35.
Feed crop# in c lu d e cro p s na o a t s , r y e , b a rle y * c o rn , h a y , s p e l t s , m i l l e t , and c o m .
3 / P a s tu re l i s t e d i s p a r t l y perm anent p a s tu r e and p a r t l y g r a s s p la n te d in th e given y e a r .
The r e c o rd s were n o t c o n s i s t e n t , some c o n tr a c ts perm anent p a s tu re was n o t g iv e n .
Land n o t l i s t e d in c lu d e s i d l e la n d , fe n c e row s, wood l o t s , la n e s , farm stead s and
perm anent p a s tu r e s n o t l i s t e d .
I
t
APPBSDIX TABLE V I I I .—ACREAGE OF VARIOUS FARM PRACTICES IR ROOSEVELT COUHTT, 1933-57 y
T ear and
ow nership
s ta tu s
fo ta l
la n d
a c re s
u se o f lan d I n a c r e s
fe e d
P a s tu re Legumee
cro p s
a c re s
acres
a c re s
".Theat
acres
F allo w
a o re e
3 ,0 4 9 ,9 1 4
974,331
416,409
189,814
188,077
21,033
1935
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
P a r t ow ier
567,331
252,212
126,496
179,623
246,220
116,113
55,687
74,420
67,764
23,898
12,301
21,566
40,070
20,693
7,417
12,060
47,919
25,107
8,722
14,090
20
1934
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
P a r t owner
663,431
264,281
150,623
178,627
181,849
81,960
43,079
56,810
138,170
63,160
32,243
42,767
40,963
22,416
7,324
11,223
1936
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
P a r t owner
666,683
258,171
133,705
173,807
191,260
88,833
44,882
67,855
133,898
62,611
52,395
38,889
1936
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
665,979
398,383
265,696
190,381
119,878
70,603
1937
T o ta l
Owner
T enant
709,490
443,920
265,570
164,631
100,688
64,043
T o ta l
i / ‘ i)a€a warW Ob^aIned iSrciri
1936-377
Kreeh
manure
a c re s
46,406
O ther la n d n o t
crops
lis te d
a c re s
a o re e
8,818 1,206,037
20
1,661
646
618
698
11 , C . 7
66,966
40,851
66,880
56,729
28,644
11,850
16,356
661
347
106
98
1,616
886
306
424
143,553
56,968
36,636
60,960
49,186
24,284
10,403
14,498
66,825
27,637
12,314
16,972
468
307
16
136
4,447
1,520
1,032
1,896
129,626
53,379
32,664
43,682
36,581
17,809
19,042
35,674
29,664
6,010
23,401
12,412
10,989
10,617
8,060
2,467
991
764
227
310,169
173,782
136,377
60,039
34,230
16,809
24,022
17,194
6,828
3,205
1,822
1,563
9,487
7,370
2,117
103
103
458,003
282,613
176,590
county
46,405
36,424
9,981
reoorci'*, 1&33-35, fta J A .C .P. reco rd # .
APFBHDIX TARIJE IX .—ACREAj E OF VARIOUS FARM PRACTICES B OALLAfB COUtfTY, 1933-37 l /
to ta l
lan d
a cres
Bflieet
a cres
F allo w
a cres
Use o f la n d in a c r e s
FjSed
cro p s
P a s tu re Legm es
a cres
a c re s
a o re e
969,439
200,863
149,366
43,883
88,888
54,680
1933
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
162,806
51,093
101,712
40,647
12,883
27,664
36,123
11,070
25,063
16,137
7,826
8,312
42,088
12,028
29,260
1934
T o ta l
Owner
Tensmt
146,176
48,108
98,067
51,106
9,931
21,174
3,774
1 ,0 6 0
2,714
1,034
619
416
10,625
1,948
8,677
1936
T o ta l
Owner
T enant
161,667
49,843
101,714
46,624
11,396
34,228
36,904
11,008
26,096
10,893
5,125
5,768
10,501
1,882
8,619
1936
T o ta l
Owner
T enant
166,938
79,022
86,916
27,026
10,666
16,360
32,152
13,610
18,542
6,669
3,928
1,731
6,700
3,665
3,146
18,161
9,200
8,961
1937
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
352,971
163,333
189,658
56,651
22,028
34,626
40,413
16,080
26,327
10,160
7,004
3,156
18,974
10,620
8,164
36,223
18,653
17,670
Y ear and
ow nership
s ta tu e
T o ta l
I/
1936-37.
D ata
Green
manure
a o re e
1,698
6 tk e r
cro p s
a o re e
Land n o t
lis te d
a c re s
7,739
422,439
166
103
62
1,579
836
743
16,166
6,640
10,618
41
34
7
66
46
20
99,530
34,470
63,060
1,033
510
523
46,602
19,922
26,680
1,867
1,043
814
72,695
36,486
36,209
3,204
2,247
957
187,446
67,598
99,848
1,698
534
1,164
re c o r d s . Ib S b -S d , ail'd th e A. .P . re c o rd s .
APPENDIX TABLE X ,—ACRE&OB QF VARIOUS FARM PRACTICES IH MUSSELSHELL COUHTY, 1933-56 l /
Use o f le n d In a c r e s
T ear and
ow nership
s ta tu s
Seed
cro p s
acres
Leind n o t
lis te d
a c re s
fo ta l
len d
a o re s
Wheat
a c re s
458,234
65,640
66,145
212,672
23,940
99,935
1933
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
P a r t owner
161,983
56,233
42,399
63,351
26,712
8,288
9,641
8,783
9,613
2,854
3,246
3,414
70,737
30,002
19,096
21,640
9,676
4,288
2,152
3,236
36,345
10,801
8,266
16,278
1934
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
P a r t owner
164,216
69,666
41,991
62,660
17,924
6,616
6,009
6,299
23,640
9,311
7,316
7,013
70,679
31,013
17,389
22,277
5 ,664
2,367
1 ,074
2,223
36,319
11,268
10,203
14,848
1936
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
P a r t owner
152,036
66,745
43,219
53,071
20,904
6,998
6,671
7,235
22,992
7,665
8,013
7,314
71,256
32,724
17,293
21,233
8,610
2,739
1,947
3 ,924
28,273
6,919
9,289
13,566
T o ta l
\f
Fallow
acres
P a s tu re 2 /
acres
D ata W re iak « n ^rom tl,e ;:ouia% A.A.A. re c o rd s f o r i953-3£>.
M u sselsh e ll County has v ery l i t t l e fa rm in g . Qa th e f e r n s used in t h i s stu d y much
o f th e la n d i s i n p a s tu r e .
APPENDIX TABLE X I .—ACREAGE OF VARIOUS GRADES W FAflMO AND GRAZING IAfiD AID
NUMBER OF FARMS IS ROOSEVELT COUHTT S CflSERSHIP STATUS, 1937 l /
County and
ow nership
s ta t u e
Ho.
of
farm s
T o ta l
lan d
1 ,791
929
662
704,667
442,427
262,140
tirad es o f Farm Land
F-S
F-2
F-4
a crea g e acrea g e a c re a g e
SB 2 /
acrea g e
tirad es o f e ra s in g Land
ti-2
0—5
0—4
a c re a g e a c rea g e a o ro a -a
R o o se v e lt
T o tal
Owner
Tenants
140,960
98,103
42,867
338,781
213,438
122,343
69,633
42,854
26,979
62,578
26,131
26,447
60,607
37,773
22,834
41,238
23,068
10,180
3,870
1,370
2,600
i / G rades of4' tu r n and p ra s in c len d were o b ta in e d from s o li' raco rm aissen o e conducted by
L. F . G e lee k e r, A se ie tB n t A gnonoaiets Montana S ta te C o lle g e , Bosetnan, Moa a n a .
2 / SB on t h e s o i l s map was r e f e r r e d t o a s r i v e r bottom o r swamp bottom la n d .
APFESDIX TABLE X I I .—C0MPARI5C6 QP LAHD DEVOTEE TO VAIttODS PRACTICES IM
TRHEE COUNTIES BT CODMTIES ABD O m iERSHIP STATUS \ J
County "euaA
ow nership
s ta tu s
" ' .... '
'
T o ta l
la n d
a c re s
T o ta l
F allo w
to r e s
4 ,4 7 7 ,6 8 7 1,24 0 ,7 2 4 621,900
R o o eev elt
5 ,0 4 9 ,9 1 4
T o ta l
1 ,6 0 6 ,9 6 7
Owner
910,890
T enant
P a r t owner 652,057
974,331
607,070
270,194
189,067
416,409
201,408
111,790
103,211
Green
manure
a c re s
O ther
cro p s
a c re s
Lend n o t
lis te d
a c re s
267,637
489,657
76,615
48,103
16,667 1 ,727,396
189,814
114,051
37,972
37,791
188,077
95,422
45,238
47,417
21,033
16,074
4,706
264
46,406
36,424
9,981
8,818 1 ,205,037
3,818
632,698
2,083
420,917
2,917
161,412
I
G a lla t in
T o ta l
Owner
Tenant
969,439
592,399
587,040
M u sseleh ell
T o tal
Owner
Tenant
P a r t owner
458,234
171,643
127,609
159,062
I/
,1936-57.
Z/
County.
Wheat
acres
Iiea o f I a a d I n &oree
Feed
Legumes
cro p s
P a stu re
V
acres
a c re s
a c re s
200,883 149,366
66,901 61,828
153,952 97,638
66,540
20,905
22,321
22,317
56,145
19,830
18,674
17,741
43,883
24,601
19,382
86,888
31,033
57,856
23,940
9,384
6,173
9,383
212,672
93,739
53,783
65,160
64,680
27,890
26,670
1,698
534
1,164
7,759
4,682
3,067
422,424
186,024
236,400
99,935
27,988
27,656
44,291
Eatft were token from th e County A.A.A. re c o rd s , 1955*35, end ti$e A.C, P. re c o rd s f o r
Mo legtm e8 , green a e n u re , o r cro p s l i s t e d u n d er o th e r cro p s were g ro w in M u sselsh ell
6
I
” so —
BlBLIOGHkHTT
I*
B o ls te r , H. G ,, G eneral Eeonomlo ln f o m e tio n R e la tin g t o Montana
A T y io u ltu re , Montana E x te n sio n S e rv ic e , ie b ru a r^ -, 1937, #4
po, lilu s * '
2,
De Toung, W illiam , and S n lth Le He, S o il Survey o f G a lla t in V a lley
A rea, '.'caten a, UeSeDeA ., 23ureau o f c ta e n ls try and S o ils in
C o o p e ra ticm w ith Mcmtana A g r ic u ltu r a l E xperim ent S ta tio n ,
B u lle tin S oe 179, A ugust, 1925, 42 p p , U l u s .
3.
I a r a e r s B u lle tin Mo, 1797, UeSeLeA ., Im plenonts and iiethods o f T illa g e
to C o n tro l S o il Blowing on th e ,o rth c rn r r o o t " ? l a l n s , " ^ b pp.
4e
Farm Temmoy R ep o rt, Ierm Temnoy R eport o f th e P r e s l d m t t S Committee,
F e b ru a ry , 1937, pp. l b - 2 0 , 35-Qd.
5.
G e ia e k e r, Le F e, S o ils o f R o o se v e lt C ounty, io n ttn a E x p e rlm m t S ta tio n
B u l le tin Ho, 179, A ugust, I 9 2b," 4 2 p p . 11I u s .
6.
Jotm son, H s il W . , and Saundei «oa, Me He, Types o f Far:;ung in Montana,
P a rt L* Phyaloal E av lro n n e n t and Economic i a c to r s A F feetin g
ontcjxa. A g ric u l t u r e , Montana A g r ic u ltu r a l Experim ent S ta tio n
u l l e t i n Io e 320, O ctober 1936, 78 p p , i l l u s .
7.
Montana E x ten sio n S e rv ic e P u b lic a tio n , An A g r ic u ltu r a l Program f o r
M ontana, Ho, 8 4 , Hay, 1937, 71 p p .
"""""""
3.
H e lso n , P e te r , Te n a ie y - _A M ajor I a c to r i n S o il C o n se rv a tio n , r e p r i n t
from T heT iournal o f i. and and Puto Ic U t i l i t y con o m o s , V ol. XIV,
Ho, I , le b r u a r y , 1938, p p , 00-91. ~
9.
Renne, Re He, A d ju s tin g Pi: Iita n a 1B A g r ic u ltu r e , I . The Need and B asis
o f A d justm ent, Montana A gricuj %u r a l experim ent S ta tio n B u lle tin
No, 306, L eceab er, 1935, 24 p p , i l l u s ,
10.
R em e, Re R ,, A d ju s tin g Ho .ta n a 's Al Ti c u l t u r e , IVe Land Ownership and
T enure, kon a n a Ag rI c u l t u rt.j r xr;crI io i t S ta tio n B u lle tin Ho, 310
I eferuary, 1936, 24 p p . i l l u s .
11.
Ho-me, Re B e , A d lu s tia a M ontana's A g r ic u ltu r e . V I I I . Tax L e lin c u a n o ia a
and
a I n rn n l^ a u rn a f Montana A g ric u ltu ra l Experim ent
S ta tio n B u lle tin No, 319, May, 1936, 26 p p . i l l u s .
—
' 51 *
12.
Renae, R. B .# K oatana F a ra Bankrupt c i e e , A Study o f th e dumber,
Charaot e r I s t i e s , t-id a u so s . o f F a r « A ankrigEolea o v er a F o rty Year PerIoU v ,ith couio au ^uetTona f o r ~rove'itin~~ them In th e
F u tu re , Montana A g r ic u ltu r a l :. =p c rir"aai S ta tio n D u lle tin No.
sSo“ Ju n e, 1938, 53 p p. i l l u a .
13.
Re no, R, R ., Montana Land O w nership, Aa A n a l y l e o f th e Qwaerahlp
P a tte r n and i t s S ifrn lfic a n o e in La id Ueo P la n n in g , Montana
A y i c u l t u r a l L x perizw at S ta tio n B u lio H n Ho. 322, Uutw, 1936,
56 pp* i l l u a .
14.
S ta re h , E . A ., A d ju s tin g Montana A g r ic u ltu r e , VI I . M ontana's r y
Land Farm ing, Fiontana A g r ic u ltu r a l L rperim ent S ta tio n B u lle tin
S o . 3 l8 , A p r il, 1936, 19 p p . i l l u a .
15*
T ey lo r , H. C ., t h a t Should be Done About Ia n a Tenancy, J o u rn a l o f
iurm Koonomioa, V oi• XX. Mo. I , FctKnmi^', 1930, p p . 145.153.
16.
U .S.D .A . B u l le tin Ho. 1432, Tlie Ownorship o f Terwnt I e ra s i n th e
Ln i t e d S t a t e s , Septem ber, IDS6, 48 pp. i l l u e .
17.
i .S .D .A . Farm ers B u lle tin Ho. 1164, The Far.: Leeoe C o n tra c t, 1930,
34 p p . i l l u e .
18.
U.S.D.A. M isc e lla n eo u s P u b lic a tio n Ho. 261, A G raphic Survey o f Farm
T enure, December, 1936, 52 p p . i l l u a . -
19.
U .S .D .A ., Y ear Book, S o il s and Man, 1938, p p . 111-119, 129-136,
148-157.
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