Particle Physics Grids - a help or a hindrance NeSC Opening

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Particle Physics Grids
- a help or a hindrance
for other areas of eScience?
NeSC Opening
Edinburgh, 25 April 2002
David Williams
IT Division, CERN
also President TERENA
mailto:[email protected]
Homepage: cern.ch/David.Williams/
Slides: cern.ch/David.Williams/public/NeSCTalk.ppt
Not my own work
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While I may generate some ideas, I am not responsible in
any way for CERN’s work on grids
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It is a pleasure to acknowledge the people who do the real
work
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and the people who let me use their slides, including:Fabrizio Gagliardi, Bob Jones, Neil Geddes, Ian Foster, Hans
Hoffmann, Tony Hey, Olivier Martin (and anyone else that I
unintentionally forgot)
Outline
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A bit about CERN and particle physics
For PP, there is no alternative (to Grids)
EU DataGrid (EDG)
The EDG Testbed
Other European projects
Other non-European projects
ABOUT CERN AND THE
GLOBAL PARTICLE PHYSICS COMMUNITY
This is (y)our laboratory
1954
2000
CMS
Alice
LHCb
PS
Atlas
Genève
CERN's (Human) Network in the World
267 institutes in Europe, 4603 users
208 institutes elsewhere, 1632 users
some points = several institutes
Introduction
The Mission of CERN (1954):
“The Organization shall provide for
collaboration among European States in
nuclear research of a pure scientific and
fundamental character, and in research
essentially related thereto.
The organization shall have no concern with
20 Member States work for military requirements and the results
of its experimental and theoretical work shall
(2000)
be published or otherwise made generally
available”.
The ATLAS detector
26m long by 20m diameter
The ATLAS Collaboration
A "virtual" large science Laboratory
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Objectives
– Study proton proton collisions at c.m. energies of 14 000 GeV
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Milestones
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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R&D Experiments
Letter of Intent
Technical Proposal
Approval
Start Construction
Installation
Exploitation
1988-1995
1992
1994
1996
1998
2003-06
2007 - (~) 2017
Open, collaborative culture on a world scale
ATLAS (2)
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Scale
– 2000 Scientists
– 150 Institutes
– 35 Countries
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Cost
– 475 MCHF material cost (1995 prices)
– CERN contribution < 15%
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Methodology
– All collaborating institutes supply deliverables: namely software
packages, detectors, electronics, simulation tasks, equipment of all kinds,
engineering tasks, ...
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Some numbers
– 150 M detector channels
– 10 M lines of code
– 1 M control points
Changing technology!
PC farms in 2000
Computer Room in 1985
TINA
Data coming out of our ears
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When they start operating in 2007, each LHC experiment will
generate several Petabytes of (already highly selected and
compressed) data per year.
There are four experiments
This is roughly 500x more data than we had to deal with
from LEP in 2000.
Users from all over the world
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The users are from all over Europe, and all over the world
They need (and like) to spend as much time as possible in
their home institutes
That is especially true for the youngest researchers
CERN cannot possibly afford to pay for “all” LHC computing
and data storage
If users are to make extra investments in computing and
data storage facilities they tend to prefer to make that
investment “back home”
(Personal) Conclusion
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Politics (and technological flexibility/uncertainty) force you to
a globally distributed solution for handling your data, and
computing on it
You cannot manage to operate such a system reliably at that
scale without reliable grid middleware [i.e. you might be able
to do it with 10-20 very smart graduate students per
experiment as a “production team” but they would rise in
revolt (or implement a Grid!)]
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There is no alternative
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EDG
EU DataGrid (EDG) Project Objectives
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To build on the emerging Grid technology to develop a sustainable
computing model for effective sharing of computing resources and
data
Specific project objectives:
– Middleware for fabric & Grid management (mostly funded by the EU)
– Large scale testbed (mostly funded by the partners)
– Production quality demonstrations (partially funded by the EU)
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To collaborate with and complement other European and US
projects
Test and demonstrator of Géant
Contribute to Open Standards and international bodies:
– Co-founder of Global GRID Forum and host of GGF1 and GGF3
– Industry and Research Forum for dissemination of project results
Objectives for the first year of the
project
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Collect requirements for
middleware
– Take into account requirements from
application groups
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Survey current technology
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– Job resource specification & scheduling
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Core Services testbed
– Testbed 0: Globus (no EDG
middleware)
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WP3: grid monitoring services
– Monitoring infrastructure, directories &
presentation tools
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WP4: fabric management
– Framework for fabric configuration
management & automatic sw installation
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First Grid testbed release
– Testbed 1: first release of EDG
middleware
WP2: data management
– Data access, migration & replication
– For all middleware
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WP1: workload
WP5: mass storage management
– Common interface for Mass Storage Sys.
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WP7: network services
– Network services and monitoring
Main Partners
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CERN – International (Switzerland/France)
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CNRS - France
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ESA/ESRIN – International (Italy)
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INFN - Italy
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NIKHEF – The Netherlands
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PPARC - UK
Assistant Partners
Industrial Partners
•Datamat (Italy)
•IBM-UK (UK)
•CS-SI (France)
Research and Academic Institutes
•CESNET (Czech Republic)
•Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA) – France
•Computer and Automation Research Institute,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA SZTAKI)
•Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy)
•Helsinki Institute of Physics – Finland
•Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies (IFAE) - Spain
•Istituto Trentino di Cultura (IRST) – Italy
•Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin - Germany
•Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI)
•Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg - Germany
•Stichting Academisch Rekencentrum Amsterdam (SARA) – Netherlands
•Swedish Research Council - Sweden
Project scope
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9.8 M Euros of EU funding over 3 years
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90% for middleware and applications (HEP, EO and Biomedical)
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~50 “funded” staff (= paid from EU funds) and ~70 “unfunded” ftes
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Three year phased developments & demos (2001-2003)
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Extensions (time and funds) on the basis of first successful results:
– DataTAG (2002-2003)
– CrossGrid (2002-2004)
– GridStart (2002-2004)
EDG TESTBED
Project Schedule
 Project
started on 1/1/2001
 TestBed 0 (early 2001)
– International test bed 0 infrastructure deployed
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Globus 1 only - no EDG middleware
 TestBed
1 (end 2001/early 2002)
– First release of EU DataGrid software to defined users within the
project:
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HEP experiments, Earth Observation, Biomedical applications
 Project
successfully reviewed by EU on March 1st 2002
 TestBed 2 (September-October 2002)
– Builds on TestBed 1 to extend facilities of DataGrid
 TestBed
3 (March 2003) & 4 (September 2003)
 Project completion expected by end 2003
TestBed 1 Sites Status
Web interface
showing status of
(~400) servers at
testbed 1 sites
Summary (Jones)
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Application groups requirements defined and analysed
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Extensive survey of relevant technologies completed and used as a basis
for EDG developments
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First release of the testbed successfully deployed
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Excellent collaborative environment developed with key players in Grid
arena
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Project can be judged by:
– level of "buy-in" by the application groups
– wide-spread usage of EDG software
– number and quality of EDG sw releases
– positive influence on developments of GGF standards & Globus toolkit
(SOME) RELATED EUROPEAN WORK
GRIDs – EU IST projects (~36m Euro)
Applications
EGSO
CROSSGRID
Middleware GRIP EUROGRID
& Tools
DAMIEN
GRIDSTART
GRIA
GRIDLAB
DATAGRID
DATATAG
Underlying
Infrastructures
Industry / business
Science
DataTAG project
NewYork
Abilene
UK
SuperJANET4
IT
GARR-B
STAR-LIGHT
ESNET
CERN
GEANT
MREN
NL
SURFnet
STAR-TAP
Some international relations
BaBarGrid - UK Deployment
GridPP
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To convince yourself that this is starting to be real try to look
at some of the GridPP demos today
(SOME) RELATED NON-EUROPEAN WORK
Overview of GriPhyN Project
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GriPhyN basics
– $11.9M (NSF) + $1.6M (matching)
– 5 Year effort, started October 2000
– 4 frontier physics experiments:
ATLAS, CMS, LIGO, SDSS
– Over 40 active participants
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GriPhyN funded primarily as an IT research project
– 2/3 CS + 1/3 physics
GriPhyN Approach
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Virtual Data
– Tracking the derivation of experiment data with high fidelity
– Transparency with respect to location
and materialization
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Automated grid request planning
– Advanced, policy driven scheduling
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Achieve this at peta-scale magnitude
GriPhyN CMS SC2001 Demo
http://pcbunn.cacr.caltech.edu/Tier2/Tier2_Overall_JJB.htm
Full Event
Database of
~40,000 large
objects
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Request
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Parallel tuned GSI FTP
Full Event
Database of
~100,000
large objects
Request
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“Tag”
database of
~140,000
small objects
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Parallel tuned GSI FTP
Bandwidth Greedy Grid-enabled Object Collection Analysis
for Particle Physics
Work of: Koen Holtman, J.J. Bunn, H. Newman, & others
PPDG
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DoE funding intended (primarily) for the hardware needed to
exploit GriPhyN
iVDGL: A Global Grid Laboratory
“We propose to create, operate and evaluate, over a
sustained period of time, an international research
laboratory for data-intensive science.”
From NSF proposal, 2001
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International Virtual-Data Grid Laboratory
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A
A
A
A
A
global Grid laboratory (US, Europe, Asia, South America, …)
place to conduct Data Grid tests “at scale”
mechanism to create common Grid infrastructure
laboratory for other disciplines to perform Data Grid tests
focus of outreach efforts to small institutions
U.S. part funded by NSF (2001-2006)
– $13.7M (NSF) + $2M (matching)
iVDGL Components
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Computing resources
– 2 Tier1 laboratory sites (funded elsewhere)
– 7 Tier2 university sites
 software integration
– 3 Tier3 university sites
 outreach effort
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Networks
– USA (TeraGrid, Internet2, ESNET), Europe (Géant, …)
– Transatlantic (DataTAG), Transpacific, AMPATH?, …
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Grid Operations Center (GOC)
– Joint work with TeraGrid on GOC development
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Computer Science support teams
– Support, test, upgrade GriPhyN Virtual Data Toolkit
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Education and Outreach
Coordination, management
iVDGL Components (cont.)
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High level of coordination with DataTAG
– Transatlantic research network (2.5 Gb/s) connecting EU & US
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Current partners
– TeraGrid, EU DataGrid, EU projects, Japan, Australia
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Experiments/labs requesting participation
– ALICE, CMS-HI, D0, BaBar, BTEV, PDC (Sweden)
RELATIONS WITH OTHER
BRANCHES OF e-SCIENCE
EU DataGrid is not just Particle Physics
Biomedical applications
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Data mining on genomic databases
(exponential growth)
Indexing of medical databases
(Tb/hospital/year)
Collaborative framework for large
scale experiments (e.g.
epidemiological studies)
Parallel processing for
– Databases analysis
– Complex 3D modelling
Biomedical (cont)
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I was personally very impressed by the serious analysis
provided by the Biomedical work package at the EDG
Review. Johan Montagnat at Lyon. Accessible via
http://www.edg.org
[Also by the security requirements analysis, Kelsey et al].
Earth Observations
ESA missions:
• about 100 Gbytes of data per day
(ERS 1/2)
• 500 Gbytes, for the next ENVISAT
mission (launched March 1st)
EO requirements for the Grid:
• enhance the ability to access high level
products
• allow reprocessing of large historical
archives
• improve Earth science complex
applications (data fusion, data mining,
modelling …)
Data structures
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Particle physics is actually a rather extensive user of databases (see
SC2001 demo slide)
The 3 main issues are “performance, performance, performance”
Each experiment does agree on its own unified data model, so we don’t
(typically) have to constantly federate separately-curated DBs in the way
that is common to bioinfomatics and many other branches of research
But the experiment’s model does evolve on a say annual basis
And the “end user” often wants to get hold of highly selected data on a
“personal” machine and explore it
A pity that initial Grid developments assumed a very simplistic view of
data structures
Good that UK is pushing ahead in this area
Particle physics looks forward to using (and helping test) this work
Test beds
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Biggest pressure on EDG testbed is to turn in into a bigger
facility aiming to offer more resources for “Data Challenges”
and to operate on a 24*7 basis
It is potentially useful for other people wanting to run tests
at scale (and is already being used for this)
I suggest that this idea (a really large configurable testbed)
should become part of FP6 Integrated Project
PP will really push for production quality MW and SW
TODAY’S KEY ISSUES
Databases and/or data management integrated with grid MW
Security
Reliability
[Networking - everywhere]
Some “Large” Grid Issues (Geddes)
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Consistent transaction management
Query (task completion time) estimation
Queuing and co-scheduling strategies
Load balancing (e.g., Self Organizing Neural Network)
Error Recovery: Fallback and Redirection Strategies
Strategy for use of tapes
Extraction, transport and caching of physicists’
object-collections; Grid/Database Integration
Policy-driven strategies for resource sharing
among sites and activities; policy/capability tradeoffs
Network Performance and Problem Handling
Monitoring and Response to Bottlenecks
Configuration and Use of New-Technology Networks e.g. Dynamic Wavelength
Scheduling or Switching
Fault-Tolerance, Performance of the Grid Services Architecture
(H. Newman 13/3/02)
Creation and support
E-Science centres
Europe
Infrastructure
Modulable
Testbeds
R&D Agenda
Semantic GRID
Database
Security
Deployment with
IT Industry
S/W Hardening
GLOBUS
EuroGrid, Gridlab etc.
National
eScience
Centres
Integrated Project
ENABLING GRIDS
ESCIENCE EUROPE
EGEE
Science
Outreach
Applications in
Other Sciences
EIROforum
Consulting
Prototyping
Deployment
Industry
Applications
Industry Outreach
Consulting
Training Courses
Dissemination
Forum
SMEs developing
Grid-enabled Applications
Tools and
Service Development
and finally
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Best wishes to NeSC
UK should feel very pleased at the level of researchdevelopment-industry interaction that has been obtained via
eScience Programme
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