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.1Lt
*.t. SxiSOS1
SFS,$"8':{.,
tSft j:l?A,EI'f
tr S iiFOR
T*ilStSS
OF
MILL WASTES
tlgf KRAFT
k]i?"AF'T1'131f,3.,
iN if/r.Qi}3$*&
QUINAEg:i'#ARf
suir1 ffa-Ei,}#ti
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3i{
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O
by
Iiarrf.s
flenni R
CIenrli.n
fi,. Harris
Graduate Student
$tudenf
Si:edueLe
Oregon Stefe
Stetet3ni.ver**.ty
Univerty
$regon
0re6*n
Corvi10 Oregon
Cost'a3.3.C.s0
a
b
r
lJndee
Conducted
Condrsst*d Under
g'RANgR6
NSPHS GRANT
R6 9515
rfspr{s
9$15
gi:i$1*i-c:.r:EVALUATION
AN
01?
WATER 3$3,3L1JTION
POLLUTION CONTROL
S0}ttF.8L
.ii,r,T ECONOMIC
ffiilAl,ItA?5CIiq
s$' r{A'trEIt
i963
Sep
teber 1963
$epfembar
.
o
/
t
a
P0nscutN
T|BRARY
.u4!!l_YN
sctENcr
llllLlP UARTNE cENrEfi
glEc0N
MARftYN POTTS GUIN LIBRARY
HATFIEU MARINE SCIENCE CENTER
OREGON STATE
STATE UNfVERS|TY
UNIVERSITY
NEWPORT,
NEWPORT, OREGON
OREGON
97365
97365
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[ra
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Page
Page
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feT YLQUIN\ fi,:-jt'i*J"iI
$5-$F#S/1ji AT
a
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D
l*.*'6*".*r:isl.i.r:*r
Wa 'cc
tion
* 3-*rr o
Cg fcncent.ra
n
* i'irbg
*nce,:;titl:f iati €.i,irr
I.
1
i,i3-fl *r're;etr: l.i*,
i:/e,a
Alternatc
Methods
Watc
Dipo.
tBaoils * :f of
t* i3i gi:nc
;t...
2-3
2-3
.c*Rlll xi
31
t
i
C.':2UTERssLff?'I*}:s
SOLUTIONSFsR
FOR
tLCULAING i,3,tsll&
WASE CONCENTRATIONS
*i-E{i:rJt'l#.
cii.'?*(:1.?3"s:i:Iiq#
scHeg:{T',RATIoNs
!}g$S*Lif.fiBOXYGEN
&t{il DISSOLVED
AND
IN
{i:{YGFi;$
B,$'j3fcl?.ii$S
Ibi EsTuAR:ES
Fr
E
t
tt
t
I
i
il
ill
I
I
l
trt
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Purpce
Falrprr**l
Sumaay
$um*ra:ry
'f;it*oxlr
heory il.,le*te
(Waste *t:r{:snt:raii;f.cn
Ccentratthn - $8,3;i'1
$3rmb'ois(irBOD)
List
L,fst of
E:f Svnbois
{XJEO}}
&t
i"i*ek.**j
D)
{{!.?i#$}
ffx*np3.s
f'"pp!..{.crrt:icr:
Eampia of
Application
(u:&OD)
*,r:f
{U13ED}
tkygca}
Theory
The*:ry (P
olvad Oxygen)
{iti.seo3.rr*ut
List
3,.f.st of
l:f Symbols
Sy:abc3.* (DO)
t.il0)
Methoó (DO)
$feth*d
f $fJ)
*'pp3"ieetton (DO)
Example
Sx*mpii.* of
af Application
{ilOi
I9
I9
9.tl
9-11
11-12
11-ltr
12-1
12-13
13-14
13-14
17
1,7
17
L7
18
L8
19
19
AT}FEH*IX
APPENDIX
26
26
IISG!) **r;pute"s
ImOD
Copu tar Flow
lrloqp Chart
Cherfl
ixp1anation
**p3.enei3.en of
of Computer
fio,mpucer Flow
F'3"*wChart
€isarc
*$ffipilgei: Program
Tfapf,e Concentration
Computer
Froguer: for
f,or Waste
esmcentrati.sn (UBOD)
{LfEOD}
(;?$ Fortran
IBM
l2O
ir€lrgssxr II
e$t4 3
(3n format
l.lBSSInput
UBOD
3ni:uf Data
S&Ce (In
es read
reed into
lnto computer)
e{w}puter}
f,oxi,ret,as
(A'bbrevleted Form)
tlS'SF Computer
ilorar)
UBOD
Cexqisle*F Output
Sutput (Abbreviated
IliseoL'red Oqigen
I',*rtren
Dissolved
Oxygen Program IBM
Fortran 1
.1.62CI
X,EIX1620
.:.
*S Input
DO
format
as
read
into
computer)
Inptr* Data
OeCa (In
f,srlnae
read
csmputer)
es
5.nte
{Ln
IiO Ou*pu.fl
DC)
Output eexpu*e:r
Computer {Abbrevlate*l
(Abbreviated F'o:'w}
Form)
27-28
27-28
29
29
30
30
31
3l
32
92
33
33
34
34
22-24
22-39-
ntfrtI$GRAF;35:
BIDLIOGFAPN?
LIST 0F
OF plcrlRgs
FIGURES AitD
AND E&Btgs
TABLES
tr$?
PART
F.f,"f.?Ir
,-l
o
Figure
s'3-gure 1i,
Table
?eb3.e 15
FS.gure 2€b
Figure
Figure
Ff.gure 3
Ff.gure
Figure 4
Yaquina
Yaqu*na Estuary
Estuary
A"Le*::ile.ti.vea
Alternatives
Ultimate
U3Ef.m*.*eBiochemical
E*och*nfeaL Oxygen
Sx;r6en Demand
Femand Resulting
Resultfag
Srom,
Proeees Mill
From aa 60{i
600 Ton/Fay
mn/Day Rrar.f,g
Krft Process
}:ill"}
Kraft
Methods
lda$Le Concentrations
Kreft Waste
end Comparison
Co*parlssn Hethods
Sor:eentreS*ene and
Dissolved &:rygen
Oxygen Sag
Curve Reeul8*.ng
Resulting $'rem
From a
$e.g Currve
Sf.e*:o3v*d
'$$* Yan/$a3r
Upwell.ing
500
Ton/Day itraff
Kraft Preiees{t
Process Miti
Mill and Oceen
Ocean Upwelling
4
5
5
,:.
ii
:
6
S],t
7
v:,;;
'
.:. : .
g
8.' ,
t.
PART II
PfiRt
3I
Table
?e,bI.e
Figure
Figure
Table
Tab!.e
F{ *rrva
Figure
iiA
A
fr
B
B
B
n
Assumptions
Ass*nptio$s (UBOD)
iti$O$)
1JSOF
IJBOD Vesaug
Versus ?l.E?s
Time fo:r
for $egoeral
Several $eetSone
Sections
Assumptions
A.ssumptS.onc(DO)
{n0}
$evera3 Sections
Se*tlone
Dissolved
Oxygen Versua
Versus Time
?irne for
fox Several
D$"seslved Sxy'gen
:15
.5
16
16
21
2l
20
20
r
' rt .
-
...----
.i,
,',
; ' : ; :,
":;
'
.r:-'
1:::;
i;
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I
I
PART
i,A31T I"J
lr
I,.rderi:€$;[*tr;oua3.
.frofiuax.y
Wae:e
DLpoal at
tgeYaquim'
Yaq*{e,* Eeba'ry
.,)**p;gw
t
'Ihe
eh5,* repore
The purpeise
putpoae of
of thia
report Ia
ev 3,usfe
luate a!.ferneE*
alternate eng$.neertng
en3ineertng plgna
plan.
*.e to
ts sv{
llor Bhe
for
the d$.ep*eaX
diapoal of
watee from
pulp arret
eg si,a$t:ss
Sirsf* : roce
Sremaa Kraft
s$e*&s pulp
and Fspea
paper mf"3.3,
d1i located
X,ocated
s* TtE}.ede,
utregeao Thaae
at
Toledo Oragon
th**e alternatives
ia;p* been
been ena!.uetect
hive
evaluated frog
a3-f;errua8*$uee
frem the
the standpoint
et@potgt
c5f,ea8img*esien:BRa3e*gEnndeeg$jeebedr*.nu3,t{'ngpo3'3.$t[t'g1eafYaqusna
m1 (.)l.)4tiT
Fl
Iieti:ely i* *rder
rfl
t41
eo pt:evlde data for crr-j.nueetesefors
1i) 4 ')i
1 'grant
on lIT.
reseatreh
4
R895l5 "An Economic Evaluation of Water Pollution Control"
p
Detmination of Waste
fte$-eff{$*p&gqs
-Qgps:-egqssg$s*g
"o€$ceLaConcentrations
l
€n
andee to
8e evaluate
order
reeults of
of waete
waste d$.epceal
disposal *.n
in an
an eetraary*
eatuary all
eva?us,.gsthe
the reeu!.Le
ell
facecrc
w.hf,ehhave
lnaqs ae dale
dele**rfou$
ctore which
tciriow*eeones{e
economicef€eeE
effect cn
on 8trre
the Gstuery
eatuary and
and eurrormdl.ng
surrounding
a
t?f*$.ffi!atbeeens{,dered"T3rege*aeI'u{ie*..dotrotwerature,enudgedapo*|'t*,
',"'.
grotrtSrenecu
st$."rxp
ale
rowtha,
se!"sinp
color
d{ssolved $w:S.$rB,
ogen, -and
colofu dissolved
eenceagratlff}s of
ead concentrations
CIf toziø
toxlc
"
r;aterf.a-ire
ateriais "
'|}
Ae
At the
present lie'e,
e?tc pr€eent
times
etse 3.aelc
the
lack of,
of hye,,rngrephseel.
hyrographical end
and cS.fmetologicel
cliatological
dEee for
data
foe the
th* estuary
nd surrounding
eeStrery s$.d
eurrounats.ngare
quantitative
er€6l severely
s&nerely litnita
3.iu!"to quentl"aatfve
prediee$,on
prediction of
elf any
any of
of these
the*e factora0
fseger:s"
a
?flrf.3.e
ile acodcls
odeis ean
can be escsbls.ehed
established for
for
pred$.ee$"Gn
polSutiEn concentratioE
of pollution
the prediction
of
eoacenfrsc$.or:*" dissolved
dlesolved oxygen,
oygen3 .end
nd eeupcrstsrer
teerature
*f
dnte prevenEs
lack
of data
prevents their
application t ith
5.rr*?s
*he{r app3.:ieetlcs
f.th a reseocebte
degree of
reasonable degree
of aceurtcy"
accuracy
,,'
t,_..,",:
j'
$treweverustlch med€$.s{1o Eerv€ to deftne *he f,setof,s ehat eseat af.gn{.fteont
il
',1
*.af'.uenea"
l' :'v
A rrei:hod f,er detesm*eetf.en o€ ghe &v'erage soneentf,eeJ.sn of a polluean
: t
t
:i.rl*soduead {ota a werc*eel3.y ud,r"*d escaaeSrhaa been deveSoped
by $, $Ssoqsl,,
r
{26} end epp$Eed Co Yaquina ffetuary by ?f"V" surt e,lrd LoDn ffarrncge (3}o
T%'eeoeryuBedpo!'!'utfoxef.gbgeedonoa1,i'ahyandgslrer€l.owdgeataka
ru { ' u
1-
&uguufl 3.955 aad Februarg &95S" ?he Awgu.*;Cdste lE aaersad ee be g eateteel
L
L
perfod af tad,g?rteryeraturee
end 3.swrivea
f&ewe"
sreee ar€ the only
', ',.
l,o
fLow available0
cvatleb!.e"
of salinity
aad river
rtver flow
simultaneous
of
mesEuraetenea
aallntty and
6{,muLraneousmeasurements
o
It
ls
It is
thet year
questlonsble if
fi.sw conditions
eondfttons for
for that
10$ flow
ttrey indicate
C.ndlcEte average
aresage low
questionable
year
if they
yeae"
prolonged hot
aad dry
hot and
dry year,
or
for Ia vesy
or for
very prolonged
based on
However,
Sow€ver, calculations
calcuX.er{ons based
thfs dere
tndlcatloo of
the relatdon
this
date gf.ve
give an indication
of the
relation end
and magnitude
magnitude of,
of pollutlon
pollution
o
during the
the critical
crftleal season0
isaaoo.
dlepoaal locations
loeatlone during
reeulttng
frenr different
d{fferent disposal
resulting from
by a
conputer
deeermlned by
a computer
here$,a were determined
reported heroin
Waste concentrations
!ilae8a
eoneentr&tf.oss reported
(Figure 3)
3}
lasger (Figure
ere somewhat
ssrctrhat larger
method are
Anewere obtained
obteined by this
th{e oethod
snethod" Answers
method0
o
(35}.
(5}, using
using Stromsel's
StrsnEsel.lsmethod
by Burt
tsurt and
than those
obta{ned by
snd Marriage
l"larr{age (5),
rbose obtained
rythod (35)
(a)"
due to
ts en
!.n SBromelNa
ie due
The discrepancy
an arrotr
error in
Strosmel's equaclon
equation 7 (a)0
the
dlserepsncy is
thls
In
In this
the outfalt
flux irich
equation, the
rate of
of change
change of
of pollutant
pollutant flux
with df.stance
distance at
at the
outfall
equaciolle
the rate
o
sbou!.d be dr/a Lneteed of 4y'2a"
tbto
thet the
the poS.l.utlon
It
emphasized that
pollution coaeeneratioas
concentrations eeLeulated
calculated by
by thiø
It is
i.e emphasLzed
cethod are averages over a perlod of one dayo and rlo sttennpt le uade to
o
partod"
thte period0
during this
dua to
ttde during
eo tide
show
the time
ttre variation
var!.attcn due
shosethe
ReLativel,y large
lerge
Relatively
variations
be erpected
expected at
at tlEe
the ouafal"l
outfall end
and near
near tha
the hesd
head of
of the
the eoBuary
estuary
varLer$.otro conic!
cou3.d be
dal.!.y river
flms.
to daily
rtver flow0
!.e small
s@sll compared
where
voX.rre is
empared to
where the
ti,ds!. volume
the tidal
o
(Flgure S)
th!.g report
{n thta
report were eleo
Dissolved
4) glven
given in
also cal.cula8ed
calculated
deta (Figure
FLaaotned oxygen
oxygea data
by a
e computer
cmpucer application0
app!.icatfon,
the
thts enalyrle
The theory
of this
analysis and operatton
operation of,
of the
theoty of
13le
of this
raporE.
th{.e report,
prograe
ehe Appendix
Aposd!.x of
program are
are g{ven
given f.n
n Section
Secef.onII
II and
end the
o
ghown arc
be co-nsldered
per!.od of
only be
of a day and can only
shown
cánsidered
over the
Ehe period
averegea over
ere averages
faetorg
of the
tAe factors
date for
for nany
of supporting
as
many of
the lack
eupportlng data
due to
8o the
lack of
ss approximate
appaoxiuate due
photoslrntheats,
part{eularty algal
alga3. photosynthesis0
involved,
f.nnro!.ved,particularly
o
Reaul.ta
Results
calculatlons
the calculations
Assumptions
for the
Aseu&pBlons for
B"
glven in
are given
fe Table
Tab!"e B0
ere
Al.ternate
,i!_
Dleposatr
FYjji.i
1,1
Methods oi Wacer
elteraete
by vartorrs
h,e accomplished
accompltrshed by
Waste disposal
may be
various alternate
the estuary
estuary eqy
d.nto the
Waete
d*speeal. into
o
methods.
methods,
used'
method used0
the nethod
The degree of
of poS.lutlon
pollution resultS"ng
resulting w{11
viii very
vary wtth
with the
t{1e
thesa are:
ere:
These
eataary"
pottlts in
rhe estuary0
!n the
Dilution
b;r outfall
at various
varl.oua points
outf,stt at
D{Lr.ltl.on by
1."
i
o
the estuary0
eetu&t7"
by dilution
tu the
d{.lutton in
follorsed by
wsr{ous methods
rethodc followed
2"
Treatmeat by various
2 Treatment
-3*
o
rfver flows
3,
with disposal
high river
dlopoesl at
flowe"
3,, Storage during
durlng low
rtver flows
fLowa wtth
ae hlgh
tow river
4,
4" Low
3s!r flow
flow augmentation0
augwnts,tlon"
o
Other
which elfminate
waste
Otber alternatives
al.ternsglves whlch
el{.m{nata or
or considerably
coseld€rably reduce lraste
the estuary
arel
concentrations
eo$centratl.ons in
{.n the
estusry are:
gasces on
Stsposal of
of wastes
on land0
lsndo
5
5" Disposal
o
the ocean0
6.,9i.epoael
Disposal by
by pXpel,{.ae
pipeline of
of all
all wsaLea
wastes to
6"
to the
ocean"
7
f,
the ocean and dtapooal,
Disposal by barge of
of seroag
strong waste$
wastes to
disposal of
of
Dlapo*al
to the
wastee in
weak
weok wastes
ln the
the estuary0
estualTf"
o
(actf,vsted oludgelo
In this
report, only
only alBernetl.ves
alternattves lF
l, 2 (activated
sludge), 6,
6, and 7
In
thie report,
are considered0
csnefdered"
io
o
o
I
lo
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o
o
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$
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6'
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Elt
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initial
227,000
tt.-{
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Barging strong
wastes to ocean
I
Ff
c,
X
activated sludge
Grassy Point
& aquina
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L
tr36
tr
6
a
l'€
\o
7
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h:'
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oct
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Treatment by
a€
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lr
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Fr
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dilution
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a
rl
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Principal sources of information (9l9)
t\|(\|
Fl
* Amortization costs based on formula:
€\t
F{
---
.ql
c\|
14,200
olnl
Fl
lJ
c
.r{
O Sl
ACI
.r{
25,000
19,800
oo
ocrl
t\
(rl
90,000 245O0
OO
ca
In
$l
b0 Same as 6*
plus odor and
scum control
$
g\
t{
|'.l
|\|
63,600 24,000
lr.
oo
anG
to Newport
ocean fallout
e
{'t
roo
,r
--
3,000
zatton*
o
o
('
cloo
ooI
10
c)
a All wastes
lnt\
ooo
Pumping
loa
0c)
t{
Amorti-
Alternative
____.
hChFa
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+-l
6
Fl
rc\o
to.\o
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38,400 15,000
o-
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ala
followed by dilution
at Toledo
1.6
---
o
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Ol
di lI o
o
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17,600 250,600
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a
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1,000
v
Operation &
Maintenance
ott
od
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tcl
t.a
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3,
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t
Annual Costa (dollars)
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o A' ilc
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6
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gs
t
L
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E
o
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66,600
6,000
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lJ
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Total
Table 1
$\o !t
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lr{O
ugrJ
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dl
cocE
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cl h c,
6l
hlr{ O
F i -O F . t ! O
rlo
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od
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OFI
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C,
ql|{
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A6
Ed
o
ApprozIaate1y 2000 lb/day BOD would
Fl
S
Elt
€t
O
o$
+t,
r!
be discharged to the estuary
o
ho0
O o
ct +r
h
E!
OOO
ir
A
lrvl
h
o
o3J
003
trFr 'r
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t
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l.
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t
r
q{Fl
E
U
t
ocean
oo
!
u(,
€
60
ltl
&
{rtl
c McLean Point
a
El
ol
---
Alternatives
(For disposal. of wastes from a 600-ton per day Kraft
pulp and paper mill located at Toledo, Oregon)
$*
6(,1
$ra
)49
Fl
d{t
g
.L' l.t
O
gl
.,
60
td
t,l,
o!
tla O
r.{
O 'r
|l l0
t€
,
E
Ftl!\5
Ft
Costs greater than for piping wastes to
Coimnents
*,
Gtl
kd
Probable slight odor and scum nuisance at
ra{ fu
o
Fl
>i.O
d ql
A.
E !q'l' r
l'l
a
+{ I
orn
ialO
o$
hl ct
t G
ot
rr
e
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o
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6
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tror
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rto
!!€
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cro
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ct
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+rC
t,!t
&r
o
cri
*ldl
o
€
o'tr
ll
O
surf nuisance at Newport0
c
*Q
.rl
Cost is much greater than for piping wastes
to Newport Pollution is only 85-90Z
e1iiinated0
o
f,
pollution is greater at all affected sections0
Cost is comparable to that of McLean Point, but
t,
9o
!o
Similar to first system actually constructed
which resulted in an objectionable odor and
o
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cPaIcI 1e a8renl3tTp
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IAssumed
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cf
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and
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with
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Sag Curve
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'q*
r
r8AT8
UI
4c
a
PART
PARTII
TT
o
Computer
Waste
SolueLos for
for Calculating
Calculatlag lfaste
Coryuter Solution
Cooeestratlons and
ln Estuaries
EsEuar!.es
Concentrations
Dtaeolved Oxygen
end Dissolved
@ygea in
Purpoae
The purpose
purpose of
of this
section 1e
is to
present setbods
methods whtch
which wltr!,
will ald
aid in
Ttre
to preseat
tn
tbls eectfon
o
the
more rapLd
rapid catrcul,atlon
calculation of
of eeturerl.al.
eaturarial saate
waste conceatrattons
concentrations and reEult{ag
resulting
the uore
tha uore
dissolved oxygen and give
give e
a cleErer
clearer underatanding
understanding of
of the
more ftsportant
important
d{,oeolved
o
factors affeettng
affecting weste
waste dispooal.
disposal {n
in eotuar{ee"
estuaries
f,actore
Sum?rg
A finite
difference
change in
waste concentration,
A
d{.ffereuce equation
for the
to waate
consentratl,on,
flnite
the ehauge
equattoo for
o
gat{raty.
with
elements of
of a sectionally
hmgeneoua estuary0
rr{th time,
t{mo is
ta written
wrltten for.
for eLwnta
secttonally homogeneous
(35)
(35)
Waste
slaete addition,
end advection
advectlon are
are
eddfti.ou, decay,
dlf'fuefon and
deeay, longitudinal
Longlrud{.nal diffusion
considered0
eonel.dered.
a
perforred on an
d$ieal
Calculations
computer
Galculettons are
en IBM
IB!,t 1620
1620 digital
co{sputer
are performed
poatetoae of
with
wtth 40,000
40u000 positions
of storage0
atoa&ge,
Equations
ell elements
eoLvcd
Equ&ti.ona for
for all
elemenea are solved
(J *+ 1)
simultaneously
waste concentration
l.) from
froln input
or calculated
for weete
lnput or
calcutated
ef.ur!"taneoual,y for
at day (3
coneenLratl.oa at
(J).
data for
day (J)
f,or day
o
proceae is
The
until an equll.{brltu
equilibrium condition
cmdlttpn
Src process
ls continued
cont!.nued untll
for all
is reached for
Ls
elt sections
sect{ons"
Climatological,
hydrographical, and
waste
6nd v€tte
CltnatologLcat.r, bydrograpblcel,
to reach
reach this
thts condition0
coadltl,on"
factors are
are assumed
factors
aaaunsd constant
eonstaot long
long enough
eaough to
ResuIta
Rsgul,tc
polnt in
at, one
Ln
condltl.ons at
onc point
are therefore
do not
thercfore an average and
and.do
not indicate
i.ndlcate conditions
are
o
time0
ttne"
for a similar
BOD
calculated in
manner eerve
ss input
f.oput for
BODdata
aernre as
thte nanner
data calculated
ln this
ct'ullar
concenLtratlous"
oqfgen concentrations0
dlesolved oxygen
equation wtrl.ch
which solves
eoXvea for
f,or average
avarage dissolved
equattoe
o
Theory
of ldagte
Waste Conceatratton
Concentration Celguletlgae*ig9$)
Calculations 1i0D)
Itreorv of
ttdEl
osclll.atlng
due to
to an oscillating
The
movement of
wacte in
tidal
Ls due
La an
aa estuary
estilery is
ltre uovement
of a weate
eurrent
I
eupertopoeed upon a seelrerd r*ver
and the dat!.y r*ver
flow,
l,fhen tlre estuaE-y trl narrow
flcnr ls slnall eompared to the cldal
prien"
la uoually ryell nlsed and carr be coueLdered ae secttonal.ly
(mgl.tglble
o
tertlcal
snd lateral
ealla{,ty
gradleut)
the eetuarT
houogeneous
(22, 23" 24, tr}"
o
-1t)-
For such
ttling,
c,oncentr&tl.on of
of aa nones
nonaettling,
euch an
en estuary,
the concentration
eaEuaryn change
chaageinln the.
o
nonvolatile waate
waste whteb
which is
completely o{aetbl.e
miscible wl.th
with estuar?
estuary water
water can bc
be
nourolatf.Xe
l"e empl,etel.y
expressed in
erpreeeed
Eerne of
of the
the following
followlng four
four factors:
faetorel
ta terms
(ae from
Addf.clon (as
1 Addition
L.
frsn aa source
aoutrceof
of waste)0
waete)"
o
2
2, Decay0
Decay"
advect,ion.
3
3. Longitudinal
Iougitud{nal advection,
Iongltudl.nal turbulent
df.fftrsf.on"
4
4; Longitudinal
turbutent diffusion0
o
Concentration
change due
waste addltlon
addition is
as simple
CoBcetrtratton chcnge
due to
to lfeaee
trB treated
created ae
elryLe dilution,
d{lutfon"
Decay is
be aa first
dependent on
the
Decay
aaumed to
Ls aeeuseed
tc be
flrst order
order reaction
Eeectl.oa dependent
on the
-KtGowhere
preseng or:
concentration
€oncentrstlon of
naste present
K, is
decay
of the
the waste
orr $ s -KC,
where K1
le the
the decay
r
ilt
o
conatant
of the
the waste0
constant of
waEte,
Adyectton of a waete le lta movsent wl.tb the flow of nater,
eeaee rlver
o
gero),
flors.
(Average net tldal
Ihua for the estuer?!
fl(a)
fl,rs of I waate of soncentratloa
in thls
florv ovef the perlod of a day eqnsle
* CQc vrtrere fr(a)
La the advrct{ve
C toroErda the ocean aud the Q equaLs thc
river
rlver flow0
fl.orv"
o
poorly understood0
Srrbulent
underetood.
Turbulent diffusion
dlffueton in
Ls poorly
fn estuaries
eEfuarLee is
It
related
It is
ls related
to
eddies and fluctuations
water velocttlee,
velocities, buL
but for
purposes of
of eaguary
estuary
for purposee
8o eddf,es
fluetuaB{ons in
ln water
quanclty an
pol!.uelon, it
pollution,
measurable quantity
been related
to a knovn
knowsror
lt has
hae not
uot been
related to
or Eeaaurable
on
o
a tbeoretlcotly
dlffueios,
aound beels"
t.t hae boeu Breated wletr sore suceesg (L6), as
to solecul.ar dLffuaLon or heat flow,
o
of the prevloue pork on sstuarlel
In met
bel,ng et'ntlar
that La:
h(d) * A& (#)
rfiere,
Fl(d)
o
s flux of waste {n x dfrectloo
Dr a coeffie{.en8
of turbulent
due to dLffustoa
dd.ffuafvlty
C * $tste
waste concentration
C
concentretton
A
A a cross
aree of
of estuary
estuary
crsec sectional
aectlonel area
iu the x dl,rectton
o
-i
The saechan!.emof turbuleat
o
4F
eddy dtffual,on
hac becn psrtlslly
by Prltcbard
(32) alrd treeeed theoreetcall,y
of, turbulent
d{ffrec{vfty,
by Orlob (27r"
enrrial.oncd
tlre coefflclent
aa used ln thla P8P€fr caa be dst€laLEed by
maaurl,ng the d!,strtbutl.on of lcnwn volume of a coaEarnattvs tracer
o
(35r 28r 290 5)"
of svubolg-(tP9Dl
tieF ofSbo1BOD1
ultimate blologlcal
biological onygeo
oxygen demand
demand or
or tnastc
waste coEr@ntratlon,
concentration, ppa
ppm
IIBOD
UBOD e ultlmete
dtffualvl.ty,
oq ft/day
ft/day
eq
DtrF e turbulent
turbutent eddy
eddy diffusivity,
DIP
o
ft/dey
river flow,
fl.ow, cu ft/day
FIOW
FLOW s rlver
RLIS
RLTI1
e reach
ft
length, ft
reach length,
ppm/day
decay constant,
cotratant, ppm/day
RA1KI B waste decay
RATKI
o
ft
aq ft
Eree of
cross sectional
of estusutr
estuary, eq
AREI e croa6
cectl.onal area
r n 65
(10
(-g--)
(lb/day)
addltdoa"
(lb/day)
Si,L e waste
lraete addition,
POLL
'62.5')
62 5
ppu
waste eoncenqratl.on,
concentration, ppm
RCfiCDs initial
lnt8ial sagte
RCHCD
o
progr@r ppm
througbout program,
he!.d constant
coaataae throughout
1., held
$ect!.oe 1,
!,n Section
w&ste concentration
eoneentrEtl.on in
PP6
ENDI e waste
ENDI
END2].
8ND2l. F
prograae ppm
througbout program,
congtant throughout
waste
?tr,nheld
held constant
Seetloa 21,
1n Section
concentration in
traate concentration
PP8
(average
gradlent (average
concentratlon gradient
The
waste concentration
that the
tlxe leaate
fire approach assumes
assrses that
.
o
ltne'
etral.ght line0
approlr{.rnstecaa straight
conditions)
seeel.ons approximates
betrees any
any two
ttm sections
cond!,tlons) between
If the
the
If
caee, the
the
be n€tr
ln r&leh
not be
estuary
very long,
might not
met, in
which case,
thls condition
coadf.tlon n{ght
ts very
long, this
estuary is
altered by
dividing the
the estuery
estuary lu8o
into aa eufftclent
sufficient
by dtvtd{,ng
program sould
be altered
to be
would have to
o
dtffuElon
and diffusion
edrrectl.on end
the eddLt!,on,
addition, decay,
deeayoadvection
Gonoldertng the
number
of sections0
ngnber of
eeeti,one" Considering
seetloa,
in
La each
eech section,
day are
waste concentration
concentretton per day
ln waste
the folloirl.ng
following ehanges
changes in
the
due to:
to3
locgLtudtnal)
(turbulent, longitudinal)
Dlffugr.on (turbulent,
l Diffusion
1"
prr(sl)
DIF(N + 1)
1) ++DIF(N)
.pxF(NJ
2RLTh
nBop(N) - nBop(N-_t)
RI.IU
DIP(N -.- 1)
D3r(Nr+f,.pgl(N
+-D
UBOD(N
+ ]- :-g!gp(Nl
UBOD(N) - DIP(N)
usoo(t{
Rtnt
RLTh
2RLTII
zRl.lg
l.
- : iz
-T*
(longi.tudtnsl)
2, 44vgg!1on
2,
Advection (longitudinal)
o
f
I
rr$r(N)
FL(W(N)
Il IUBOD N + UBOD N - 1
L(Th)
() (J
!@rTnn
2
rLoE (N
FLOW
N
I
,J
(runl) (aREA
N
(RLTR)
(ARS)) ((N)J
IUBOD(N) + UBOD(N + 1
L2
3 . Decay
Decav.
3
o
r
I
I
*oor*r]
nnrxr0" UBOD(N)j
l- RATKI
!I:
Addltlon
4 "Addition
o
[ ,orr I
[POLL]
L(1(mA)J
itnt.m)Gmtj
(uBoD)
Metho4 (UBOB)
Method
2
sectl.onE vhlch
lnto nLneteea
The estuax?
estuary is
nineteen sections
which are
are nunbered
numbered 2
tB divided
dlvtded into
ttre
o
the ocean and river
2i., are
are the
The
numbered land
river
Land 21,
Ttre end sections,
aectl.oneo nr.mbered
20.
through 2O
through
(above tide
condltlonc respectively0
respectf.vely.
rlde water)
(above
water) conditions
poaitive waste
weste
Aeslre aa positive
Assume
of
totterde the
(tncreastng lraate
the head
concentration
waste concentration
head of
gradleut (increasing
eoncentratlon towards
concenttratlon gradient
o
the
the estuary)0
eotuary).
(ppn)"
concentratlon (ppm)0
waate concentration
the waste
Let
equal the
I€t UBOD
ITBOD
F{gure_l.
Seetlon
Section
o
o
((NN -- r1)
)
Section
Section
Section
Section
ilNr!
((N
N ++11)
)
"N"
i RUTR-4 4 RUT
r4 (
RUTU
rO
0
MiLee.uPatrean
the element
ls loodlfled
for the
If
change in
waste eonceptrati.on
concentration for
element is
modified
If the
the cbaprge
ln waate
o
(J):
day (3)
according
waste eoneenfratLon
concentration gradlent
gradient at
at day
to the
the waate
accordlng to
r
"'l
1
± (diffusioñ/
day *+ advectlon/dey
advection/day *+ decay/day
decay/day +
IIBoD(N'J) lf1 +
AUBOD(N) '" UBOD(N,J)
{atrfuafon/dav
AltBoD(N)
eddltton/dsy
t
addition/day J
L
L
o
*i3-
o
(J) to
llowever, the
pollutsnt
day
frou day
to day
However,
concentration
tbe change
chaoge in
ln pollutant
day (3)
concentratLon from
r
o
(J +
preeeat in
be present
on the
would be
the section2
av€Edg€1 oneo!€la the
sectlonn on
the average,
(3
+ 1)
1) [3BOD(Iñ
lunooCnif wouLd
rf
half
half day0
day,-
J
DrrLig the
During
half day this
would have been nodtfled
modified by decay
the half
rhla change would
perlod
ITBOD(I{*J,+
* L)
and
and diffusion
dlffuetiin .o
that the
the actual
L} over the
the period
eo that
aetual, change
ehange in
tn UBOD(N,3,
o
daywill
wlll be:
be:
of
or aa day
[*ro6]
EJBoD(N
r-
diffusion/day
drrfueton/dev
decay/dayl
[ - -ar---rj
f;
- g.{gil
J L
2
2
!0hen
When expanded,
boconeE:
expanded" this
tbf.e equation
equat{.oo becomes:
J
r
(1)
Y(N) nBoD(N
UBOD(N -- I,
1, J)
3) +
+
UnOn(N)* [Z(N)
(1) I'BOD(N,J,
UBOD(N,3, +
+ 1)
nBOD(r{,J)++ Y(r{}
1) = TJBOD(N)
lZ(r'r) UBOD(N,3.)
L
"iF
o
- R+qr+' rlr
'
x(N)uBoD(w
r' r)
Y/ +--JE+-:i
2"0
AREA(N)(Rt11r)_i
L*
where,
o
Y(N) s
o
Ermple gf _Applleatlos (ttBOD)
Applteatloo
users0
uoerso
o
of thla progrm
de preeented here es a gu{de for poaclble
!aquina
Yaqu{.ta Estuary,
Esturry, Oregon,
Oregonu is
Bhe example
exmple estuary
eatuary since
elnce data
Le the
(3).
prevtoue uoth
progrmta application
necessary
work (3)
n€cesser? for
for the
the program's
la available
ava{lab3,e from
f,ron previous
eppllcatlon is
(UBOD),
Blochen!.cal Oxygen
Orygen Demand
Dennand
In the
example, 29,400
(UBOD),
291400 lbs
of ultimate
ultlnate Biochemical
In
the exmp!.e,
lba of
(Toledo)
1? (Toledo)
with
of 00
173/day, are
are relEaeed
released at
at seetion
section 12
wlth aa decay
decay constant.
conetent of
0.173/dsy,
o
each
dey"
eaeb day,
See Table A for
Sea
for other
eserepttono"
other assumptions0
(aeermlng
to reach
Results indicate
necessary to
reach eguf!.lbrfrm
equilibrium (assuming
Reeults
tbst the
tlre time
t{ne necessary
tadl,cate that
flow
the low
ttrsn the
lolr flow
te longer
longer than
waste is
eosdl,ti,ons) is
at low
lon flow
flors conditions)
waEte
ls introduced
l,ntroduced at
o
perlod"
period0
the one-hundredth
one-hundredth
However,
is
alweye reached by the
Ls always
Horrcver, a near-equilibrium
nca:-equtllbrirn
(eee Figure
A).
Flgure A)0
begi.ne (see
day after
after waste disposal
dleposal begins
dey
Since the
Slnce
corcentratLon
the concentration.
yeat-round basis
baatr wou!,d
oe a year-round
condition
waste introduced
would
estuatTf on
a$ estuary
,.atroduecd into
i.nto an
of t'sBfe
condltloa of
o
o
ehangeet
flou continually
river flow
contlnually
ar river
be
changes,
behlnd equilibrium,
be expected
to lag
lag behind
equi.Llbriun, as
expected to
o
*ia+-
with
(aee Section
snd 3)
3) can be used w!,th
Flguree 2 and
Io Figures
hundredth-day
flgures (aee
Sectloa I
bnndredth-day figures
o
fl
o
o
o
o
o
o
;a)
o
negligible
negllgtble error
errotr.
o
* e:}-
Determlnatlon of
Determination
Dlseolved Oxygen
of Dissolved
Orygen
in getuarlee
Estuaries at
at Equlllbr&m
Equilibrium
1n
o
Theory:
ttleory:
Fleny of
the factors
factors involved
of the
progr€m are
dleeolved oxygen
Many
lmrolved in
in the
rhe dissolved
oxygen program
are the
the
those involved
same as
as
e8 those
progran"
luvolved in
the UBOD
ttBODprogram0
ln the
o
Those whlch
which were not
Thoee
nrrt are:
are3
photosynthee!.e, atmospheric
atmoapherLe reoxygenation,
photosynthesis,
reoxJrgenatton, bed
bed load
load and
and sludge
load.
eludge load0
Amepherlc
reoxygenatlon is
Atmospheric
reoxygenatton
which is
Ls treated
treated as
ee an oxygen
o:(ygen source
ooutrce whleh
dcpendeat
{,c dependent
upon the
the dissolved
upon
dl.saolved oxygen
oxlrgen deficit
deficf.t or:
or:
Iteoxygenation
neoxygeaatlon a 1(D
K2D
o
where
where
Ko s the
the eoefftctent
coefficient of
of reoxygenation
reoxygenat!.oa
z
D
D
oi.
,.
s Dissolved
Dlagolved oxygen
oxygea deficit
defte{t e DO
DO saturation
eaturat{on minue
minus DO
DO actual
actual
(productlon of
Photosyntheele (production
Photosynthesis
of oxygen by algae)
aLgae) is
le also
also treated
treated as
aB an
ar
orygea
oxygen source0
rourceo
(leaveso bark,
Bedload (leaves,
Bedload
bark, weede,
weeds, etc0)
and sludge
etc") end
aludge load
load
(organlc
depooi.ee) are
(organic el.udge
sludge deposits)
are treated
treeted as
es oxygen
oxygea sinka0
sf,nkgo
o
List
Svnbola
Llst of
of_ Symbols
(day-l)
REOXY
REoxYe coefficient
coefflcleat of
of reoxygenation
reoxygenatlon (day'')
PIlOT
PIIOT
o
a algal
photoaynuheer.a (ppm/day)
(ppaldey)
algal photosynthesis
BEDL
BEDL e bedload
bedtoed coefficient
(ppn/dsy)
coeffteienr (ppm/day)
SLGL
SI€f,
e sludge load
(ppn/aey)
load coefficient
coefflcf.enc (ppm/day)
DOSATI saturation
(pp)
DOSAT
astuaaelon value
valtre of
of dissolved
d{agol,ved oxygen
onygen (ppm)
o
RCD
RCD
a Lnlrlal
(ppu)
initial dlasolved
dissolved oxygen
oxygen (ppm)
Other
progru.
fectore are as defined
deflned in
UBODprogram0
Other factors
Ln the
the UBOD
o
o
o
o
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Method:
Method:
fornulatlng
and formulating
eacilons and
Lneo sections
The
method of
estuary into
the eatuar?
dlvldlng the
Ttre nethod
of dividing
I
o
the
that of
of the
to that
ls similar
el.mllar to
the estuary
for the
a finite
equation for
estuary is
dlfference eguatlon
flnlte difference
progrm,
UBOD
IIBODprogram.
aa e:rplalued
ls al.noeC
Operation
program is
almost exactly
exactly as
ezplaited
fhe progras
Operation of
of the
IIBODflow
chart.
in the
ln
the UBOD
flow chart,
o
to exceed
e:ceeed;leturatlon
allormd to
DO
values are
not allowed
saturation
ere oot
DO values
zeroo
b€c@e less
Lees than
then zero.
values or become
valuee
Lnto
read into
IIBODprogr@r
wlth the
tbe !JBOD
Ultimate BOD
program, are
are read
Ulttmate
BODdata
dsta calculated
e*lculeted with
the
computer wi.tb.other
with other data,
data, mireh
much of
of shteh
which ia
is also
also lnput
input for
for the
the UEOD
UBOD
the cmputer
o
I
(See Appendlxo
paogrs!!.
Data)
lupuc Data)
program. (See
Appendix, Input
1n dissolved
dlsaolved
charge in
for the
the charge
fomo for
The
dlfferenee form,
flnlte difference
Ttre equation,
Ln finite
equatton, in
oxygea
ial
oxygen is:
o
I
1, 3)('f(N))
r)(Y(N)) +
3)(X(N))
+
Do(N++ 1,
J)(x(N)) ++ DO(N
Do(N,
flO(N, J)
3) +
+ [DO(N
DO(N, 3
1) . Do(Nr
J ++ 1)
[Do(No
b
RAgrr(N)++
[IBOD(N) . RATXI(N)
DosAT(N) -- UBOD(N)
+ RPOYK(N)
RPOIK(II) . DOSAT(N)
J)(z(N)) +
DO(N - 1,
1, J)(Z(N))
DO(N
+fl
+
DIF(N.+
1! +f 2DIF(N)
- DIF(N
!
DrAor(N)-- BEDL(N)
BEDL(N)- slrt(N)l
DIAOT(N)
SLGL(N)1 [1
l't
(RLTII)Z
4
"
r ! sD
.J
4.
o
DIP(N - 1)
2j
"ry*]
RPDXK(N) i
I
o
rftere:
where:
X(N) e RBoxY(N)
x(N)
REOXY(N) - DIF(N + 1) + 2DIF(N) + DIF(N - 1)
2 (RLTh)2
o
rtQq(EL-+ DIF(N)
FLOW(N)
Y(N) E DIF(N
Y(N)
1)-+
DIF(tq ."n - 2 "
IlIr(N ++ 1)
2(RLijZ
R L f f i . AARE(N)
REA(N)
2
RLTR
t(RtrH)z
z(N)
Z(N)
a
U
a
r
L
I
o
* DIP(N
+ DIF(N)
D I F ( N )_
D ! r ( N-- , 1
1)) +
- E I 0FLOW(N)
IL(N),
2(RLTh)Z
RLTR
2 .RL
2
1 3 . A 8ARKA(N)
.EA(N)
2
(nr.m)z
o
Application
AppLleatlon
DLsaolved O:rygen
Example
of Dissolved
Oxygen Calculatlon
Calculation
Exaple of
o
lte example
eralnplc
The
estuet?"
exanpLe estuary.
ss the
tha example
Estuary is
choeen as
faquina Estuary
Yaqulna
Le again
aga{n chosen
IIEODexample.
the UBOD
exryle"
ag the
condLtl.one as
waete and
assumes
and estuary
estuary conditions
the same
eanp waste
acrureE the
one
from one
atobfl!.ty from
ueed to
perlods of
8o rnelntafn
Computation
maintain stability
day are used
of, 1/2
LlZ day
Coaputacloa periods
o
S
perlod to
netto
Ehe next.
to the
period
(lO * 4,0)
aecmedo
La assumed0
4"0) is
upne!.llng end
end condition
condl.tloo (DO
An upwelling
An
glvee
Table
tabLe BB gives
SIFL(N)"
and SLGL(N)O
BEDL(N), and
P[{OT(N), BEDL(N),
the
values of
DSAT(N), PHOT(N),
of DOSAT(N),
rhe assumed
aseumd valuee
o
.
zero
the N
These
equations are
are not
not app3.{cable
applicable when
when the
DO approrchee
approaches zero
theee equatlone
gfnce the
reduced,
sralfatea are
are reduced,
and sulfates
nttratee and
since
beco,rea anaerobic,
anaerobtc, nitrates
Ehe estuary
eetuary becomes
gr€atly reduced0
reduced"
UBODdecay
deeay rate
ta greatly
and the
the UBOD
rate is
o
S
good,
aaalyele is
I'g good,
The
firc analysis
zeroo
above zero,
polnts on
are above
DOsag
the DO
aag curve
eurrre are
however,
oo the
horever, if
lf all
all points
The
lhe example
exryle
general
($ectl.on 1,
Flgure 3)
3) shows
ahows the
the general
1, Figure
with
12 (Section
secgton 12
weete addition
addle!.on at
at section
w!.ttr waste
S
o
o
r
S
o
o
a
o
lndl.cates that
the
tlmt the
uprel,l!,ng and indicates
shape
of the
with oceaa
ocean upwelling
D0 sag
the DO
aag curve
curve wlth
ehape of
at that
thag section.
sectton,
the outfall
outfall at
12 with
wtth the
DO will
will drop to
to zero
Eec8{on 12
IF
setro near
neatr section
Figure 8
r{
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10 {tr {S
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END 21
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8.9
t{
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6
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SLGL
E{
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BEDL
z
o
H
PilOT
ASSUMPTIONS FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN CALCULATIONS (DO)
S
EA
o o o o o F{ c-'|S r\S
ll
oaoQo
6e
dooooonooco.
El
I
0,132
0.282
0.561
1.127
2.178
4.158
7.580
13.201
21.139
11.040
5.320
2.637
1.332
0.622
0.261
0.072
0.004
S
F
o
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-'12*
BIBLIO6?API{']T
BIBLIOGRAPHY
o
tldal flushing.
fl.uohfng"
of tidal
theozy of
I. Aarons,
Aarone, A.
A. Bu
B. A,
A nlxlng
mixing length
1.
length theory
Ao 6.
6o U.
U" 32:419-421,
32:/*1,9-t421.1951.
1951.
A.
TransactLona
Transactions
fluahing
2. Aaronae
2.
Aarons,, Ao
A. Bo
B. and
and ll.
H. Stosrqel.
Stounnel,Mtxlng
Mixing Length
length theory
theory of
of t!.dal
tidal flushing
!.951"
Unf.oa. 32:419-21,
3*419-21" 1951.
Arerlean Geophysical
American
Geophyeieal Union.
o
of tidal
tldal.w&8etr8.
Orygen resources
reSourcea of
Ro T.
T" Nyen,
Myeuo Oxygen
Barlov, 3.
Jo P. and R,
30
waters.
3 " Barlow,
1961"
tr{orka, 108:n2
68-71, 1961.
$ewage Works.
108:n2 68-71.
and Sewage
Water and
Bi.ohopo F.
F" W. Accelerated
4." Bishop,
Accelerated blologleal
biological oxidatl.on
oxidation of
of kreft
kraft ul1l
mill effluento
affluent.
4
IAPPX" 37:453-55
37:453-55. 1954.
1954"
TAPPIO
o
S
ln
D" Merrf,age,
Burt, !ilayne
and Lowell
lpsrell D.
5.
Wayne V.
V. and
Marriage. Gomputatl.on
Computation of
of poLlutl.on
pollution in
5" Burt,
29:1385-89" 1957.
tdastes, 29:1385-89,
19t7"
Sawageand
end Industrial
lnduetrl,al Wastes.
Yaquina Estuary.
Yaqu!.na
Estuary. Sewage
6.
60 Burtu
Burt, l,Iayne
Wayne V.
V. eod
and tr{"
W. Bruce
Bruce McAl{.ster"
NeAlister. Reeeut
Recant studtes"
studies {n
in the
the \ydrolggy
hydrology
of Oregon
of Oregon
estuaries, Research
Research briefs
briefs of
Oregon Ftah
Fish Coml.asl.on
Conmissiou
of
Oregon eatuarlea.
1959"
1. July
JuLy 1959.
7:No, 1.
7:No"
o
dtscherge of
luduatr{al
Ssmathoughts
thoughts on discharge
Chi,pparfi,eld, P.
P, No
70
N, 3,
of industrial
J" Some
7" Chipperfield,
No. 38:16660-66.
Induetry No,
38:16660-66"
and Industry
Chera{etryand
to tidal
tldal. waters.
watera, Chemistry
effLuents
effluents to
L962"
1962.
o
quallficatloae"
on water
}!. A.
A. Effect
of storage
etorage euipoundment
eupounfunt on
8" Churchhill,
Churchh{ll, N,
Effeer of
8.
water qualifications.
1957"
SA1" February,
February' 1957.
ASGE83:No,
83:No, SAl,
Proceedings
Proceedlngg ASCE
flrm, Cotwallla
Eoglneerlng firm,
9.
Cornell, Howlando
Rowland, Hayee
Hayes and
Merryfield. Engineering
Corvallis
and llerryfiel.d"
9" Cornell,
Oregon"
Tol'edo' Oregon.
Paclflc Company,
Company,Toledo,
Oregon.
Files on
onGeorgia
Oregon. FlleE
Georgle Pacific
o
lOo
A. N.
No The
Dlachtohln, A,
lbe
!.0" Diachishin,
Journal,
Sanitary
Journalu Sani.tary
verlatl.ons"
for cyclical
cyelleal variations.
aempler for
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weter samples
analysis
analyalg of
paper
Apr[l'
1956"
ASCE
Engineering
Division.
ASCE
paper
930.
April,
1956.
930'
Dlvlafon"
Englneerl.ng
the temperature
tcuPer?ture
11. Ganeeooe
Gameson, A,
H0 e!.e-_e!s
et. a10 Effectg
Effects of
of heaeed
heated dlecharges
discharges on
Ao I.,
Lo tlo
11.
?1 the
893-6.
L95:1.
850-2' 893-6. 1957,
204:816-69, 850-2,
of
the Thames
thamee estuary,
eatuatry" 204:816-69,
f the
12. Gmegon,
Gameson, A"
A, L.
L, llo
H. and M,
N, J"
3. Barrett,
Barrett. OxldsCtono
Oxidation, reaeragl.onr
reaeration, aad
and
12o
ctr€888t
ln streams,
Oxygen
relationships
the Ttrmes
estuarya O:rygen relatl,onshl.pa in
olxtng in
Ln the
mixing
manes estuary,
Centes,t
Englneerl'ngCenter,,
Robert A.Taft
Taft Engineering
technical
report 1il58-2"
W58-2 RobertA,
techntcal report
63-89"
Page63-89.
Ohlo. March,
Marcb, 1958.
1958. Page
Cincinatti,
Clnclnattf, Ohio,
ln uarlne
13.
Harpe, DonaXd
Donald L"
L. kgradatl.on
Degradation of
of kraft
kraft paPer
paper mLLl
mill sagtes
wastes in
marine
13" Ilarpe,
Eaglnaerlng,
Clvll Engineering.
Deparrent of
of Civil
Unlverefty, Department
waters.
uetetrc. Oregon
Oregon State
State University,
Sponsored by Natlonal
National Selenee
Science Foundat{on.
Foundation, Undergraduate
Undergraduate Reseerch
Research
Sponaored
Progrm. Nay,
May, 1963,
t963o
Program.
Discmssionon
onoxtgen
oxygenbelance
balanceofofananeEtuary"
estuary. Journel,
Journal,
llo S.
S" Dlsc$esLon
Co H,
14,
Hull, C,
14, Hul!,
Sanitary Engineering
Dlvlston.
SanLtary
Engtneerlng Division,
A$CE86,
t'960"
85. 1960.
ASCE
t't&
polluti.on investigation
employtfrg"same
inlreatlgaElonemploying
15.
A, J"
S. Eatuarine
A"
Eetuarlne pollution
Kaplovsk5rn
15, Kaplovsky,
glacktl
1957'
29zlM+2-53"1957
Waete.29:1042-53,
slack" technique.
Inductrlal Waste.
Sewageand Industrial
technlque" Sewage
homgeneous estuary,
eatuary'
Dlffuelon in
ln aasectionally
eecttoael,lyhomogeneous
16.
Keatu Richard,
Rlchard" Diffusion
16" Kent,
DLvl,aLon.
Englnaert'ag Division.
Sanl8ary Engineering
Proceedings
ASCE. Journal,
Proeeedlnge ASCE,
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1960"
15-47. 1960.
86:No. SA2.
SA2. pt,
pt. 1.
page 15-47.
86:No"
1. page
o
o
a
" /.J*
of
di.aperel.ou of
ln the
the dispersion
8o H.
f,ydrographlc factors
E, }lydrographic
17.
Ketchum, B,
factors lnvoLved
involved in
17" Ketehum,
Soclety
pol,lutenfe
tldal wstetrF,
pollutants introduced
waters. Jouraal,
Journal, Boeton
Boston Society
Lnto tidal
lntroduced into
L950"
37t296-314" July,
July, l950
EngLneerc" 37:296-314
of Ctv{l
of
Civil Engineers0
laducerlal
and Industrial
$enage and
ttdel estuaries,
€Btuarles. Sewage
ll, the
of tidal
The flushing
Ketchura, Bo
f,lushlng of
B. H.
t18.
8" Ketchum,
Waates.
23r198-208"
1951.
Wastes. 23:198-208. 1951.
19. I.eiae,
L*wø, Robert
Robert L.
L. And
and Ollver
Oliver B"
B. Eufneto
Burnes. Reeent
Recent developocnta
developments ln
in thc
the
19.
procesg
of
treatneDt
for
rludge
application
of
the
activated
sludge
process
for
treatment
of
actlveeed
appll.eatlon of
2
Caoada"
of
61:pt"
pulp and
prpet
$tagaztne
pulp
paper
wastes.
Paper
Magazine
of
C*nada,
61:pt.
2
Paper
trasEeso
snd
1960.
T507-T514"1960,
T507-T5l4.
of kreft
cffluertso
dLepoaal of
Control and
and disposal
20,
Moggio, llo
W, A.
A, Control
kraft ntll
mill effluents.
20. Moggloo
Marcho 1954.
1954"
Procaedings
No. 420.
420" March,
Proeeedlngs ASCE
separate No,
ASCESeparate
o
o
by tidal
eov€menta" Proccsdlngrt
poLlutlon by
tldel movements.,
Nllea, T.
21.
Dispersal of
of pollution
Proceedings,
21" Niles,
T" 74.
H. Dlapereal
No.
A9CE"83:Paper
8il:Paper No.
Dlvle{onn ASCRO
Journal,
Sanltar1y Engineering
Engi.neert4g Division,
Journal, Sanitary
October, 1957,
1.957.
1408" October,
1408.
tests of
22, O'Connel.,
O1Connel, Ro
R, Lo
L, and G"
C. Mo
N. tJalter.
Walter. tlydrauLle
Hydraulic uodel,
model tests
of estuartal
estuarial
22.
Englaeertng
SanltarT Engineering
ASGE,Journal,
JouroaL, Sanitary
dl.spoeal. Proceedings
Proceedlnga ASCE,
waste
vaste disposal.
Jaaueryr 1963.
1963"
51-56" January,
No" 3394.
3394. 51-56.
Dlvlelon,
89:Papar No.
Division. 89:Paper
ln natural
nstural atreems.
atreanr"
reaeratlon in
of reasration
Donald S.
llecba*lsm of
23.
O'Conner, Donald
J, Mechanism
23" OrConner,
1958"
123:6/+1-666.1958.
Traneactloae
Transactions ASGE"
ASCE. 123:641-666.
o
o
24.
O'Conner, Donald
3. Orygen
Oxygen balance of
of an estust?"
estuary. Proceedlnge
Proceedings ASCET
ASCE,
Donald J.
24o OrConner,
pt' 1l' 35-55.
35-55"
SA3pt0
Journal, Sanitary
Dlvlelono 86:No.
86:No" SA3
Sanltary Engineering
Englneer{ng Division,
Journalo
Mayr
19600
Nay, 1960.
of
the essay
eelay of
for the
25.
Howard T,
T. Anal.yate
Analysis of
of dlurnal
diurnal oxygen
oxygen valuea
values for
Odunnnltoward
25" Odutn,
poLluted marine
baye.
raar!'nebays.
{.n polluted
rearation
rates and
and metabolism
netabol.lgm in
rearetlon rates
Dkporal
Conference on
on lfaste
Proceedings
First International
Waste Disposal
InternaElonal, Conference
Proeeed{nga of
of Flrgt
1959"
547-55*'"
}lerlne
Envlronmeut"
in the
the Marine Environment. 547-554. 1959,
ln
productf,on fuf
lnflorlng
26.
Pr{nat? production
lowing waters"
waters. Llnnology
Limnology and
and
Odru, H.
no T.
To Primary
26" Odum,
1.956,
Oceenography"1:102-117.
Oceanography.
1;102-117. 1956.
o
Procecdlnge,
turbulence" Proceedings,
hom0geneousturbulence,
Eddy diffusion
dfffusl.on in
ln homogeneous
27. Orlob,
Orlob, Go
G. T,
To Eddy
27"
1959"
SePtcnber! 1959.
9
75-101."
ASCE.
85:HY
Journal,
Hydraulics
Division
ASCE,
85:HY
9
75-101.,
September,
Journal, HydraulteE Dlvislon
of
annlyefu of
28. Pearson,
A, Trocer
Tracer mthodology
methodology and
and pollutlon
pollution analysis
Eatuan A.
28.
Peareoon Earinan
on
Conferenge
Internetlonal
Flrs8 International Conference on
estuaries,
of First
Proceedlngc of
esEuarleo" Proceedings
1959'
547-554"
EnvlrorrnenE' 547-5540 1959.
Marlne Environment.
Waste
the Marine
llaets Disposal
Dlepoaal in
ln the
o
of
pollutlonal
analyalr of
and pollutional
studiec and
29.
A, Tracer
analysis
Tracar studies
Eatnan Ao
Pearoon, Earman
29. Pearson,
hrbll.ceCton
Boerdo Publication
Pollutlon Board,
trlater Pollution
estuaries,
StateWater
Caltfornls State
ertuarles. California
1961"
2 3 : 1 3 9 "1961.
23:139.
o
pa,tterns. Proceedings
Proceedlngo
Prttcbard, Donald
Donald W.
W" Eetuarlns
30.
Eatuarine cLrculatton
circulation patterns.
30" Pritchard,
Eugl.neera. 81:Separate
8|.:Separate
Ctvll Engineers
Separate,
Society of
of Civil
Saparate, American
Arerlean Soclaty
No. 717.
No,
71,7.19550
1955.
ln
advances in
Prltchcrd,
31.
Donald trf.
W, Estuarine
hydrography. Recent
Recent advances
31, Pritchard,
Eatuarlne hydrography,
geophyslco. 1;243-280"
Yotk" 1952,
1952'
Precs Inc.,
Inco, New
NewYork.
geophysics,
1:243-280. Acadeotc
Mademic Press
o
o
*;iiir*
32.
in
W. The
n!,xlag of
of contaminants
contulnantc
ln
Prlrchard, Donald
Donatd W.
mvemeat and
end mixing
Ttra movement
32. Pritchard,
Firet
GonferencQ
tidal estuarl.es"
estuaries. Proceedlngr
Proceedings of
of First Interna8lonal
International Conference
ttdal
Estvtroretrt" 512-524
512-52/*. 1959.
1959,
on Wasee
Waste Disposal
Marine Environment.
Dlapoaal in
!.n the
the lilarlne
o
ltgbt
33. Ryttres,
Rythes, John
John B.
H. Ptrotosynthecle
Photosynthesis in
ocean as a junction
of light
ln the
the ocesn
33.
Junctloa of
61-7O" 1956.
intensity0 LLrototogy
Limnology and
and Oceanography0
Oceaaography" 1:nl
l,:nl 61-70.
1956"
lntenol.ty"
34.
construction of
of $feot
West VtrgtnLefs
Virginia's $?10001000
$2,000,000 waste
waste trcctrilott
treaeent
Start conetruceLon
34. Start
plant" Paper
28 10-11.
plant.
Paper Trade
Trade Journal.138:No.
L0-L1. 1954.
t954.
Journelo138lNo, 28
o
o
o
L.4
o
o
o
o
Sa
350
Henry. Gowputetlon
Computation of
of poll.utlon
pollution ln
in aa vertlcally
vertically nlxcd
mixed
$torelo
Benty"
35" Stomeiel,
I{8gtas. 25:1065-11.
25r1065-71. 1953.
estuary. Sewage
Sevage and
1953.
and Industrial
Industrla!. Wastes.
astuatry.
36.
Robert V.
V. S_91"
et. al. AA thr€€-eycl.e
three-cycle aaalyal.e
analysis of
of watar
water quallty
quality
36" Thoiaann,
Ttrooannn Robert
Proeeedlngs of
of International
variables
tldal estuaries0
Intcrnationsl
ln tidal
varleblea in
eetuarles" Proceedings
for the
Aduancenent of
Oceanographic Congress"
Congress. Anerlcsn
American Acsno
Men, for
of
the Advancement
Oceaaographle
Auguot.30'
1959"
Science,
30 -- September
Scl.enceoAugust
$eptember11,
11, 1959.
thc
37.
RobertV.V.llre
Theuea
useof,
ofe6tusr?
estuary analyela
analysis to
to deecrtbe
describe the
Thonannn Robert
37, Thotnarin,
time ver{atlou
variation of
of dlsgolved
dissolved orrygen
oxygen ln
in a tidal
stream. Doctore
Doctors
ttdel strea.
tl"m
dissertation.
Ner York,
Tork, 1020
Nen York
llnlverelty, New
1962.
102, 1962.
dleaertetl.on. New
York University,
pollutlon in
predtcttoa of
pulp n111
1n
38.
3, P.
Oceanography and
and prediction
of pulp
mill pollution
firllyr Jo
Po Oceanography
38" Tully,
Board,
Caneda"
Reeesrch
Alberni
inlet.
Bulletin
of
Fisheries
Research
Board,
Canada.
Stgherlen
Alberal Lnleto Bulletl.n of
No. 83:169.
No"
83:169. 1949.
1949"
tldaL ltetcrs.
Saage and
ead
Dlepoaal of
390
R.
of sewage
waters. Sewage
Ro H.
Eo Disposal
aettage into
lnto tidal
39" Tyler,
$ler,
lTaatca. 22:685-96.
Industrial
22t685-96, 1950.
1950"
Indusrrlal Wastes.
APPENDIX
APPEI{DTX
n
.
o
Read Obiect ( 1 )
(1)
(uBoD)
Fl.cw Chart
Chert (UBOD)
Coloputer Flow
Computer
Frogrorn
(3)
(3)
(2)
((4)
4)
Init ia
ions
Co''rd''t
o
C.o.lditronS
too (n.2.4C,)
$or
tral C"ndr
o
C.rr, p"te.
C or'.,stants
?31*'*"
o
.
U B o D .1, J + l <0
o
o
ueoD,,i
flr
UBoo^i
r?,
uBoDnrJvl
o
(11)
o
j
Pr,.,t J
(12)
(13)
o
o
/UBoDn.J+
Chanqi"'q
(14)
f)= 2--> LO
QE 6cFt€D
Esu,u
Yes
>a0
,
I
o
.
-27-
q4p!€lelfeq- of Computer
Coopuqer Flow C4arL-(ttBPq)
Explanation_of
Chart (UB0
ttMethod
Undefined unlte
unite are
are given
given Ln
in seetlon
section "Method and Deflnltfoa
Definition of
of Termsft.
Terms"
UndefluEd
S.CEP1
j
procedure to
to
aad procedure
program describing
fott and
deccrlbl.ng form
Read
Read in
the object
obJect program
Ln the
be followed0
followed"
be
2. .
Step 2
-S.teo
fl'otr'
rlver flow,
for river
ln data
data for
through 21,
21, read
read in
For N
N equal
equal. 1I through
turbulent
diffusivity, deeay
decay race
rate co$gtsnt,
constant, po!.!.utloir
pollution add!.t!,on,
addition, and
and
tr.erbu!.ent dlf€uslvltye
streao
ctoaa-B€ctlonai area0
cross-sectional
geep 3
resch conditions
coad{.tLons
ln initial
tnltfal
For N
reach
through 20, read in
N equal 22 through
ppm)arid
Leugth"
(poll.utton
and reech
tn ppm)
(pollution concentrations
reach length0
concentratlons in
p4C+.
.SCeg
(a11 3)
condlElons
ln end
end conditions
read in
21n (all
J) read
ehrough 21,
For N
equeL 22 through
N equal
ppnlo
(pollutf.on coneentratLons
ln ppm)0
concentrations in
(pollution
gtep 5
ln
20, eonetante
equal 2
constants whleh
which wtll
will bri
be uaed
used in
N equaL
Z through 20,
For N
+ 1t UBOD(N,
UBOD(N,JS ++ 1)] are
computing polLution
pollution eoncenttrBtlon
concentration for
for day
dayT +
eourpurtng
F
F
,
- ^-
ptn), Y(N),
X(N{"
Y(N)n X(N)J.
compured
computed f(N),
Aleo initial
Lnltlal
Also
f-
f.l
---1
= 1,
N] and
and end
end
t, al].
all tl.!
valueaun
pff
10 2n_!
2]J eondlttone
conditions are
are aet
set equal.
equal eo
to their
their "tread
"read !.u
in values."
N o 1o
.1, N
tall 3,
Step_9
6
to l1'"
3
equal to
ls set
set equa!.
J is
-g-tep-!
20 are
are computed.
cmrputed.
N es2 through
through 20
for N
UBOD(N,
J + 1)
1) for
ITBOD(N'3
$rep.8
lts value
then zero'
If
UBOD(N, J3 *+ 1)
is equal or
or greater
greater than
zero, its
value
1) ts
If ITBOD(N,
10"
in f,urther
further computations
the prograa
program proeeeda
proceeds to
to Step
Step 100
and the
co@putstLonaarid
is used
is
used ln
proceede to
SEep9.
9"
to Step
zero, it
it proceeds
If less
Lese than zero,
If
2j9
$tep
to
equal to
eec equal
'e set
uetror it
t't is
than zero,
If uBOD(N,
UBOD(N, JS *+ a)
ts less
tege than
1) is
If
further comPutatlonso
computations0
for ftrrther
zero for
gtep 10
.! tg set equal to (J + 1).
step !1
Machf.uepuncheo J and ttBoD(N, J + 1) for N * 2, 61 10' 14' 18
(ao the operator wt13, be able to read theee and see how valuee are
ehanglng) "
stgp 12
the
readl.ng the
(so the
operator, wtthout
the operator,
Typewriter
prints S
without reading
J (so
$pernrlter pr{nts
progreeaed"
prograonhas
haa progressed.
the program
far the
hcrc far
punched eerda,
cards, wf.1,1
will know
kag|tahow
punched
--
----I
i/
-.
{t
(
*as*
ia
S_!_ep
Step
13
13.
i,
i
ro
If
not spproachlng
approaching eguillbrlur&,
equilibrium, sense
If UBOD(N,
USOD(I{,3
J *+ 1)
1) is
{c noc
senre
switch
off and
program !r!.1,1
will cont{nue
continue computfng
computing aad
and puach{ng
punching
swltch 1L is
le left
Lef,r of,f
and the
the progren
If
USOD($'.S
approaching equilibrium,
1) is
{g approaching
equll.Lbrlum,
If UBOD(N,
J +* 1)
successive
values of
of llMlD"
UOD,
auc*eaelve val-uee
ttBOD(NrJ3 + 1)
for all
or if
needs to
know UBOD(N,
values for
all N,
opesator needo
Eo knsv
1) value*
or
tf the operator
>
ia
gwltch 1I is
sense
aenae switch
Le turned
lurned on0
on"
j4
$te-p-lt
Values of
of USOD(N,
UBOD(N, J
S *+ 1)
N equal
equal 2 through 20 are
are
Valuee
1) for
for N
punehed
tso decielona
declsl.onao
punched and
computer pauses
pauses for
operator to
make two
to make
for the operator
and the campucer
0
o
Sggg.ll
First decision:
Firat
deal.nlon:
progsasareached
Has the program
t{aa
recched equilibrium?
equfltbrLr.u?
If
yes, the
the progran
program *.e
is euded
ended (L8)
(18) by
by Leaving
leaving sens€
senseswlBch
switch1on,*
1 on*
If yea,
(16)
If
no (l6)Q
if no
"
.
:'
Stepj6
Stgo ,19
Second decision:
decLston:
Second
progrm is
If
la
If 3
J has not
atrt reached
reached 100,
100, the
the program
t'SEarttt button
buttos"
continued by preea!.ng
pressing the
contlnued
ihe "Start"
SteA.lJ
jJ
If
equals 100,
punched eards
cards for
UBOD(N 100) as initial
for UEOD{N
lnltf.al
If J3 *quals
1000 punched
end condition
cond{t,l,on cards,
conditions are
eondltions
read in
!.n with
wf.th the
tha data
data and
and end
eardg.
&re read
ia
The
the
procedure then
$tep 7.
treg{ue again
w{.th Step
?.
then begins
agatn starting
etartlng with
* Nornallys
*
Normally, the progrqn
program rpltl
will reach near-equLlfbr$.r:an
near-equilibrium eondi.ttons
conditions by
o
o
O
o
o
program is
dny 100
day
that time
ttee the
the program
l.g ended.
ended.
100 and
and at
ag that
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TABLE C
UBOD Computer Output
(abbreviated form)
14
H {n .f, {t ln rn rn rn.n
'€)
(h
.ri
\C
g\
g\
s
tn
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(v'l
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2042324
1.46647
2,6725 5,8481 11.0261 18.9875 8.9809 3.6342 1.3409
6,85717
4.52849
3.9232 7,2923 12.8494 20.7571 10.6494 4.9445 2.3315
7.45361
5.13809
4,1149 75240 13 1309 21 0588 10,9536 5 2311 2 58/7
7.55408
5,27622
4.1492 7.5678 13.1856 21.1208 11.0196 5.2982 2.6517
7.57427
5.30911
4 156b 7 5/76 13 1981 21 1355 11 035b 5 3151 2 668].
7,57876
5.31708
4 1580 7 5795 13 2005 21 1383 11 0388 5 3185 2 6715
7,57982
5.31902
7.57999
5.31933
4.1584 7.5800 13.2012 21.1391 11 0397 5.3194 2,6724
4,1584 7.5801 13.2012 21.1392 11,0398 503195 2.6725
7.58014
5.31961
4.1584 75801 13.2013 21.1392 11.0399 5,3196 2.6726
.56141
7,58015
5.31964
.5614 1.1268 2.1183 4.1584 7.5801 13.2013 21,1393 11.0399 5,3196 2.6726
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2G056
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1 3320
1.3321.6221 .2607 .0718 .004$
.26075
1.3322,6221 .2607 .0718 .0045
.26076
1.3322,6221 .2607 .0718 .0045
1.0617,4460 .1682 0425
21092
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1,3145.6098 .2541 .0696 .00i$
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