Proceedings of 20th International Business Research Conference

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Proceedings of 20th International Business Research Conference
4 - 5 April 2013, Dubai, UAE, ISBN: 978-1-922069-22-1
Future-O® - Dyn Model for Modeling A Learning Organization
Matej Janežič*, Vlado Dimovski**, Milan Hodošček***, Ivana Uršič**** 1
For all organizations to respond successfully to nowadays challenges of
fast changing environment is best to transform to a learning organization. A
learning organization is an organization that is constantly acquiring and
applying new information and thereby gaining knowledge. In this concept of
transformation the FUTURE-O® model represents a proper challenge. This
paper focuses on our recent efforts to develop FUTURE-O® - DYN model
for modeling a learning organization as a molecule to become a learning
organization using computer simulation techniques.Our molecular modeling
approach, the FUTURE-O® - DYN model, is able to explain the inter- and
intra-organizational relationship based on seven elements of the FUTUREO® model, and even expand the FUTURE-O® model and its applicability
into practice. Based on this new view and definition of the learning
organization we are able to make some predictions about organization’s
best new organizational structure which leads to its best possible economic
success.
Management
JEL Codes: C53 and C63
1. Introduction
Learning organization in nowadays turbulent environment dictates a hard tempo of
adjusting to best achieve its goals and purposes. Organizations must start to change their
attitude towards its learning and must become a learning organization. Organization which
strives on strict hierarchical principles, centralized leadership decision making and nonflexibility cannot adequately response to fast changing environment. For the organization
which seeks to become a learning organization is not enough to know only the goal of its
journey but must also take the journey. Therefore it must change to the extent that it will
become a learning organization. However, this is not an easy transformation procedure. In
following these directions an organization must be careful not to be trapped into chaos
due to insufficient or overwhelming instructions and/or due to not well or loosely defined
organizational schemes. Nevertheless, for all types of organizations it is valid that a
transformation to a learning organization is a must. Therefore, for all organizations to
respond successfully to nowadays challenges of fast changing environment is best to
transform to a learning organization. In this concept of transformation the FUTURE-O®
model represents a proper challenge. Its use enables the organization to (re)organize in a
way that it successfully responds to modern time challenges (Dimovski et al, 2003,
Dimovski et al. 2004, Dimovski et al. 2005).
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*Mr. Matej Janežič, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Email:
[email protected]
**Prof.Dr. Vlado Dimovski, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Email:
[email protected]
***Dr. Milan Hodošček, National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Email: [email protected]
****Mrs. Ivana Uršič, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Administration, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Email:
[email protected]
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Proceedings of 20th International Business Research Conference
4 - 5 April 2013, Dubai, UAE, ISBN: 978-1-922069-22-1
2. Literature Review
FUTURE-O® model is a newly developed model by Dimovski and Penger (2004) of
organizational learning based on molecular network approach which from managers does
not require taking all the steps sequentially but requires from everybody to participate
simultaneously in all processes in the organization until it becomes a learning organization
based on permanent education. Molecular approach of learning organization is a new
trend in treating organizations as a learning system. This enables the organization to act
fast and all its parts to be responsible an adoptable to new situations. The FUTURE-O®
model which consists of seven elements need not to be studied in chronological order but
individual elements could be studied and changed independently.
The seven properties of modern organization which lead to its long term future success
and on which the development of the FUTURE-O® model (future organization) is based
(Dimovski et al., 2005) from managers requires to be:
1. Focused
2. Useful
3. Trained
4. Unique
5. Responsible
6. Empowered
7. Organized
and from others to interactively and simultaneously participate in all processes in the
organization until it becomes a learning organization.
Based on these seven properties the FUTURE-O® model consists of seven elements:
1. Element: Define foundations
2. Element: Built supporting environment
3. Element: Define the strategy
4. Element: Define leadership and knowledge
5. Element: Forming and implementation of the model
6. Element: Monitoring of the process and evaluation
7. Element: Anchoring and spreading the model
This model approach we used in modeling an organization as molecule. Molecular
modeling approach enables then to study the learning organization by simulation
techniques.
Organization could be organized based on different approaches and schemes. For an
organization to be successful the organizational structure is out most important. It needs
advanced organization, successful management, motivated employees including modern
organization and most importantly, having a successful products on the market and
permanent growth. Then how does organization in an organization grow more efficient and
effective, more powerful and creative?
We define an organization organized as a molecule which consists of atoms; atoms
consist of electrons etc. and on this basis we try to develop new models and approaches
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Proceedings of 20th International Business Research Conference
4 - 5 April 2013, Dubai, UAE, ISBN: 978-1-922069-22-1
to define optimal organization’s organization to achieve its best economic success. We
use and apply methods and techniques used in molecular modeling. In particular, we
study computer simulation approach and graphical theoretical approach. We develop
potential function used in simulations to predict the inter- and intra-organization relations
which are important for its success and acting. Based on these approaches we try to
predict as many as possible factors which need to be taken into account for such a
prediction, e.g., positions, activities, systems. The key to the growth of organization lies in
understanding how each of these subunits of an organization develops, and how they
interact with one another to form an organic whole.
Basic hypothesis of our work is that the knowledge and permanent education is the most
important factor. For these purposes we use the FUTURE-O® model predictions and try to
implement our new approaches into the model for computer simulations.
3. The Methodology and Model
We develop FUTURE-O® - DYN model, a new model and computer program to simulate
a learning organization by implementing the FUTURE-O® model into molecular modeling
simulations.
Molecular modeling is a theoretical approach which adopts all theoretical methods and
computational techniques used to model the behavior of molecules. These techniques are
widely used in the fields of computational sciences, e.g., chemistry, biology, material
sciences etc. for studying structure and dynamics of various molecular system, e.g., from
small chemical systems to large biological molecules. A molecule is defined as a group of
at least two atoms held together by chemical bonds. The size of a molecule can vary from
small (few atoms, e.g. water molecule) to very large (biomolecule, e.g., proteins, DNA)
molecules.
The common feature of molecular modeling is the atomistic level of description of the
molecular systems. The main advantage of molecular modeling is that is reduces the
complexity of the system allowing many more particles (atoms) to be considered during
the simulation. Most common techniques used in molecular modeling simulation approach
are molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation methods.
There exist numerous computer programs for molecular modeling.
Most molecular modeling studies involve three stages. In the first stage a model is
selected to describe the intra- and inter- molecular interactions in the system. The two
most common models that are used in molecular modeling are quantum mechanics and
molecular mechanics. These models enable the energy of any arrangement of the atoms
and molecules in the system to be calculated, and allow the modeler to determine how the
energy of the system varies as the positions of the atoms and molecules change. The
second stage of a molecular modeling study is the calculation itself, such as an energy
minimization, a molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, the calculation
must be analysed, not only to calculate properties but also to check that it has been
performed properly.
Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has benefitted from the
dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software of recent years. The range of
systems that can be considered in molecular modeling is extremely broad in various
scientific disciplines (Leach, 2001). Here it is used to model the organization as a future
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Proceedings of 20th International Business Research Conference
4 - 5 April 2013, Dubai, UAE, ISBN: 978-1-922069-22-1
organization, to predict how the organization becomes a learning organization and is able
to fully exploit the features of FUTURE-O® model.
We develop a new approach - FUTURE-O® - DYN model - for molecular like simulations
of a learning organization combining the FUTURE-O® model by molecular simulations. To
implement this new simulation technique we write a new computer program, named
FUTURE-O® - DYN model program in Python programming language.
Python is a general-purpose high-level programming language. It is a programming
language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. It is easy to use and is
portable across different computer platforms. The reference implementation of Python
(Python/C) is free and open source software and has a community-based development
model, as do all or nearly all of its alternative implementations. Python/C is managed by
the non-profit Python Software Foundation. Python runs on Windows, Linux/Unix, Mac OS
X, and has been ported to the Java and .NET virtual machines. Python is free to use, even
for commercial products, because of its OSI-approved open source license.
4. The Findings
In development of a FUTURE-O® - DYN model program, first the multidimensional space
must be defined, and then potential function used in simulation approach must also be
defined in order to obtain forces, e.g., derivatives of the potential function, which are then
used in computing a molecular dynamics simulation to obtain trajectories of the simulating
system. A trajectory is the path a moving object follows through space as a function of
time. It can be described mathematically either by the geometry of the path, or as the
position of the object over time.
The modeling potential function used in our simulations is derived based on seven
properties (listed above) on which the FUTURE-O® model was developed. Based on
these model properties we develop analytic and/or numeric potential function. Its
constants which determine the potential function is taken from the literature or from tables
derived from corresponding questionnaires. From the potential function we derive forces
among atoms, e.g., parts of the learning organization to obtain propagation in time of
interacting elements in the learning organization.
For modeling purposes we need first define the coordinates and velocities for our model.
The coordinates is defined in a 7-dimensional coordinate space; one dimension for each
element of a FUTURE-O® model, then the velocities are derived from coordinates by
means of derivation techniques.
After performing desired time of the simulation using our newly developed FUTURE-O® DYN model program the resulting trajectories reveal the success of our study. The
resulting coordinates describe how each of the seven properties of the FUTURE-O®
model interacts within the learning organization; the resulting velocity (time derivative of
the coordinate) describes the speed of the respond among the elements in the learning
organization.
The FUTURE-O® - DYN model program also enables to use each of the seven properties
of a FUTURE-O® model to be adopted simultaneously or separately. In this approach, our
model used, is flexible in the dimensionality of space (number of properties, 1-7) and the
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Proceedings of 20th International Business Research Conference
4 - 5 April 2013, Dubai, UAE, ISBN: 978-1-922069-22-1
number of particles in the studied organization (number of employees). Our molecular
modeling approach, the FUTURE-O® - DYN model, is able to explain the inter- and intraorganizational relationship based on seven elements of the FUTURE-O® model, and even
expand the FUTURE-O® model and its applicability into practice.
5. Summary and Conclusions
We focus on developing new approaches for modeling an organization as a molecule to
become a learning organization. In this concept of transformation the FUTURE-O® model
represents a proper challenge. Our molecular modeling approach, the FUTURE-O® - DYN
model program is able to explain the inter- and intra-organizational relationship based on
seven elements of the FUTURE-O® model, and even expand the FUTURE-O® model and
its applicability into practice. On this basis we are able to develop new models and
approaches to define optimal organization’s organization to achieve its best organization,
to become a learning organization.
Acknowledgements
This research was financially supported by the Slovenian Research Agency.
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