ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY EHS PROGRAM MANUAL

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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND
SAFETY
EHS PROGRAM MANUAL
Program Title
Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
1.0 INTRODUCTION
As part of the Weill Cornell Medical College’s (WCMC) Environmental Health and Safety
(EHS) Program Manual, this Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan (Plan) establishes and
maintains a safe and healthy work environment for all laboratory employees. This Plan and
required training provide procedures to comply with the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) “Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories”
Standard (Appendix C).
This Plan covers all areas of WCMC in which laboratory work involving the use of hazardous
materials is performed. While the Plan primarily addresses chemical hazards, other materials and
processes, such as radiological and biological hazards, are referred to and must be controlled
according to specific standards outlined in their respective manuals. This Plan is available on the
EHS website at: http://www.med.cornell.edu/ehs/forms_and_resources.
2.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Heading
Page
1.0
Introduction
1
2.0
Table of Contents
1
3.0
Objective
5
4.0
Applicability
5
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
6.0
Responsibilities
Chemical Hygiene Officer
Environmental Health and Safety (EHS)
Principal Investigators and Other Laboratory Supervisors
Laboratory Personnel
6
6
6
6
6
Research Safety Checklist
6
7.0
7.1
7.2
Chemical Toxicology and Routes of Exposure
Acute Exposure
Chronic Exposure
7
7
7
8.0
8.1
8.2
Exposure and Medical Monitoring
Exposure Monitoring
Medical Monitoring
7
7
8
9.0
Exposure Prevention and Control
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Program Title
Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
9.1
9.2
9.3
Program No.
4.1
Source Controls
Pathway Controls
Receiver Controls
Classification
Chemical Safety
9
9
9
10.0
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14
10.15
10.16
Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
Section 1 – Identification
Section 2 – Hazard Identification
Section 3 – Composition/Information on Ingredients
Section 4 – First-Aid Measures
Section 5 – Fire Fighting Measures
Section 6 – Accidental Releases Measures
Section 7 – Handling and Storage
Section 8 – Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
Section 9 – Physical and Chemical Properties
Section 10 – Stability and Reactivity
Section 11 – Toxicological Information
Section 12- Ecological Information
Section 13 – Disposal Considerations
Section 14 – Transport Information
Section 15 – Regulatory Information
Section 16 – Other Information
9
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
11.0
11.1
11.2
11.3
Additional Sources of Chemical Hazard Information
Various Texts
Manufacturers/Suppliers
NIOSH and Other Governmental Sources
13
13
14
14
12.0
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9
12.10
12.11
12.12
12.13
12.14
12.15
General Laboratory Safety Requirements
Chemical Exposure, Spills and Fires
Avoidance of “Routine” Exposure
Food and Drink
Use of Chemical Hoods
Laboratory Dress Code
Personal Housekeeping
Exiting Laboratory
Equipment and Glassware
Horseplay
Mouth Suction and Pipetting
Hazard Planning
Unattended Operation
Vigilance
Working Alone
Transporting of Materials
14
14
15
15
15
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
18
18
18
13.0
High Hazard Operating Procedures
13.1
Highly Hazardous Substances Requiring HHOP
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Program Title
Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
13.2
13.3
14.0
Program No.
4.1
Elements Of The HHOP
High Hazard Operating Procedure Form
Receiving Chemicals
Classification
Chemical Safety
22
25
25
15.0
15.1
15.2
15.3
Chemical Inventory
Obtaining Access to Chemtracker
Completing the Chemical Inventory Form
Updating the Chemical Inventory
25
26
26
26
16.0
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
Chemical Labeling Requirements
Manufacturer Labeling Requirements
Laboratory Labeling Requirements
Date Labeling Requirements for Reactive Chemicals
Dispose Unlabeled/Unknown Chemicals
27
27
27
27
27
17.0
17.1
17.2
17.3
17.4
Chemical Storage Limits and Requirements
FDNY Permitted Laboratories and Chemical Storage Rooms
Chemical Storage Limits
General Storage Requirements
Segregation of Incompatible Chemicals
27
28
28
28
30
18.0
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
18.7
Security of Hazardous Materials in Labs
Laboratory Security Versus Safety
Developing a Security Policy
Control Access
Know Who Is in the Laboratory Area
Secure Highly Hazardous Materials
Emergency Plan
Agents of Concern
31
31
31
32
32
32
33
33
19.0
19.1
19.2
19.3
Safety Precautions
Allergen Safety
Bunsen Burner Safety
Hydrogen Fluoride (Hydrofluoric Acid) Safety
33
33
33
34
20.0
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
Peroxide-Forming Chemicals
Purchasing Considerations
Labeling Requirements
Storage and Use Requirements
Disposal Requirements
Peroxide-Forming Chemical Lists
Class B – Concentration Hazard
35
35
35
35
36
36
36
21.0
21.1
21.2
21.3
Engineering Controls
General Ventilation and Exhaust
Chemical Hoods (Ducted)
Chemical Hoods (Ductless)
39
39
39
41
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Hygiene Plan
21.4
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
Splash Shield
42
22.0
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Laboratory Coats and Other Protective Clothing
Laundry Services
Gloves
Eye and Face Protection
Respirators
42
43
43
43
45
46
23.0
23.1
23.2
23.3
Emergency Equipment
Emergency Safety Showers
Eyewash Stations
Fire Extinguishers
47
47
47
47
24.0
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
Laboratory Signage
Health and Safety Door Sign
Signage Required in New York City
Special Hazard Signage
Emergency Equipment and Exit Identification
48
48
49
49
49
25.0
Laboratory Outreach/Inspections
49
26.0
Waste Management
50
27.0
27.1
27.2
27.3
27.4
27.5
27.6
27.7
27.8
27.9
27.10
27.11
27.12
Laboratory Close-Out Procedures
Radioactive Materials (RAM)
Biological Waste Materials
Biological Safety Cabinets (BSC)
Internal Relocation of Chemicals
External Relocation of Chemicals
Chemical Waste Disposal
Disposal of Compressed Gas Cylinders
Relocating Compressed Gas Cylinders
Liquid Nitrogen-Lined Freezers
Laboratory Equipment Relocation or Disposal
Electronics Recycling
General Laboratory Cleanup
50
50
50
51
51
51
51
52
52
52
52
52
53
28.0
Training
53
29.0
Record Retention and Availability
54
30.0
Definitions
54
31.0
References
57
Appendix A – High Hazard Operating Procedure Form
58
Appendix B – Equipment Decontamination Form
60
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Program No.
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Chemical Safety
Appendix C – OSHA Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories
Standard (OSHA CFR Title 29, Part 1910.1450)
61
Appendix D – OSHA Standards – Toxic and hazardous substances –Limits for Air
Contaminants (CFR Title 29, Part 1910.1000)
79
3.0 OBJECTIVE
The primary objective of the WCMC Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan is to minimize and
reduce exposure to hazardous chemicals that laboratory and clinical personnel come into contact
with while performing their daily job functions. To achieve this, this Plan identifies those
locations that are covered under this Plan and lists standard operating procedures for all labs and
the hazards they work with. Particular attention is given for procedures in those labs working
with chemical hazards that require higher levels of protection.
4.0 APPLICABILITY
WCMC is a medical and graduate school participating heavily in biological, biomedical and
biochemical research. This Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan covers all aspects of laboratory
work conducted by WCMC students, faculty and staff involving the use of chemicals, including
but not limited to the following locations:

Research Laboratories
 1300 York Avenue including but not limited to A, B, C, D, LC, E, F, Whitney
Buildings
 S Building (515 East 71st Street)
 SI Building (516 East 72nd Street)
 RR Building (407 East 61st Street)
 New York Blood Center (310 East 67th Street)
 Belfer Research Building (413 East 69th St.) opening late 2013/ early 2014

Clinical Laboratories
 Weill Greenberg Center (1305 York Avenue)
 Helmsley Medical Tower
 Main Hospital (J, K, L, M, N, P, Starr Buildings)
 Oxford Building (422 East 72nd Street)
 DV Building (425 East 61st Street)
 MR Building (416 East 55th Street)
 Other off-site clinical locations

Sites outside of New York City (excluded from NYC-FDNY requirements)
 Burke Medical Research Institute (White Plains)
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Hygiene Plan
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Chemical Safety
WCMC Westchester Facility (White Plains)
5.0 RESPONSIBILITIES
The WCMC Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan establishes the following responsibilities:
5.1
CHEMICAL HYGIENE OFFICER
The EHS Director is the Chemical Hygiene Officer for WCMC. The Chemical Hygiene
Officer ensures that department chairs, principal investigators, directors and managers are
complying with the Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan.
5.2
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY (EHS)
 Develops, maintains, and disseminates the Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan
 Serves as a resource for the collection of Safety Data Sheets (SDSs)
 Trains laboratory personnel on the principles of this Plan
 Responds to emergencies in the event of a spill release
 Maintains records of training, spills, emergencies, exposures
 Collects wastes and maintains waste records
 Inspects of labs for compliance with Plan
5.3
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS AND OTHER LABORATORY
SUPERVISORS
 Ensure that all personnel are complying with the WCMC Laboratory
Chemical Hygiene Plan
 Complete the RASP Research Safety Checklist every 2 years
 Complete an annual inventory of all chemicals in storage rooms and
laboratories within their area
 Ensure that Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) are readily accessible to all lab
personnel and emergency responders
 Provide Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to lab personnel as needed
 Ensure all lab personnel who come into contact with hazardous materials
attend Laboratory Safety Training annually
5.4
LABORATORY PERSONNEL
 Follow all procedures outlined in this Plan
 Adhere to recommendations made by the Chemical Hygiene Officer for the
lab
 Receive training annually and follow any updates to this program
6.0 RESEARCH SAFETY CHECKLIST
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Program Title
Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
All Principal Investigators are required to complete and submit the Research and Sponsored
Programs (RASP) Research Safety Checklist to EHS. This checklist alerts EHS to current and
future research activities which may present a hazard in the lab. A listing of the latest Research
Safety Checklist submission is available on the EHS website or by contacting EHS. The RASP
Research Safety Checklist is available online in the Forms/Policies section of the RASP website:
http://www.weill.cornell.edu/research
All Principal Investigators are required to complete and submit the Research and Sponsored
Programs (RASP) Research Safety Checklist to EHS. This checklist alerts EHS to current and
future research activities which may present a hazard in the lab. A listing of the latest Research
Safety Checklist submission is available on the EHS website or by contacting EHS. The RASP
Research Safety Checklist is available online in the Forms/Policies section of the RASP website:
http://www.weill.cornell.edu/research.
7.0 CHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY AND ROUTES OF EXPOSURE
Chemicals enter the body through five routes of entry. Chemicals may affect the route-of-entry
organ or they may travel and target specific organs where they will do damage:
 Respiration – primary target lungs (asbestos, osmium tetroxide, phosgene), other target
organs (carbon monoxide – blood, methylmercury – brain)
 Ingestion – primary target: gastrointestinal tract (acids); other target organs (lead –
bones)
 Dermal Absorption – primary target: skin, including mucous membranes (phenol,
solvents); other target organs (solvents, phenol – Central Nervous System)
 Ocular – primary target: eyes, (acids, bases, lachrymators); targets other organs
(solvents)
 Subcutaneous – injected into the blood, transferred to target organ
7.1
ACUTE EXPOSURE
Short term, large exposure which results in an acute effect, including:
 allergic reaction
 coughing
 shortness of breath
 skin rash
 burning eyes
7.2
CHRONIC EXPOSURE
Long term, low exposure which may result in a chronic effect, including:
 asbestosis (asbestos)
 central nervous system disorders (organic mercury, metallic mercury)
 various cancers, lung, kidney, bladder, liver
8.0 EXPOSURE AND MEDICAL MONITORING
8.1
EXPOSURE MONITORING
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Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
EHS is available to monitor and evaluate exposure to chemicals in the workplace. This may
be done to evaluate the success of a hazard control program, or to evaluate levels of
exposures prior to designing a program. EHS will also monitor on request if laboratory
personnel think they are being exposed to a particular chemical with which they are
working.
8.1.1
Exposure Monitoring Methods
Monitoring can be accomplished through the use of direct reading instruments such as a
portable photoionization detector which gives an instant but sometimes nonspecific
reading.
The OSHA-approved method for monitoring involves placing a badge on an individual
or by drawing air through tubes or filters filled with designated media for a particular
chemical over the course of a specified time period by using a personal sampling pump.
After sampling is completed, collected media are sent for processing and analysis by an
independent environmental laboratory.
8.1.2 Exposure Evaluation
The findings will be interpreted according to current accepted industrial hygiene
practices. Levels will be compared with the OSHA Permissible Exposure Levels Table
to determine if the individual is being exposed at the Action Level or the Permissible
Exposure Level (PEL).
In the event that exposure levels require additional exposure prevention and control,
EHS will determine the appropriate modifications to the work activity in accordance
with Section 9.0 – Exposure Prevention and Control.
8.2
MEDICAL MONITORING
Medical monitoring is conducted on all WCMC faculty, staff, and students conducting
work in a laboratory where hazardous materials are present through NewYorkPresbyterian Hospital Workforce Health and Safety (WHS). A baseline examination shall
be conducted for all faculty, staff, and students prior to beginning work in a laboratory.
Annual health assessments will be conducted annually thereafter.
8.2.1
Scenarios Requiring Medical Monitoring
The following scenarios may require medical monitoring by WHS:
 Symptoms Develop – Lab personnel develop signs or symptoms
associated with a hazardous chemical exposure.
 Exposure Monitoring – Exposure monitoring reveals an exposure level
routinely above the action level (or in the absence of an action level, the
PEL) for an OSHA-regulated substance for which there are exposure
monitoring and medical surveillance requirements. Medical surveillance
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Classification
Chemical Safety
shall be established for the affected employee as prescribed by the
particular standard.
 Hazardous Event – An event occurs in the work area such as a spill, leak,
explosion or other occurrence resulting in the likelihood of a hazardous
exposure. The affected individual shall be provided an opportunity for a
medical consultation and/or examination at WHS.
8.2.2
Accident Reports
Accident reports are kept on record in Human Resources with a copy of the report
sent to the EHS office. EHS will evaluate and investigate the exposure and make
recommendations to avoid a re-occurrence.
9.0 EXPOSURE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
The purpose of this Plan is to minimize or eliminate occupational exposure to hazardous
chemicals. Exposure prevention and control methods are generalized into the three following
categories. When examining exposure control methods, source controls should first be utilized,
then pathway controls, and finally receiver controls.
9.1
SOURCE CONTROLS
Source controls are administrative measures which reduce and/or prevent exposures
to a hazardous chemical. Substitution, minimization, and/or alteration of the
chemical(s) or procedure are examples of a source control. With chemical
substitution, exposure to a high hazard chemical is controlled by utilizing a lesser
hazardous chemical.
9.2
PATHWAY CONTROLS
Pathway controls are environmental or engineering controls (e.g., chemical hoods)
which minimize an exposure to a chemical hazard in the work area of the employee in
accordance with Section 21 – Engineering Controls.
9.3
RECEIVER CONTROLS
Receiver controls are personal protective equipment (e.g., respirators, gloves, etc.)
utilized to minimize an exposure to a chemical hazard for each individual employee.
Personal protective equipment is further discussed in Section 22.0.
10.0
SAFETY DATA SHEETS (SDS)
The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard was updated in May 2012. The revision of the
standard included a change in the format for Materials Safety Data Sheets. The new information
sheet is called Safety Data Sheet(SDS). By June 1, 2015, Chemical manufactures will need to
provide users with the updated SDS format. Until that date, departments may continue to receive
either MSDSs or SDSs with each chemical shipment. All departments should receive an SDS
from the chemical manufacturer at the time of purchase. If the SDS is not provided with the
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Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
chemical shipment, the chemical owner must obtain the SDS within a reasonable amount of time.
Chemical owners may obtain a copy of the SDS by downloading the information from the
manufacturer’s website or from the EHS website, Safety Data Sheets, or by contacting EHS and
requesting one.
Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) provide basic information about the safety and health hazards posed
by a chemical and precautions to take when using it. The OSHA Laboratory Standard and the
Hazard Communication Standard require that:
 SDSs are maintained for every hazardous chemical used and stored in each laboratory
area.
 SDSs are readily accessible to all personnel working in the laboratory and visible to
emergency response personnel.
 All laboratory personnel are responsible for knowing where the SDSs are kept.
 As new chemicals are ordered, the SDSs must be obtained from the manufacturer.
SDSs have a United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of
Chemicals (GHS) standardized format consisting of the following sections:
10.1 SECTION 1 – IDENTIFICATION
This section provides the following information:
 Product identifier used on the label
 Other means of identification
 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use
 Name, address, and information telephone number of the chemical
manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party
 Emergency phone number
The information telephone number is provided to allow the user to obtain
information about the substance. The emergency telephone number is intended for
use by emergency response and medical personnel.
10.2 SECTION 2 – HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
This section provides the following information:
 Classification of the chemical in accordance with paragraph (d) of §1910.1200
 Signal word, hazard statement(s), symbol(s) and precautionary statement(s) in
accordance with paragraph (f) of §1910.1200
 Describe any hazards not otherwise classified that have been identified during
the classification process.
10.3 SECTION 3 – COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
This section provides the following information for substances:
 Chemical name
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Chemical Safety
Common name and synonyms.
CAS number and other unique identifiers
Impurities and stabilizing additives which are themselves classified and which
contribute to the classification of the substance
This section provides the following information for mixtures:
 The information listed for substances
 The chemical name and concentration (exact percentage unless trade secret) or
concentration ranges of all ingredients
10.4 SECTION 4 – FIRST-AID MEASURES
This section contains the following:
 Description of necessary measures, subdivided according to the first aid
instructions for different routes of exposure, i.e., inhalation, skin and eye
contact, and ingestion
 Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed
 Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if
necessary
10.5 SECTION 5 – FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
This section provides the following information:
 Suitable (and unsuitable) extinguishing media
 Specific hazards arising from the chemical (e.g., nature of any hazardous
combustion products)
 Precautions to be observed when fighting the fire
 Appropriate protective equipment for fire-fighters
10.6 SECTION 6 – ACCIDENTAL RELEASES MEASURES
This section provides the following information:
 Personal precautions, protective equipment, and emergency procedures
 Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up
10.7 SECTION 7 – HANDLING AND STORAGE
This section provides the following information:
 Precautions for safe handling
 Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
10.8 SECTION 8 – EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION
This section provides the following information:
 OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL)
 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) and any other exposure limit used or
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recommended by the chemical manufacturer, importer, or employer preparing
the safety data sheet, where available
Appropriate engineering controls
Individual protection measures such as personal protective equipment
Recommended work and personal hygiene practices
10.9 SECTION 9 – Physical and Chemical Properties
This section provides the following information:
 Appearance (physical state, color, etc.)
 Odor
 Odor threshold
 pH
 Melting point/freezing point
 Initial boiling point and boiling range
 Flash point
 Evaporation rate
 Flammability (solid, gas)
 Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits
 Vapor pressure
 Vapor density
 Solubility(ies)
 Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water
 Auto-ignition temperature
 Decomposition temperature
 Viscosity
10.10 SECTION 10 – STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
This section provides the following:
 Reactivity
 Chemical stability (under normal conditions)
 Possibility of hazardous reactions
 Conditions to avoid (e.g., static discharge, shock, or vibration)
 Incompatible materials
 Hazardous decomposition products
10.11 SECTION 11 – TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
This section provides the following description of the various toxicological (health)
effects and the available data used to identify those effects, including:
 Information on the likely routes of exposure
 Symptoms related to the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics
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Chemical Safety
Delayed and immediate effects and also chronic effects from short- and longterm exposure
Numerical measures of toxicity (such as acute toxicity estimates)
Carcinogenicy data; Whether the hazardous chemical is listed in the National
Toxicology Program (NTP) Report on Carcinogens (latest edition) or has been
found to be a potential carcinogen in the International Agency for Research on
Cancer (IARC) Monographs (latest edition) or by OSHA
10.12 SECTION 12- ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
This section provides the following information:
 Ecotoxicity (aquatic and terrestrial, where available)
 Persistence and degradability
 Bioaccumulative potential
 Mobility in soil
 Other adverse effects (e.g., hazardous to the ozone layer)
10.13 SECTION 13 – DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
Description of waste residues and information on their safe handling and methods
of disposal, including the disposal of any contaminated packaging
10.14 SECTION 14 – TRANSPORT INFORMATION
This section provides the following information:
 UN number
 UN proper shipping name
 Transport hazard class(es)
 Packing group, if applicable
 Special precautions a user needs to be aware of, or needs to comply with, in
connection with transport or conveyance either within or outside their
premises
10.15 SECTION 15 – REGULATORY INFORMATION
Safety, health, and environmental regulations specific for the product in question .
10.16 SECTION 16 – OTHER INFORMATION
The date when the SDS was prepared or the last change was made to it.
11.0
ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF CHEMICAL HAZARD INFORMATION
EHS maintains a collection of some of the publications listed below which can be provided upon
request. Additionally, the Educational Services Librarians of the WCMC Library can provide
assistance in selecting a number of databases and websites that can provide additional information
on chemical hazards.
11.1 VARIOUS TEXTS
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Program No.
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Chemical Safety
There are several toxicology texts available in the WCMC Library which are helpful in the
evaluation of health hazards of chemicals, including the following:

Annual Report on Carcinogens: published by The National Toxicology
Program (NTP), U.S. Public Health Service.

IARC Working Group Monographs: A series of monographs published by
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) covering specific
agents, groups of agents or selected industries in which cancer has been
caused or a suspected relationship exists with the chemicals under study.

The Merck Index: A Compendium of Chemical Information.

Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data: CD-ROM Software.

The Chemical Abstracts: a serial collection maintained in the WCMC Library,
providing detailed bibliographies and abstracts on original research papers on
hazards, toxicity and related topics. These citations are based on the Chemical
Abstracts Services registry number (CAS number).
11.2 MANUFACTURERS/SUPPLIERS
In addition to providing the SDS, many manufacturers/suppliers have telephone numbers
that access customer service or technical representatives of the company, who may be able
to provide additional information about the product. Additionally, many
manufacturers/suppliers have websites that will allow you to access information regarding
their chemicals.
11.3 NIOSH AND OTHER GOVERNMENTAL SOURCES
The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC), and OSHA all have published information related to
chemical hazards/exposures which are available on their websites, or can be requested there.
12.0
GENERAL LABORATORY SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
Laboratory personnel must comply with the following laboratory safety requirements:
12.1 CHEMICAL EXPOSURE, SPILLS AND FIRES
Report all chemical exposures, spills, and fires to the laboratory supervisor and/or
Principal Investigator.
12.1.1 Eye Exposure
Remove contact lens(es), if applicable, and promptly flush eye(s) using an
eyewash for at least 15 minutes and seek immediate medical attention.
12.1.2 Skin Exposure
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Promptly flush the affected area with water using a safety shower for at least 15
minutes. Remove any contaminated clothing to ensure the chemicals are washed
away from the body. Seek immediate medical attention.
12.1.3 Person on Fire
If a person is on fire, walk the individual calmly to the nearest emergency shower,
as running may cause the fire to grow or spread more rapidly. Instruct the
individual to cover their face and use the shower to extinguish the fire. If a person
cannot be led to the emergency shower safely, douse the person with water or
instruct the individual to stop, drop and roll, and then extinguish any small, stillburning flames by patting them out using an available laboratory coat. Activate
the nearest fire alarm pull station and call NYP EMS (212-472-2222 for medical
assistance. Remove any contaminated clothing and place clean, wet clothes on the
burn areas. Wrap the individuals to avoid shock and exposure. The BuildingSpecific Fire Safety Procedures are provided in the Fire Safety Manual available
on the EHS website.
12.1.4 Fire
Immediately implement the R.A.C.E. fire procedures identified in the BuildingSpecific Fire Safety Procedures. The Building-Specific Fire Safety Procedures are
provided in the Fire Safety Manual available on the EHS website: Fire Safety
Manual
12.1.5 Spill Clean-Up
Follow the guidelines in the EHS Program Manual 4.3 - Chemical Spill Planning
and Response available on the EHS website.
12.2 AVOIDANCE OF “ROUTINE” EXPOSURE
Develop and encourage safe habits. Avoid unnecessary exposure to chemicals by any route.
Do not smell or taste chemicals. Do not apply contacts, cosmetics and lotions in
laboratories. Vent apparatus that may discharge toxic chemicals (vacuum pumps,
distillation columns, etc.) into local exhaust devices, such as chemical hoods. Test glove
boxes and inspect gloves for proper function before use. Do not allow release of toxic
substances in cold rooms and warm rooms, since these have contained re-circulated
atmospheres, with no dilution of vapors or gases.
12.3 FOOD AND DRINK
No eating, drinking, or gum chewing is permitted in areas where laboratory chemicals are
present. Wash hands before conducting any of these activities. Avoid storage, handling or
consumption of food or beverages in storage areas and refrigerators, or when glassware
or utensils are used for laboratory operations.
12.4
USE OF CHEMICAL HOODS
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Use the chemical hood for all operations which might result in a release of toxic chemical
gases, vapors or dust. As a general rule, use a hood or other local ventilation device when
working with volatile substances with a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) or Threshold
Limit Value (TLV) of less than 50 ppm. Consult the SDS for PEL or TLV. Confirm
adequate hood performance before use.
 Do not use a hood with flow less than 80 linear feet per minute. Contact EHS
to verify chemical hood performance.
 Hood sash height should not exceed 18 inches.
 Keep hood sash at a 2-inch opening at all times except when adjustments
within the hood are being made.
 Keep materials stored in hoods to a minimum and do not allow them to block
vents or air flow.
 Refer to Section 21.0 – Engineering Controls for additional chemical hood
guidelines.
12.5 LABORATORY DRESS CODE
Clothing that leaves large areas of skin exposed is inappropriate to wear for work in
laboratories. Personal clothing should always cover the body to prevent exposure from
spilled materials in the laboratory. Wear shoes that cover the entire foot. Perforated
shoes, open-toe and open-heel shoes, sandals, high heels or clogs are not permitted.
Shoes should have stable soles to provide traction on slippery or wet surfaces in order to
reduce the chance of falling. Socks should cover the ankles so as to protect one’s skin
against chemical splashes.
In addition to the personal attire outlined above, always wear personal protective
equipment when working in the laboratory. At minimum, a laboratory coat (fully
buttoned) must be worn at all times. Additional or alternate personal protective
equipment may be required depending on the nature of the work conducted. Refer to
Section 22.0 – Personal Protective Equipment for additional information.
12.5.1 Operating Machinery and Physical Hazards
When operating machinery that could present a physical hazard, it is critical that
loose clothing or articles which could become caught in the equipment are not
worn. This includes but is not limited to loose clothing, neck-ties, lanyards, and
dangling jewelry. Additionally, long hair must be tied back and secured.
12.6 PERSONAL HOUSEKEEPING
Keep your work area clean and uncluttered, with chemicals and equipment properly
labeled and stored. Clean up the work area at the end of an operation or each day.
12.7 EXITING LABORATORY
Wash hands and areas of exposed skin and remove laboratory coats and gloves before
leaving the laboratory to minimize the potential spread of contamination.
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12.8 EQUIPMENT AND GLASSWARE
Handle and store laboratory glassware with care to avoid damage. Do not use damaged
glassware. Use extra care with Dewar Flasks and other evacuated glass apparatus. Shield
or wrap them to contain chemicals and fragments, should implosion occur. Use
equipment only for its designed purpose.
12.9 HORSEPLAY
Avoid practical jokes or other behavior which may confuse or distract another worker.
12.10 MOUTH SUCTION AND PIPETTING
Do not use mouth suction for pipetting or starting a siphon. Use a squeeze bulb, house
vacuum or Bernoulli device for these functions.
12.11 HAZARD PLANNING
Seek information and advice about hazards, plan appropriate protective procedures, and
positioning of equipment before beginning any new operation. Obtain and review SDSs
and collect them in a central location within your laboratory. Develop a procedure
covering use, storage and disposal of chemicals associated with the procedure.
12.12 UNATTENDED OPERATION
An unattended procedure is a process or piece of equipment which is left operating when
no one is in the lab. If at all possible, avoid this practice.
Below are the basic steps that must be taken when running any attended operation:
 Design these experiments so as to prevent the release of hazardous substances
in the event of interruptions in utility services such as electricity, cooling
water, and inert gas.
 Provide for the containment of toxic substances in the event of failure of a
utility service to an unattended operation.
 Equipment such as power stirrers, hot plates, heating mantles, and water
condensers should not be run unattended without fail-safe provisions.
 If an apparatus is likely to be left unattended for long periods of time,
electrical overload-protection devices should be used.
 Leave lights on in the area of an unattended laboratory operation.
 Placard the door of the laboratory, briefly describing the nature of the
unattended operation, a list of the potential hazardous materials which might
be associated with an unplanned release and a telephone number of the
person(s) to be contacted in an emergency.
 Open flames must never be left unattended.
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12.13 VIGILANCE
Be alert to unsafe conditions and see that they are corrected when detected. Watch for
overcrowding or over storage of hazardous chemicals. Do not store incompatibles
together. Do not store corrosives and poisons above eye level.
12.14 WORKING ALONE
Avoid working alone on a project. Do not work alone in a laboratory if the procedures being
conducted are hazardous. Do not work late nights or weekends with toxic or hazardous
chemicals, unless the procedure is a standard practice and poses no exceptional risks to
personnel.
12.15 TRANSPORTING OF MATERIALS
Transporting of chemicals between floors and buildings require secondary containment such
as tubs, buckets, trays, etc. if they are contained in material that is subject to breakage or
spillage (i.e., caps on plastic eppendorf tubes can open up upon hitting the ground).
Stairways should not be used to transport lab materials. The preferred method of transport is
to use the designated elevator and a cart for the material. For small amounts of material that
can be hand carried, a closed container should be used.
13.0
HIGH HAZARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
The OSHA “Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories” standard requires
that all laboratories that store or use Highly Hazardous Substances (HHSs), defined below, must
develop and implement a High Hazard Operating Procedure (HHOP) for each substance.
Principal Investigators must:
 identify all Highly Hazardous Substances (HHS) present in their laboratories
 establish a High Hazard Operating Procedure for each HHS
 ensure all laboratory personnel handling HHSs review and become familiar with the
HHOP prior to use.
Laboratory personnel who work with HHSs must:
 be familiar with the HHOPs established for those substances, the types of hazards
associated with those substances
 competent in the safe handling and use procedures identified in the HHOP and/or
supporting documentation
 receive specific hands-on training from the Principal Investigator or other experienced,
senior laboratory staff on the safe use and handling of all HHSs.
13.1 HIGHLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES REQUIRING HHOP
Highly Hazardous Substances include the following types of materials:
13.1.1 Carcinogens
Carcinogens are any substance that is:
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 regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen
 listed under the category, "known to be carcinogens," in the Annual
Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program
(NTP)(latest edition)
 listed under Group 1 ("carcinogenic to humans") by the International
Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC)(latest editions)
 listed in either Group 2A or 2B by IARC or under the category,
"reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens" by NTP.
Examples of Carcinogenic Substances
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2- Acetylaminofluorene
Acrylamide
Acrylonitrile
Aflatoxins
4-Aminobihenyl
Arsenic and arsenic compound
Asbestos
Azathioprine
Barium Chromate
Benzene
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Benzidine
Bis (chloromethyl) ether
1,4-Butyanedimethylsulfonate
Chlorambucil
Chloromethyl methyl ether
Chromium and chromium
compounds
Cyclophosphamide
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
3,3’-Dichlorobenzidine
Diethylstilbesterol
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
Dimethyl sulfate
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Ethylene dibromide
Ethylene oxide
Ethylenimine
Formaldehyde
Hexamethylphosphoramide
Hydrazine
Melphalan
4,4’-Methylene-bis{2-chloroaniline}
Mustard gas(bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide)
N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2napththylamine
-Naphthylamine
-Naphthylamine
Nickel carbonyl
4-Nitrobiphenyl
N-Nitrosodimethylamine
-Propiolactone
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Thorium dioxide
Treosulfan
Vinyl chloride
Ethylene dibromide
Ethylene oxide
Ethylenimine
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13.1.2 Acutely Toxic Chemicals
Chemicals with a published toxicity level of: oral (rat) LD50 = <50 mg/kg, skin
(rabbit) LD50 = <200 mg or inhalation (rat) LC50 < 200 ppm.

Date Issued
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Acute Toxicity (Category 1 and 2) (GHS #H300, H310, H330)
Five GHS categories have been included in the GHS Acute Toxicity
scheme from which the appropriate elements relevant to transport,
consumer, worker and environment protection can be selected.
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Substances are assigned to one of the five toxicity categories on the
basis of LD50 (oral, dermal) or LC50 (inhalation).
LD/50
Oral
(mg/kg)
Toxicity
Category
1
≤5
Category E
2
x > 5 - ≤ 50
LD/50
Dermal
(mg/kg)
LC/50
Gases
(ppm)
LC/50
Vapors
(mg/l)
LC/50 Dusts &
Mists (mg/l)
≤ 50
≤ 100
> 100 - ≤
500
≤ 0.5
≤ 0.05
> 0.5 - ≤ 2.0
> 0.05 - ≤ 0.5
> 50 - ≤ 200
Examples of Acute Toxicity Compounds
 Acrolein
 Arsine
 Chlorine
 Diazomethane
 Diborane (gas)
 Hydrogen Cyanide
 Hydrogen Fluoride
 Methyl Fluorosulfonate
 Nickel Carbonyl
 Nitrogen Dioxide
 Osmium Tetroxide
 Ozone
 Phosgene
 Sodium Azide
 Sodium Cyanide (and other cyanide salts)
13.1.3 Explosive and Reactive (Unstable) Chemicals
Any substance that falls into these categories:
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Explosives (GHS #H200,H201, H202, H203, H204, H205)
An explosive substance (or mixture) is a solid or liquid which is in
itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a
temperature and pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the
surroundings.
Flammable Gases (GHS #H220, H221)
Flammable gas means a gas having a flammable range in air at 20°C
and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa.
Self-Reactive Substances (Type A) (GHS #H251)
Self-reactive substances are thermally unstable liquids or solids liable
to undergo a strongly exothermic thermal decomposition even without
participation of oxygen (air).
Pyrophoric Liquids and Solids (GHS #H250)
A pyrophoric is a material which, even in small quantities, is liable to
ignite within five minutes after coming into contact with air.
Water Reactive Chemicals (which emit flammable gases on
contact with water) (Category 1) (GHS #H260)
Substances that, in contact with water, emit flammable gases are solids
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or liquids which, by interaction with water, are liable to become
spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous
quantities.
Examples of Explosive and Reactive (Unstable) Chemicals
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Alkali metals
Alkali metal nitrides
Calcium hydride
Hydrazine
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Alkali metal hydrides
Anhydrous metal halides (AlCl3, TiCl4)
Dinitropheylhydrazine
Inorganic acid halides ( POCl3, SOCl2,
SO2Cl2)
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 Lithium aluminium hydride
 Metal Azides
 Perchloric and Picric Acid
(Dry)
 Sodium hydride
 White Phosphorous
Classification
Chemical Safety
 Metal and non-metal hydrides (borane,
LiAlH4 )
 Non-metal Halides (BCl3, BF3, BPCl3,
SiCl4)
 Sodium Borohydride
 t-Butyllithium
 Zinc and zinc nitrate
13.1.4 Reproductive Toxins
Chemicals such as mutagens, teratogens or embryotoxins which affect the
reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage and/or effects on
fetuses.
Examples of Embryotoxins
 Arsenic and certain arsenic compounds
 Cadmium and certain arsenic
compounds
 Carbon disulfide
 Ethylene glycol monomethyl and ethyl
ethers
 Ethylene oxide
 Lead compounds
 Mercury compounds
 Toluene
 Vinyl Chloride
 Xylene
13.2 ELEMENTS OF THE HHOP
HHOPs can be stand-alone documents or supplemental information included as part of
research notebooks, experiment documentation, or research proposals. The HHOP
establishes and documents all work that involves the use of Highly Hazardous Substances and identifies and consolidates related documents and procedures. HHOPs ensure
a process is in place so that a hazard assessment is conducted and exposure control
strategies are identified and implemented. HHOPs must contain the following
information:
1. Name of Principal Investigator and location of laboratory.
2. High Hazard Substance Information: The name, physical state/concentration,
and all hazards of the High Hazardous Substances used in the laboratory must
be listed. Review the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) and/or container label for
information on the hazards.
3. Significant Route(s) of Exposure: Review and understand the hazards of a
High Hazardous Substances and processes in the laboratory research prior to
conducting work so that all potential hazardous route(s) of exposure are
addressed.
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4. Exposure Controls: Utilize appropriate measures to control the hazards,
including consistent and proper use of Engineering Controls and Personal
Protective Equipment.
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Chemical Hood: Should be used for chemicals that may produce vapors,
mists, or fumes, or if the procedure may cause generation of aerosols.
Glove Box/Atmos Bag: Should be used if protection from atmospheric
moisture or oxygen is needed or when a chemical hood may not provide
adequate protection from exposure to the substance.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be worn by personnel
working with High Hazardous Substances including their understanding of
the capabilities and limitations of the personal protective equipment. The
required PPE must be identified for each HHOP based on the hazards of
the material, work being performed, and the reasonably anticipated types
of exposure. Refer to Section 22 – Personal Protective Equipment for
additional information relating to PPE selection.
5. Use and Storage:
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March 25, 2013
Only laboratory personnel who are fully trained on handling and are aware
of the hazard(s) that are associated with the High Hazardous Substance are
allowed to use it.
Persons handling or conducting procedures with HHSs should never
work alone.
Provide a brief description of the part of the experiment that involves the
substance, with particular attention to how the chemical will be
manipulated. Refer to the lab protocol/notes if this information is already
covered in this document.
If a vacuum system is used, describe what will be done to ensure that
the substance is not accidentally drawn into the vacuum system (e.g.,
cold traps, filters). Vacuum systems include central vacuum systems
and vacuum pumps within the lab.
If High Hazardous Substances are administered to animals, a RARC
Protection and Control form must be completed. For additional
information, please refer to the RARC User’s Guide.
Designate a location where all transfers and work with these
substances will be conducted. The “Designated Area” is required for
work with "select carcinogens," reproductive toxins or substances
which have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be
the entire laboratory, a smaller section of a laboratory or a piece of
equipment such as a laboratory hood.
Review the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) to determine if specific precautions
are needed to store this substance.
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All containers used to store High Hazardous Substances are required to be
labeled with the identity of the content and its hazard warning sign.
All “Designated Areas” must be clearly marked with a hazard warning.
The Health and Safety Door Sign (HSDS) at the entrance of the lab should
have the hazard warning sign of the High Hazardous Substance. If the
HSDS does not have the warning sign, contact EHS at 646-962-7233 (17233) to add the warning sign.
6. Medical Attention and First-Aid:
Some High Hazardous Substances may require specific first-aid/emergency
procedures (e.g., administration of an antitoxin) be followed in the event of an
accident/exposure. The HHOP must include information on the appropriate
first-aid procedures, supplies and emergency contacts as well as any
requirements for follow-up medical consultations or examinations. If you are
unsure what emergency/first-aid procedures are required for the material
being used, contact EHS for assistance.
7. Decontamination:
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Good housekeeping is essential to the health and well-being of laboratory
personnel. All equipment and work surfaces used for handling High
Hazardous Substance should be decontaminated. The decontamination
method used must effectively remove/deactivate the High Hazardous
Substance.
When leaving a designated area, remove any PPE to avoid cross
contamination.
Ensure a hand wash facility is available when working with High
Hazardous Substance.
8. Emergency Procedures and Spill Response:
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All individuals working with hazardous substances must have immediate
access to an eyewash station, safety shower and appropriate fire
extinguisher. If any equipment is not immediately available, contact EHS
at 646-962-7233 (1-7233).
Some substances may require specialized spill clean-up or neutralization
material. Ensure the laboratory is equipped with the proper emergency
supplies for the hazardous materials used.
In the event of a chemical spill, call EHS at 646-962-7233 (1-7233)
immediately for assistance in cleaning up the spill. Do not attempt to
handle a spill of high hazard chemicals. Turn off all ignition sources and
evacuate the laboratory immediately.
9. Waste Management and Disposal:
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Chemical Safety
In addition to the standard waste disposal procedures outlined in the Waste
Disposal Procedures, identify supplemental waste management and disposal
procedures associated with the HHS. For example, some waste materials may
require neutralization or deactivation prior to disposal. Note that supplemental
waste management and disposal procedures must be reviewed and preapproved by EHS.
10. Training:
All employees who work with hazardous chemicals or have access to
designated areas must complete annual Laboratory Safety Training provided
by EHS. The Principal Investigator or other experience, senior staff that are
familiar with the safe handling of the High Hazardous Substance must provide
staff with hands-on HHOP training prior to the start of any work with these
chemicals. Staff must be trained on all components of the HHOP. New users
of High Hazardous Substances must work under the close supervision of an
experienced user.
13.3 HIGH HAZARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FORM
The HHOP form (Appendix A) serves as a tool to coordinate information and resources
into a succinct procedure and facilitate review with lab staff. The HHOP form is available
on the EHS website at: High Hazard Operating Procedures
EHS is available to assist in the development and implementation of the HHOP and
associated exposure control strategies for highly hazardous substances.
14.0
RECEIVING CHEMICALS
All chemicals received by the laboratory must be inspected prior to unpacking. It should be noted
if there appears to be any leakage on the outside of the box or on the packing material. If the
contents appear to be damaged, contact EHS and the company from whom the chemical was
ordered. All damaged chemical containers must be considered as spilled material and disposed of
as chemical waste. Additionally ensure the following:
 ChemTracker chemical inventory is updated to include chemical.
 Paper copy of SDS is available and added to SDS binder.
 Chemical label is legible and secure on the container of the chemical. If the container
label has been defaced, it should be relabeled.
15.0
CHEMICAL INVENTORY
All laboratories are required to maintain a complete inventory of all hazardous chemicals and
report annually on the types, quantities and locations where these chemicals are being stored and
used at the College. On an annual basis, the Chemical Inventory must be submitted to EHS. EHS
will compile all the chemical inventories for the College and submit the annual WCMC chemical
inventory reports to the appropriate Federal and local government agencies as part of the
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Community Right-to-Know Program. Information reported to external agencies is generalized by
building and does not contain any personal identifying information. More detailed information is
kept in the EHS Office and made available during an incident requiring emergency response in
an area storing hazardous materials.
To assist in this process, the College provides access to the ChemTracker Chemical Inventory
Management System. ChemTracker is web-based database application which allows authorized
users access to their chemical inventory via the internet. For additional information on
ChemTracker and the steps required to create a chemical inventory, review the EHS Update
available at: ChemTracker Chemical Inventory.
15.1 OBTAINING ACCESS TO CHEMTRACKER
All new users must be registered with ChemTracker before they can log on. To add a
user, complete the “ChemTracker New User Request Form” and e-mail the form to
[email protected] or print the form and fax it to EHS at 646-962-0288.
Users will receive a unique username and password via e-mail.
15.2 COMPLETING THE CHEMICAL INVENTORY FORM
The information in ChemTracker is utilized to comply with all Federal and local
chemical inventory annual reporting requirements. Therefore, when entering a chemical
into ChemTracker, the following information must include, at a minimum:
 Principal Investigator/Chemical Owner (PI) – Enter the name of the Principal
Investigator/chemical owner.
 Department – Enter the official department name for the area(s).
 Building – Enter the official building code where the chemicals are located.
 Room – Enter the room number where the chemicals are physically located. The
room number should be indicated on a placard adjacent to the entrance to the area.
 Full Chemical Name – Write out the full chemical name of each hazardous
chemical. The user can select the chemical name from the ChemTracker reference
database in the “select a value” window. Abbreviations and chemical
nomenclature are not acceptable.
 Volume – Enter the estimated total volume or weight (numerical value only) of
the chemical located in the designated room number.
Do not enter the unit of measure in this field. Enter the unit of measure in the UM
field to the immediate below of the Volume field.
 Unit of Measure (UM) – Enter the correlating unit of measure for the total
volume using the appropriate unit of measure abbreviation indicated on the
Chemical Inventory Form.
15.3 UPDATING THE CHEMICAL INVENTORY
The inventory is a yearly average of what is in the lab at any one time. If the quantity of a
chemical is continuously fluctuating due to use, estimate on the higher end to ensure it is
not underestimated. Chemical inventories should be conducted on at least a yearly basis.
Date Issued
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Personnel should be looking at the physical condition of primary and secondary
containers. Chemicals should be inspected for signs of decomposition, such as
discoloration, turbidity, caking, moisture in dry chemicals, particulates in liquids, and
pressure buildup.
16.0
CHEMICAL LABELING REQUIREMENTS
16.1 MANUFACTURER LABELING REQUIREMENTS
All chemical containers must be properly labeled. Original containers from chemical
manufacturers are required under the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard to
provide the following information:
 Common name of chemical
 Chemical manufacturer’s name, address and emergency telephone number
 Health and safety hazard warnings (e.g., flammable, corrosive, etc.)
16.2 LABORATORY LABELING REQUIREMENTS
Laboratory personnel are responsible for ensuring all chemical containers produced in the
laboratory are properly labeled as follows:
 Labels on all chemical containers should be legible and easy to read.
 Chemical name should be spelled out in English, no chemical structures.
 Hazards, if possible, should also be listed.
 If abbreviations are used, an abbreviations cross-reference sheet (e.g., EtBr =
Ethidium Bromide) must be posted near the entrances to the laboratory.
16.3 DATE LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR REACTIVE CHEMICALS
Dates of receipt must be assigned to all chemicals in the following groups by the
recipient. The date of the chemical should be noted with each use. Chemicals should not
be held past its recommended expiration date or in the specified amount of time from the
date of its receipt:
 Picrics
 Perchlorates
 Peroxides
 Peroxidizable materials (aldehydes, ethers and compounds containing benzylic
hydrogen atoms)
 Chemicals with polymerization hazards
 Other unstable or reactive chemicals
16.4 DISPOSE UNLABELED/UNKNOWN CHEMICALS
Dispose unlabeled/unknown chemicals via EHS in accordance with WCMC’s Waste
Disposal Procedures.
17.0
CHEMICAL STORAGE LIMITS AND REQUIREMENTS
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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Chemical Safety
Chemical storage areas in the laboratory setting include storerooms, laboratory work areas
(shelves and bench cabinets), storage cabinets and refrigerators/freezers.
17.1
FDNY PERMITTED LABORATORIES AND CHEMICAL STORAGE
ROOMS
Hazardous chemicals may only be used and/or stored in laboratories or chemical storage
rooms which have been permitted by the Fire Department of the City of New York
(FDNY). A permitted laboratory will have a “Laboratory – Potentially Hazardous
Substance” sign on the laboratory’s exterior door. Chemical storage is only permitted in
areas which have this signage.
17.2
CHEMICAL STORAGE LIMITS
The FDNY sets chemical storage limits on the amount of flammable liquids, flammable
solids, oxidizing materials, and reactive/unstable chemicals that may be stored in a
laboratory. The storage limits are based on fire-rated construction of the lab and the
presence of a sprinkler system.
Lab
Type
I
II
III
Fire
Rating
2 hours
1 hour
2 hours
IV
1 hour
Fire
Protection
Sprinklers
Sprinklers
No
Sprinklers
No
Sprinklers
Flammable
Liquids
30 gal
25 gal
20 gal
Flammable
Solids
15 lbs
10 lbs
6 lbs
Oxidizing
Materials
50 lbs
40 lbs
30 lbs
Unstable
Reactives
12 lbs
6 lbs
3 lbs
15 gal
3 lbs
20 lbs
2 lbs
17.2.1 Flammable Gas Storage Limits
Flammable gases are prohibited from use or storage below grade (ground).
Area of Laboratory Up to 500 sq. ft. Per additional
Maximum per
in square feet
100 sq. ft.
Laboratory
Unit
Maximum Capacity
9.24
1.54
15.4
(water capacity)
17.3
GENERAL STORAGE REQUIREMENTS
17.3.1 Storage Locations

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Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Materials may be openly stored up to the sprinklered ceiling along the
perimeter of the room as long as the front edge of the material has at least
18 inches clearance in all directions from the sprinkler head.
Open storage of materials within 18 inches of a sprinklered ceiling in the
center of the room (i.e., non-perimeter) is not permitted. No storage of
chemicals, excluding standard detergents, under sinks.
Shelves should be secured firmly to walls.
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Provide anti-roll lip on all shelves.
Store acids and corrosives in dedicated cabinets and separate acids and
bases. Nitric acid can be stored (with secondary containment) with other
acids.
Store flammables in a vented flammables cabinet when possible.
Store those chemicals requiring special storage requirements separately.
Special attention must be paid to the following:
 Nitrates, nitrites and azides
 Perchlorates
 Perchloric acid
 Peroxides
 Those chemicals that form peroxides (ether, THF, dioxane)
 Phosphorus
 Flammable solids (sodium, lithium, potassium)
 Strong oxidizers
Every chemical should have an identifiable storage place and should be
returned to that location after each use.
A storage scheme must be developed in each chemical storage area to
ensure the segregation of incompatibles and efforts must be made to
isolate particularly flammable, reactive, and toxic materials. An
exclusively alphabetical storage scheme is prohibited.
Chemical storage on bench tops should be minimized in order to reduce
the amounts of chemicals unprotected from a potential fire and to prevent
them from being easily knocked over.
Chemicals should not be stored above eye level.
Large containers should be stored on lower levels. Chemicals must not be
stored on the floor.
Chemical storage in hoods should be minimized to less than one third of
the hood space. Avoid blocking rear baffles with any hood storage.
Storing containers inside the hood interferes with airflow, reduces and
clutters up the work space and may involve the stored materials in a spill,
fire or explosion. When possible, chemicals will be stored in cabinets
which vent directly into the chemical hoods.
Stored chemicals must not be exposed to direct sunlight or heat.
Secondary containment should be use when storing close to a water
source, segregating those chemicals that need secondary containment, or
when storing acids on bare metal.
All chemical containers left out of storage areas must be checked at the
end of each workday and returned to its proper storage place
17.3.2 Laboratory Refrigerators

Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Laboratory refrigerators cannot be used to store food.
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Chemical Safety
Explosion-proof or flammable-proof refrigerators must be utilized when
flammable liquids must be refrigerated. The use of standard refrigerators
to store flammable liquids is prohibited.
17.3.3 Water-Reactive Chemicals


Water reactive chemicals must be stored in a manner to prevent direct
contact from water and fire sprinkler systems.
The storage area for water-reactive chemicals must be labeled “WaterReactive Chemicals.”
17.3.4 Compressed Gases
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17.4
The name of the gas must be marked on the cylinder.
Storage of more than one cylinder of flammable gas in a lab is not
permitted unless they are in use.
Flammable gas cylinders should be stored in a separate area from other
types of compressed gasses.
Cylinders of incompatible gases must be segregated by distance. Group
cylinders by the type of gas (e.g., toxic, corrosive, etc)
Empty cylinders should be separated from full cylinders and labeled
“Empty or MT.”
All compressed gases must be stored away from direct or localized heat
(including radiators, steam pipes or boilers) in well-ventilated and dry
areas, and way from areas where heavy items may strike them (e.g., near
elevators or service corridors).
All compressed gases, including empty cylinders, must be secured in an
upright position with chains, straps or special stands, and must be capped
when stored or moved.
A hand truck must be available for transporting gas cylinders to and from
storage areas.
Gas cylinders must be hydrostatically tested by the vendor every 10 years.
The last testing date is embossed in the metal near the head of the
cylinder.
SEGREGATION OF INCOMPATIBLE CHEMICALS
 Chemicals must not be arranged alphabetically or haphazardly either in
stockrooms or in the laboratory work areas.
 Chemicals must be segregated to prevent mixing of incompatible chemical in
the event that containers break or leak.
 Utilize the compatible storage group classification system associated with the
laboratory’s ChemTracker chemical inventory to properly identify and
segregate incompatible chemicals:
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March 25, 2013
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18.0
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
SECURITY OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN LABS
Laboratories need to take specific actions in order to provide security against theft of highlyhazardous materials, and to ensure compliance with federal regulations. EHS urges each
department to review and develop procedures to ensure the security of all hazardous materials in
their area of responsibility.
Many laboratories already implement various means of security including securing controlled
substances, syringes and needles, and radioactive materials. EHS asks you to review and assess
the hazardous materials in your laboratory and consider security issues. One easy way to increase
security is to ensure your laboratory door is locked whenever the laboratory is left unattended,
even for a few minutes.
Follow these guidelines to minimize opportunities for intentional removal of any hazardous
materials from your laboratory:
18.1 LABORATORY SECURITY VERSUS SAFETY
Recognize that laboratory security is related to but different from laboratory safety.
Security is preventing intrusion into the laboratory and the theft of equipment or
materials from the laboratory.
18.2
DEVELOPING A SECURITY POLICY
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Chemical Safety
Develop a site-specific security policy.
 Make an assessment of your laboratory area for hazardous materials and
particular security issues.
 Develop and implement laboratory security procedures for the lab group.
 Train laboratory group members on security procedures and assign
responsibilities.
18.3 CONTROL ACCESS
Control access to areas where hazardous materials are used and stored.
 Limit laboratory access to only those individuals who need to be in the
laboratory.
 Restrict off-hours access to individuals authorized by the Principal
Investigator.
 Lock freezers, refrigerators, storage cabinets, and other containers where
stocks of biological agents, hazardous chemicals, or radioactive materials are
stored when they are not in direct view of workers (for example, when located
in unattended storage areas).
 Do not leave hazardous materials unattended or unsecured at any time.
 Close and lock laboratory doors when no one is present.
18.4 KNOW WHO IS IN THE LABORATORY AREA
Know who is in the laboratory area at any given time.
 Consider using a logbook for staff to sign in and out each day or using carded
access devices.
 Ensure all personnel wear their WCMC/ NYP identification badge.
 Approach anyone you do not recognize who appears to be wandering in
laboratory areas and ask if you can help direct them.
18.5 SECURE HIGHLY HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Secure your highly hazardous materials.
 Use a log to sign highly hazardous materials in and out of secure storage.
 Take a periodic inventory of all highly hazardous chemicals, biological
agents/toxins, radioactive materials, and controlled substances. This could be
as simple as frequently looking at your chemical containers to be sure that
none are missing.
 Track the use and disposal of hazardous materials. Report any missing
inventory to EHS.
 Know what materials are being ordered and brought into the laboratory area.
 Visually screen packages before bringing them to the laboratory. Packages
containing potentially infectious materials should be opened in a biological
safety cabinet or other appropriate containment device.
 Know what materials are being removed from the laboratory area.
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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Classification
Chemical Safety
18.6 EMERGENCY PLAN
Have an emergency plan.
 Control of access to laboratory areas can make an emergency response more
challenging. This must be considered when emergency plans are developed.
 Have a protocol for reporting incidents. Laboratory directors, in cooperation
with facility safety and security officials, should have policies and procedures
in place for the reporting and investigation of incidents or possible incidents,
such as undocumented visitors, missing chemicals, or unusual or threatening
phone calls.
 Review and update the laboratory's emergency contact information on or near
your laboratory door as needed.
18.7 AGENTS OF CONCERN
Laboratory researchers should be aware of the highly hazardous materials they have.
 For lists of biological diseases and agents go to the CDC website at:
http://www.bt.cdc.gov/Agent/Agentlist.asp
 For a list of highly-hazardous chemical agents, review the acutely-toxic
chemical list at: Acutely Toxic Chemicals
19.0
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
19.1 ALLERGEN SAFETY
These chemicals are known to cause an allergic reaction via skin or respiratory contact:
 Wear suitable gloves to prevent hand contact with allergens or
substances of unknown allergenic activity.
 Allergic reactions result from previous sensitization to a particular chemical or
classes of chemicals. Hence, an allergic reaction can be immediate, occurring
within minutes after exposure.
 Allergic reactions can also have a delayed effect after initial chemical
exposure.
19.2 BUNSEN BURNER SAFETY
Bunsen burners present fire hazards. They produce an open flame, burn at a high
temperature and as a result, there is potential for an accident to occur. For the safety
and convenience of everyone working in the laboratory, it is important that the
guidelines below be observed. In case of a fire, activate the nearest fire alarm pull
station, notify all lab personnel, and evacuate the premise.
Bunsen burner safety guidelines:
 Place the Bunsen burner away from any overhead shelving, equipment or light
fixtures.
 Remove all papers, notebooks, combustible materials and excess chemicals
from the area.
 Tie back any long hair, dangling jewelry, or loose clothing.
Date Issued
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Program No.
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Chemical Safety
Inspect hose for cracks, holes, pinched points, or any other defect and ensure
that the hose fits securely on the gas valve and the Bunsen burner.
Replace all hoses found to have a defect before using.
Notify others in the laboratory that the burner will be in use.
Utilize a sparker/lighter with an extended nozzle to ignite the Bunsen burner.
Never use a match to ignite burner.
Have the sparker/lighter available before turning on gas.
Adjust the flame by turning the collar to regulate air flow and produce an
appropriate flame for the experiment (typically a medium blue flame).
Do not leave open flames unattended and never leave laboratory while burner
is on.
Shut off gas when its use is complete.
Allow the burner to cool before handling.
Ensure that the main gas valve is off before leaving the laboratory.
19.3 HYDROGEN FLUORIDE (HYDROFLUORIC ACID) SAFETY
Hydrogen fluoride/ hydrofluoric acid (HF) is an extremely corrosive acid and a systemic
poison due to the fluoride ion it readily releases. This fluoride ion causes tissue necrosis,
hypocalcaemia, and hypomagnesaemia. Visible damage to affected areas can remain
symptom free for up to 24 hours, especially with dilute solutions of <20%. Concentrated
solutions of > 40% generally show symptoms quicker. Burns are extremely painful and
should receive immediate attention as exposures to HF may be fatal. It is a respiratory,
dermal and ingestion hazard.
If your laboratory utilizes HF, the Principal Investigator must develop a High Hazard
Operating Procedure for its use in accordance with Section 13.0 – High Hazard Operating
Procedures. All personnel working in the laboratory must be familiar with the HHOP. In
addition to basic laboratory procedures, the procedure below must be followed.
 HF must only be stored in approved poly containers. HF etches glass and
corrodes metal.
 Work with as small quantities as possible.
 Review the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) prior to working with HF. Know the
hazards.
 Restrict access to work area and post that HF is being used.
 PPE is essential. Goggles, gloves (adequate for strong acids), clothing cover
(laboratory coat) and if there is a splash hazard, a full face shield and sleeve
covers.
 All PPE remains in the lab near where you are working. Contaminated PPE
must be neutralized or disposed of as hazardous waste.
 Full length pants and closed shoes must be worn.
 Work should be done in a hood to minimize inhalation and to minimize
hazards in the event of an accidental release.
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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20.0
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
A hydrofluoric acid (HF) spill control or universal spill kit that is good for HF
is required in all areas using or storing hydrofluoric acid.
Maintain a supply of 2.5% Calcium Gluconate ointment in the work area in
the event of skin contact.
Know first aid procedures before you begin working and know where the
nearest eye wash and safety shower are located.
PEROXIDE-FORMING CHEMICALS
Peroxide-forming chemicals are a class of compounds that have the ability to form shocksensitive explosive peroxide crystals. Many of the organic solvents commonly used in WCMC
laboratories have the potential to form explosive peroxide crystals. Diethyl ether and
tetrahydrofuran are two of the more common peroxide-forming chemicals used at WCMC. The
risk associated with peroxide formation increases if the peroxide crystallizes or becomes
concentrated by evaporation or distillation. Factors that affect rate of peroxide formation include
exposure to air, light and heat, moisture, and contamination from metals. Therefore, it is
extremely important that this procedure be followed regarding the identification, handling,
storage, and disposal of peroxide-forming chemicals.
20.1
PURCHASING CONSIDERATIONS
 When possible, purchase only peroxide-forming chemicals which contain a
peroxide formation inhibitor (e.g., tetrahydrofuran or diethyl ether inhibited
with butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT).
 Only purchase quantities of peroxide-forming chemicals that you expect to
use within expiration and disposal timeframes.
20.2 LABELING REQUIREMENTS
All bottles of peroxide-forming chemicals must have the date received and date opened
marked on each container.
20.3
STORAGE AND USE REQUIREMENTS
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Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Do not touch or attempt to open a container of a peroxide-forming chemical if
there are whitish crystals around the cap and/or in the bottle. The friction of
screwing the cap may detonate the bottle. Contact EHS immediately.
Do not store peroxide-forming chemicals in direct sunlight because sunlight
accelerates peroxide formation.
If the peroxide-forming chemical is flammable and requires refrigeration, then
an explosion-proof refrigerator must be used.
Do not distill, evaporate or concentrate a peroxide-forming chemical unless a
High Hazard Operating Procedure has been evaluated by EHS in accordance
with Section 13.0 – High Hazard Operating Procedures.
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20.4
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
DISPOSAL REQUIREMENTS
 There are four classes of peroxide-forming chemicals based upon the peroxide
formation hazard:
 Class A – Severe Peroxide Hazard
 Class B – Concentration Hazard
 Class C – Shock and Heat Sensitive
 Class D – Potential Peroxide-Forming Chemicals
Peroxide-forming chemicals must be disposed by the earlier of the two
dates/timeframes specified in the table below regardless if the container is
unopened.
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
3 months
6 months
6 months
Only if peroxide
Date Opened
crystals are present.
1 year
1 year
Date Received 1 year

Submit an online Chemical Collection Request form to EHS to request the
disposal of a peroxide-forming chemical. The online form is available on
the EHS website at: http://www.weill.cornell.edu/ehs/chemwaste/.
NOTE: If the peroxide-forming chemical has a visible peroxide formation or
is greater than one year old, bypass the online form and contact EHS
immediately. Do not move or handle these containers.

20.5
EHS has contractors available to test and, if necessary, stabilize peroxideforming chemicals.
PEROXIDE-FORMING CHEMICAL LISTS
20.5.1 Class A – Severe Peroxide Hazard
Spontaneously decompose and become explosive with exposure to air
without concentration.
Butadiene (liquid
monomer)
Chloroprene (liquid
monomer)
Divinyl acetylene
Isopropyl ether Sodium amide (sodamide)
Potassium
amide
Potassium
metal
Tetrafluoroethylene (liquid
monomer)
Vinylidene chloride
20.6 Class B – Concentration Hazard
Require external energy for spontaneous decomposition. Form explosive peroxides when
distilled, evaporated or otherwise concentrated.
Acetal
Acetaldehyde
Benzyl alcohol
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Diethylene glycol dimethyl
ether
Diethyl ether
Dioxanes
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4-Methyl-2-pentanol
2-Pentanol
4-Penten-1-ol
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Cumene
Cyclohexanol
Cyclohexene
2-Cyclohexen-1-ol
Decahydronaphthalene
Ethylene glycol dimethyl
ether
Furan
4-Heptanol
2-Hexanol
Methylacetylene
3-Methyl-1-butanol
Diacetylene
Methylcyclopentane
Dicyclopentadiene
Methyl isobutyl ketone
2-Butanol
Classification
Chemical Safety
1-Phenylethanol
2-Phenylethanol
Tetrahydrofuran
Tetrahydronaphthalene
Vinyl ethers
Other secondary
alcohols
20.6.1 Class C – Shock and Heat Sensitive
Highly reactive and can auto-polymerize as a result of internal peroxide
accumulation. The peroxides formed in these reactions are extremely shock
and heat sensitive.
Acrylic acid
Acrylonitrile
Butadiene (gas)
Chloroprene
Chlorotrifluoroethylene
Methyl methacrylate
Styrene Vinylpyridine
Tetrafluoroethylene (gas)
Vinyl acetate
Vinylacetylene (gas)
Vinyladiene chloride
Vinyl chloride (gas)
20.6.2 Class D – Potential Peroxide Forming Chemicals
May form peroxides but cannot be clearly categorized in Class A, B, or C.
Acrolein
Allyl ether
Allyl ethyl ether
Allyl phenyl ether
p-(nAmyloxy)benzoyl
chloride
n-Amyl ether
Benzyl n-butyl ether
Benzyl ether
Benzyl ethyl ether
Benzyl methyl ether
Benzyl-1-napthyl
ether
1,2-Bis(2chloroethoxyl)ethane
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
p-Chlorophenetole
Cyclooctene
Cyclopropyl methyl ether
Diallyl ether
p-Di-n-butoxybenzene
4,5-Hexadien-2-yn-1-ol
n-Hexyl ether
o.p-Iodophenetole
Isoamyl benzyl ether
Isoamyl ether
1,2-Dibenzyloxyethane
p-Dibenzyloxybenzene
1,2-Dichloroethyl ethyl
ether
2,4-Dichlorophenetole
Isobutyl vinyl ether
Isophorone
bIsopropoxypropionitrile
Isopropyl-2,4,5trichlorophenoxy
acetate
n-Methylphenetole
2Methyltetrahydrofuran
3-Methoxy-1-butyl
acetate
Diethoxymethane
2,2-Diethoxypropane
Diethyl
ethoxymethylenemalonate
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Program No.
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Bis(2ethoxyethyl)ether
Bis(2(methoxyethoxy)
ethyl) ether
Bis(2-chloroethyl)
ether
Bis(2-ethoxyethyl)
adipate
Bis(2-methoxyethyl)
carbonate
Bis(2-methoxyethyl)
ether
Bis(2-methoxyethyl)
phthalate
Bis(2methoxymethyl)
adipate
Bis(2-n-butoxyethyl)
phthalate
Bis(2-phenoxyethyl)
ether
Bis(4-chlorobutyl)
ether
Bis(chloromethyl)
ether
2-Bromomethyl ethyl
ether
beta-Bromophenetole
o-Bromophenetole
p-Bromophenetole
3-Bromopropyl
phenyl ether
tert-Butyl methyl
ether
n-Butyl phenyl ether
n-Butyl vinyl ether
Chloroacetaldehyde
diethylacetal
2-Chlorobutadiene
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Classification
Chemical Safety
Diethyl fumarate
2-Methoxyethanol
Diethyl acetal
3-Methoxyethyl acetate
Diethylketene
1,2-Diethoxyethane
2-Methoxyethyl vinyl
ether
Methoxy-1,3,5,7cyclooctatetraene
b-Methoxypropionitrile
Dimethoxymethane
m-Nitrophenetole
1,1-Dimethoxyethane
1-Octene
Di(1-propynl) ether
Oxybis(2-ethyl acetate)
Di(2-propynl) ether
Oxybis(2-ethyl
benzoate)
b,b-Oxydipropionitrile
Diethoxybenzene (m-,o-,p-)
Di-n-propoxymethane
1,2-Epoxy-3isopropoxypropane
1,2-Epoxy-3phenoxypropane
p-Ethoxyacetophenone
1-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethyl
acetate
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate
(2-Ethoxyethyl)-a-benzoyl
benzoate
1-Ethoxynaphthalene
o,p-Ethoxyphenyl
isocyanate
1-Ethoxy-2-propyne
3-Ethoxypropionitrile
2-Ethylacrylaldehyde oxime
2-Ethylbutanol
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1-Pentene
Phenoxyacetyl chloride
a-Phenoxypropionyl
chloride
Phenyl-o-propyl ether
p-Phenylphenetone
n-Propyl ether
n-Propyl isopropyl
ether
Sodium 8-11-14eicosatetraenoate
Sodium
ethoxyacetylide
Tetrahydropyran
Triethylene glycol
diacetate
Triethylene glycol
dipropionate
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Program No.
4.1
1-(2-Chloroethoxy)-2- Ethyl-b-ethoxypropionate
phenoxyethane
Chloroethylene
Ethylene glycol
monomethyl ether
Chloromethyl methyl 2-Ethylhexanal
ether
betaEthyl vinyl ether
Chloroethoxyphenol
o-Chorophenetole
2,5-Hexadiyn-1-ol
21.0
Classification
Chemical Safety
1,3,3Trimethoxypropene
1,1,2,3-Tetrachloro1,3-butadiene
4-Vinyl cyclohexene
Vinylene carbonate
ENGINEERING CONTROLS
21.1
GENERAL VENTILATION AND EXHAUST
The general ventilation system in laboratories must be well maintained with the
laboratories operating under negative pressure. This negative pressure should be
maintained in laboratories to ensure airflow into the laboratory from uncontaminated
areas. General ventilation will not be relied upon to protect employees from toxic
exposures. Chemical hoods and other local exhaust system devices must be used for these
purposes.
21.1.1 Air Changes
Four to twelve (4 - 12) room changes per hour should be provided by general
ventilation in laboratories where fume hoods are used as the primary method of
control. Storage areas used for flammables must have at least 6 air changes per
hour. Air should be 100% outside air (i.e., no re-circulation) in all active
laboratories and chemical storage areas. Air removed from the laboratories
through vents and ducts by general ventilation should be vented to the outside, not
into the general facility circulation. Intake vents for the system should be far
enough removed from the system’s exit port to prevent cross contamination.
Ventilation from these areas is 100% exhaust.
21.2 CHEMICAL HOODS (DUCTED)
An important safety device in a laboratory is a properly functioning chemical hood. The
chemical hood protects users from inhaling chemicals by constantly pulling air into the
hood and exhausting it out of the building. Chemical hoods also provide protection in the
event of an explosion or fire.
A chemical hood should be used when:
 Handling chemicals with significant inhalation hazards such as toxic gases,
toxic chemical vapors, volatile radioactive material, and respirable toxic
powders
 Carrying out experimental procedures with strong exothermic reactions
 Handling chemicals with significant vapor pressure
 Chemical vapors generated could cause a fire hazard
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March 25, 2013
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Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
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Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
Working with compounds that have an offensive odor
21.2.1 Chemical Hood Operating Procedures
Date Issued
March 25, 2013

Chemical hoods must operate with the average face velocity of 80-150
feet per minute (fpm) at a sash height of 18 inches with an optimum range
of 80-120 fpm.

Confirm that the chemical hood is operational. Check the air flow gauge if
so equipped. Check a telltale (a piece of paper attached to the bottom of
the sash). The telltale should be noticeably pulled toward the back of the
hood.

Position the hood sash to a maximum of 18 inches high to ensure proper
airflow velocities at the work opening. Adjust the sash to shield from
splashes or flying objects. In addition to aiding in proper airflow, the sash
acts as a physical barrier in the event of an unplanned incident in the hood.

Keep hood storage to an absolute minimum. Excess materials in the hood
disrupt airflow and can act as a barrier or cause airflow to bounce back
across the face of the hood. Do not take up hood space and block
ventilation by storing unused equipment or chemicals in hoods. If large
items must be kept in the hood, contact EHS for evaluation, certification
and a smoke test.

Keep all work at least six inches inside the hood. The capture ability of a
hood may not be 100% at the front of the hood.

Avoid cross drafts. Someone walking rapidly past the work opening can
create a cross draft that may disturb the direction of airflow and cause
turbulence.

Keep the hood clean. Remove old experimental glassware and clutter.
Wipe up spilled chemicals or residues. Ensure the glass sash remains clear
for visibility.

Do not heat perchloric acid in standard chemical hoods. Perchloric vapors
may create explosive perchlorates in the ductwork. Contact EHS if you are
performing perchloric acid digestions.

Separate and elevate each instrument. Use blocks or racks to elevate
equipment one to two inches off the hood deck surface so that air can
easily flow around all apparatus with no disruption.

Avoid opening and closing the hood sash rapidly and swift arm
movements in front or inside the hood. These actions may cause
turbulence and reduce the effectiveness of hood containment.
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Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety

Use extreme caution with ignition sources inside a hood. Ignition sources
such as electrical connections and equipment, hot plates, controllers, and
open flame can ignite flammable vapors or explosive particles from
materials being used in the hood.

Never put your head inside a hood while operations are in progress. The
plane of the sash is the imaginary boundary that should not be crossed
except to set up or dismantle equipment.

Report airflow problems and problems with the physical structure of the
chemical hood to Facilities Engineering and Maintenance as soon as
possible. If a hood fails while working with highly hazardous materials,
immediately close the sash. Leave the immediate area and contact EHS for
further assistance.

Lower the sash to a 2 inch opening when the hood is not being used.
21.2.2 Chemical Hood Certification
Chemical hoods are tested and certified by EHS on an annual basis. EHS will
contact Engineering and Maintenance to repair chemical hoods which are
failing or restricted. Chemical hoods are tested with the sash at 18 inches.

PASS – Chemical hoods with an average face velocity between 80-150
feet per minute (fpm) are passing and certified. The optimum range for
average face velocity is 80 - 120 fpm.

RESTRICTED USE ONLY – Chemical hoods with an average face
velocity between 151 and 180 fpm are acceptable for restricted use only.
Laboratories should not use acutely toxic, highly hazardous, or
carcinogenic chemicals in hoods deemed for restricted use only.

FAIL – Chemical hoods that fall below 80 fpm and those that exceed
180 fpm are failing and must not be used until they have been repaired
and cleared for use.
21.2.3 Shutdown Notification
Notifications will be posted when chemical hood fans will be shut down. For
minor shut downs affecting only a few hoods, notifications will be placed directly
on each hood affected. For large shutdowns affecting large areas (e.g. an entire
building), notifications will be posted in elevators and other public areas as with
other utility shut downs.
21.3
CHEMICAL HOODS (DUCTLESS)
21.3.1 Performance Requirements
Ductless chemical hoods are used when the requirements of the lab are such that a
ducted hood is not needed. The ductless chemical hoods make use of a filter bed
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
that can filter such hazards as particulates, vapors, acids and bases. The FDNY
recognizes the use of these hoods for low level use of some chemicals. The same
performance standards apply for the use of these hoods as with ducted hoods with
the one addition that the filter system MUST be changed as per manufacturer’s
directions if filter bed is exhausted. Before a ductless hood is purchased or used,
contact EHS for an evaluation to determine if the hood is acceptable for the
hazard.
21.3.2 Use of Ductless Chemical Hoods




Filters used must be appropriate for the chemical(s) used
These hoods are to be used with low levels of chemicals only
Highly toxic, explosive, or reactive chemicals or procedures are not to be
used with these hoods
Filter usage must be tracked and filters changed on a vendor
recommended basis
21.3.3 Required Work Practices with Ductless Hoods

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Hood fans should be turned on when in use
Ensure the hood face velocity has been monitored by EHS within the last
year before using the hood
Filters should be in good working condition
Set sash to the lowest position possible for maximum face velocity
Do not store chemicals and equipment in hood
Wash hood work surface as often as necessary
21.4 SPLASH SHIELD
Splash shields provide low cost and effective personal protection against splashes when
working in the laboratory. Splash shields are an effective engineering control to minimize
splash hazards for activities such as:
 Pipetting or pouring materials
 Using hand-held equipment to mix or homogenize materials
 Working with materials under pressure
22.0
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)
Choose personal protective equipment and clothing based on the types of chemicals handled, the
degree of protection required, and the areas of the body which may become contaminated. All
personal protective clothing and equipment must, at a minimum, meet standards set by the
American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Every effort must be made to evaluate the
effectiveness of equipment and make improvements where possible. Special consideration must
be given to purchasing appropriate PPE and other safety equipment when extremely hazardous
substances are involved.
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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Program Title
Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
22.1 LABORATORY COATS AND OTHER PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
Laboratory coats must be worn when working in the laboratory. Appropriate laboratory
coats should be worn buttoned and with the sleeves rolled down. In addition, laboratory
coats must be properly fitted for each laboratory member in order to provide the utmost
appropriate protection. A fire-resistant laboratory coat is required when handling
pyrophoric materials and other high fire hazard operations. Additional information on lab
coats may be found at: http://weill.cornell.edu/ehs/safety/laboratory_coats.html
This cover should be removed before exiting the building, entering the cafeteria,
restrooms, or any public area.
Depending on the nature of the work being conducted, additional or alternate protective
clothing may be used by laboratory personnel including lab aprons, shoe covers,
coveralls, or sleeve covers. Proper selection of laboratory coats and other protective
clothing must consider the following characteristics:
 Ability to resist fire, heat and chemicals used
 Chemical impermeability when needed
 Comfort, permitting easy execution of tasks when worn
 Ease of cleaning (unless disposable)
 Ability to be removed during an emergency or chemical splash (fasteners
instead of buttons)
22.2 LAUNDRY SERVICES
Once a laboratory coat or other protective clothing has been used, it is presumed that it is
contaminated and must then be laundered. Industrial laundry services must be utilized to
clean laboratory coats and other protective clothing. Do not use local Laundromats, dry
cleaners, and/or personal washer and dryers to clean laboratory coats and other protective
clothing that has been used in laboratories.
22.3 GLOVES
Gloves must be worn whenever there is a chance for hand contact with chemicals,
biologicals, radiologicals and other laboratory materials. At a minimum, disposable latex
gloves should be worn. Disposable gloves are only intended to provide protection from
incidental contact with chemicals. The addition of heavier weight gloves may be required
in the event that the chemicals involved are easily absorbed through the skin or are acute
or chronic toxins. There are a variety of gloves, both disposable and non-disposable, to
resist degradation and permeation (chemical breakthrough) depending on the material
they are made of and their thickness.
22.3.1 Glove Use Requirements

Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Lab personnel must inspect gloves prior to use. No glove completely resists
degradation or permeation and must be replaced periodically, depending on
how often it is used, for what concentration of chemical and for how long.
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Laboratory Chemical
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Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
Disposable latex or nitrile gloves are not intended to provide protection
from prolonged or repeated contact with chemicals. Disposable gloves
must be removed if there is any sign they have become damaged or if they
have any chemical contamination.
Gloves with long cuffs or sleeve covers must be worn if the particular lab
procedure causes the laboratory coat sleeve to ride up and thereby provide
insufficient protection to the entire arm area.
Wash hands thoroughly after removing any gloves.
Re-usable gloves must be washed before removal except those that are
permeable to water.
Two disposable gloves on each hand should be worn depending on the
material being handled, and to prevent contamination when removing the
top glove layer.
If the need for gloves arises when walking through public spaces, the
individual must glove one hand only. The other hand should be gloveless
and used to open doors or press elevator buttons.
22.3.2 Glove Selection and Glove Chart


GLOVE TYPE
Natural Rubber
(Latex)
Nitrile Rubber
Butyl Rubber
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Lab personnel with latex allergies must be provided latex-free gloves.
Lab personnel should consult the glove manufacturer’s permeation and
resistance charts to ensure the glove provides adequate protection for the
required duration of use and chemical hazards.
RECOMMENDED USE
Good for dilute acids and bases
Biologicals, buffers, water based dyes
Not good for chlorinated
hydrocarbons, aromatic
hydrocarbons, diethyl ether,
ethidium bromide
Good for a wide variety of solvents
and petroleum products
Not good for aromatic
hydrocarbons, chlorinated
hydrocarbons, acetone
Good for ketones, esters and acids
Not good for aliphatic, aromatic,
chlorinated hydrocarbons, gasoline
and petroleum products
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GOOD FOR SPECIFIC
CHEMICALS
Solutions of acetic,
hydrochloric, sulfuric acids;
ammonium hydroxide; sodium
hydroxide; ethanol; isopropanol;
methanol, formaldehyde,
acetone
Oils, greases, aliphatic
hydrocarbons, DMSO, alcohols,
acid solutions, formalin,
ethidium bromide
Glycol ethers, acetone, ethanol,
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Program Title
Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
Neoprene
Polyvinyl Chloride
(PVC)
Polyvinyl Alcohol
(PVA)
Viton™
Silver shield™/4H™
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
Good for acids and bases, peroxides,
petroleum products, hydrocarbons,
alcohols, phenols
Not good for halogenated and
aromatic hydrocarbons
Good for acids and bases; limited for
organics, amines, and peroxides;
Not good for most organics
Good for aromatics, ketones and
chlorinated solvents;
Not good for water-based solutionsPVA coating is water soluble
Exceptional for chlorinated and
aromatic hydrocarbons
Laminated gloves with exceptional
resistance for a large variety of
chemicals, poor dexterity.
Ethanol, isopropanol, acetic
acid, acetone, acetonitrile,
DMSO, formalin, hydrochloric
acid, ethidium bromide
Solutions of acids and bases,
alcohols
Benzene, toluene,
chlorobenzene, chloroform,
methylene chloride, carbon
tetrachloride, hexane, carbon
disulfide
Benzene, toluene, chloroform,
PCB’s
Aromatics, esters, chlorines and
ketones
22.4 EYE AND FACE PROTECTION
Laboratory personnel may need to wear some type of eye protection when working in the
laboratory. This acts as a protection not only of chemical, biological and radiological
hazards but also from physical hazards as well.
22.4.1 Eye and Face Protection Standards
All eyewear must meet ANSI’s “Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and
Face Protection,” Z87.1 – 1989. Prior to use, personnel will verify that the
equipment has been approved for the particular procedure (e.g. ANSI certified for
chemical splashes but not for impact).
For labs, ANSI standards require a minimum lens thickness of 3mm impact
resistance, passage of flammability test and lens retaining frames.
22.4.2 Eye and Face Protection Selection
The following table should be consulted in choosing protective eyewear:
Condition Requiring Eye/Face
Protection
Handling of aqueous solutions,
biologicals, mild corrosives, etc.
Handling strong corrosives, solvents,
large volume of chemicals, etc.
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Type of Eye/Face Protection
Required
Standard safety glasses with side
shields and brow guard
Chemical resistant goggles,
indirect vents
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Program No.
4.1
Working with glassware under
reduced or elevated pressure.
Glassware in high temperature
operations
Potential for flying objects, particles
or chemical splash
Vacuum system, reactions with
potential for explosions
Lasers, ultraviolet, infrared or other
light sources, glass blowing, welding,
torch use
Classification
Chemical Safety
Impact protection glasses/goggles
Face shields for impact and splash
Both goggles and face shield
Specialized eye protection
22.4.3 Contact Lens Use
Contact lenses may be worn in a laboratory setting in accordance with the Centers
for Disease Control (CDC) and NIOSH publication Contact Lens Use in a
Chemical Environment. In the event of a chemical exposure, begin eye irrigation
immediately and remove contact lenses as soon as practical. Do not delay
irrigation while waiting for contact lens removal. Contact lenses should be
removed only in a clean environment after the workers have thoroughly washed
their hands. Direct handling, application or removal of contact lenses while in a
chemical laboratory is prohibited. Standard eye protection requirements still
apply.
22.5
RESPIRATORS
Under no circumstance is respiratory protective equipment to be used by any person at
WCMC unless approved by EHS in accordance with the EHS Program Manual 7.1 –
Respiratory Protection Program available on the EHS website at: Respiratory Protection
Program
Respiratory Protection Program requires training, assignment, fit testing and medical
exam in accordance with the OSHA Respiratory Standard (Title 29, Code of Federal
Regulations, Part 1910.134). All respiratory protection must be chosen in conjunction
with the EHS since there are strict legal requirements as to the use and distribution of
these devices.
Respirators must be worn in the lab when performing non-routine operations such as
chemical waste disposal, or spill response, or those procedures that pose a respiratory
hazard (working with extremely toxic materials or doing a procedure where the fume
hood is not sufficient). These procedures will require the use of a negative pressure half
face, full face or self-contained breathing apparatus. Each lab must determine if any
operations require the use of a respirator.
Respirators are available to those individuals that:
 Routinely clean up chemical spills
 Work with toxic chemicals or gases that recommend respiratory protection
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
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23.0
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
Work with chemicals in locations where chemical hoods are not accessible.
Work with biologicals that require the use of a respirator, according to CDC
guidelines and WCMC Biosafety guidelines.
EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
23.1 EMERGENCY SAFETY SHOWERS
Emergency safety showers are required in laboratories where hazardous and corrosive
materials are used. Promptly flush the exposed skin with water using a safety shower for
at least 15 minutes. Remove any contaminated clothing to ensure the chemicals are
washed away from the body. Seek immediate medical attention.
23.1.1 Safety Shower Locations and Flow Requirements
Showers must be located within 25 feet of every laboratory, storage area or chemical
preparation room entrance, and no point within the laboratory may be more than 10
seconds or 100 feet away.
23.1.2 Safety Shower Testing and Maintenance
Safety showers are tested annually and maintained by Engineering and
Maintenance.
23.2 EYEWASH STATIONS
Remove contact lens(es), if applicable, and promptly flush eye(s) using an eyewash for at
least 15 minutes and seek immediate medical attention.
23.2.1 Eyewash Locations
The eyewash can be located next to the shower, but is usually by a sink.
Eyewash should be in a lab along a normal path of egress and should take no
longer than 15 seconds to reach from any point in the laboratory.
23.2.2 Eyewash Testing and Maintenance
Eyewashes should be checked and flushed weekly by laboratory personnel.
Maintenance of the eyewashes is conducted through Engineering and
Maintenance.
23.3
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Portable fire extinguishers must be present in all laboratories, chemical storage and
preparation areas. They must be of the correct type for the lab and the correct capacity
(volume) to be able to extinguish the amount of material that may be involved in a
fire. Fire extinguishers should be located near doors of labs, storage or work areas, or
just inside or outside of the door so that when the occupant attempts to retrieve the
extinguisher, they should be moving toward the exit.
23.3.1 Types and Use Fire Extinguisher
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1
Type of Fire Effective Against
Extinguisher
A
Class A Fires
Water
Burning paper, wood, coal, rubber and
textiles
BC
Class B Fires
Carbon
Petroleum hydrocarbons (flammable
Dioxide
solvents, motor oil, grease)
ABC
Dry Powder
Met-L-X
and other
Special
Extinguishers
D
Granular
Formulations
Class C Fires
Electrical fires in the presence of sensitive
equipment, optical systems, computer
equipment
Burning solvents and chemicals in large
quantities
Burning metal (e.g. magnesium, lithium,
sodium, potassium)
Classification
Chemical Safety
Do Not Use on
Electrical, liquid
or metal fires
Metal fires
(including lithium
aluminum hydride)
Metal fires, fires
involving sensitive
equipment
Paper, trash,
solvent, electrical
Class D Fires
Alloys or reactive metals, metal hydrides,
metal alkyls, other organometallics
23.3.2 Fire Extinguisher Inspections and Maintenance
Fire extinguishers are tested on a monthly basis. A tag is attached to the fire
extinguisher that states the date it was tested and is signed by the tester.
Maintenance of the extinguishers is addressed by EHS.
Fire extinguishers are replaced if:
 Gauge reads pressure is low and extinguisher needs to be recharged
 Extinguisher needs to be weighed (for compressed CO2)
 Hydrostatic test date is past due on the extinguisher
 Extinguisher was discharged and needs to be replaced
24.0
LABORATORY SIGNAGE
The following signage is required for laboratories and is available from EHS.
24.1 HEALTH AND SAFETY DOOR SIGN
The Health and Safety Door Sign Program has been developed to help WCMC personnel
and potential emergency responders identify the hazards present in an area (e.g.,
laboratory) prior to entering the room. At a minimum, an EHS door sign must be
prepared and posted outside each doorway leading from a public hallway and the hazard
assessment must be inclusive of all the interior rooms. If so desired, additional EHS door
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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Laboratory Chemical
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Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
signs can be prepared for the interior rooms which more specifically identify the hazards
in those specific areas.
The EHS Door Sign Program is available on the EHS website at:
Health and Safety Door Sign
24.2 SIGNAGE REQUIRED IN NEW YORK CITY
All laboratories or storage areas that work or contain hazardous materials in a facility
located in New York City must have the following posted:
 LABORATORY - POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (must be
in red lettering on a white background)
 NO SMOKING
These signs are generally posted at the midpoint of each door.
24.3 SPECIAL HAZARD SIGNAGE
The following hazard signage is required when these materials are present in the
laboratory:
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FLAMMABLE GAS
WATER REACTIVE MATERIALS
WARNING BIOHAZARDOUS MATERIALS
RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS
CHEMICAL WASTE SATELLITE ACCUMULATION AREA
CHEMICAL STORAGE
BIOWASTE STORAGE
RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE
LASERS
STORE NO FLAMMABLES FLASHING BELOW 100 F (on standard
refrigerators, cold rooms and freezers)
24.4 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT AND EXIT IDENTIFICATION
Signs are also posted indicating safety showers, eyewash stations, fire extinguishers,
and Exits (illuminated) and should be legible and conspicuous.
25.0
LABORATORY OUTREACH/INSPECTIONS
EHS will perform laboratory outreach/inspections on a routine basis to ensure compliance with
the Standard Operating Procedure of this Plan, FDNY directive compliance, and adherence with
EPA regulations and waste management procedures.
The inspections will look at issues such as:
 Signage
 Housekeeping
 Personal protective equipment use
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
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26.0
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
Chemical safety and hoods
Chemical waste
Fire safety and emergency equipment
Biological safety, biosafety cabinets and wastes
Training and required records/documents
WASTE MANAGEMENT
Refer to Manual 6.2 – WCMC Waste Disposal Procedures Manual for waste management issues.
This manual is available on the EHS website at: Waste Disposal Procedures
27.0
LABORATORY CLOSE-OUT PROCEDURES
Laboratories within WCMC must be left in a state suitable for new occupants or for renovation
activities. The vacating Principal Investigator and Department are responsible for ensuring the
disinfection of equipment and counters, electronics and fluorescent bulb recycling, and disposal
of chemical, biological, and radioactive waste materials are properly completed prior to vacating.
Laboratory space cannot be re-occupied nor renovation work started until the space has been
inspected and cleared by EHS and the Health Physics Office. Once clearance is completed, the
Laboratory Clearance Form (Appendix B) will be posted conspicuously in the laboratory.
The vacating Principal Investigator and Department must complete the following procedures
before the laboratory space will be cleared by EHS.
27.1 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS (RAM)
If the laboratory has been authorized for radiation use, you must call Environmental
Health/Health Physics at 646-962-7233, for assistance with clearance. All radioactive
waste, lead pigs, lead bricks, sheeting, and radioactive sources from equipment must be
properly transferred or disposed. The licensee is responsible for the costs of disposal. A
final contamination survey must be performed.
27.2
BIOLOGICAL WASTE MATERIALS
 Place all sharps (syringes, Pasteur pipettes, serological pipettes, razor blades,
etc.) in a sharps container and complete the Sharps Collection Request Form
available on the EHS website at: Sharps Collection request form
 Dispose of all solid media and supplies in the laboratory as red bag waste.
 Dispose of all other potentially biohazardous waste from the laboratory in red
bags as red bag waste.
 Decontaminate all liquid media by autoclaving or by treating for 30 minutes
with bleach solution (final concentration to be 10%) before drain disposal.
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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
27.3
Program No.
4.1
Classification
Chemical Safety
Decontaminate all work surfaces using freshly prepared 10% bleach solution
or 70% alcohol.
BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINETS (BSC)
 Remove all of the contents.
 Disconnect tissue culture media vacuum flask.
 Decontaminate all accessible surfaces with an appropriate disinfectant.
 Decontaminate the BSC by a certified contractor, if a BSC is being relocated
to a location outside of the building.
 Re-certify the BSC using a certified contractor when a BSC is relocated.
 If the BSC is not being moved and repair work will not open the contaminated
inner space, then only decontaminate surface with an appropriate disinfectant.
27.4 INTERNAL RELOCATION OF CHEMICALS
Lab personnel are allowed to transport chemicals from their current laboratory to the new
laboratory, if the labs are in the same building (e.g., no transporting on sidewalks and
across streets). Lab personnel must contact EHS to discuss transportation procedures
including cart usage, secondary containment, and proper incompatible chemical
segregation. Upon relocation, the chemical inventory for the laboratory must be updated.
If the lab does not wish to move the chemicals, the lab can utilize the procedure for
“External Relocation of Chemicals.” The lab is responsible for the costs of the outside
contractor.
27.5 EXTERNAL RELOCATION OF CHEMICALS
Chemical moves to laboratories in external locations (outside buildings) must be
transported by a U.S. Department of Transportation approved hazardous material hauler.
EHS has agreements with vendors to provide this service. However, all related chemical
move costs are the responsibility of the laboratory. In order to utilize these services, lab
personnel are required to:
 Remove all laboratory chemicals from shelves, cabinets, etc., which requires
moving and placing them in a central location. Label the area “Chemicals to
be moved.”
 The vendor will prepare all paperwork necessary for the chemical move.
 Upon relocation, the chemical inventory for the laboratory must be updated.
27.6 CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL
All chemical waste must be managed in accordance with the WCMC Waste Disposal
Procedures At a minimum the following procedures must be used:
 Keep an appropriate hazardous waste label on all chemical waste containers.
Hazardous waste labels are available free of charge by contacting EHS.
 Keep all chemical waste in an appropriate container (screw type lid) and
closed at all times.
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Keep an area of the laboratory or other points of waste generation designated
for chemical waste only and label utilizing a Chemical Waste Satellite
Accumulation Area poster available by contacting EHS.
Complete the Chemical Waste Collection Request Form on the EHS website
Chemical Waste Collection Request.
For disposal of various aqueous buffers and empty containers, refer to the
WCMC Waste Disposal Procedures – Drain and Trash Disposal of Chemicals.
27.7 DISPOSAL OF COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
Remove regulators and replace the valve stem cap. Return gas cylinders to the supplying
vendor. Contact EHS for non-returnable cylinders.
27.8
RELOCATING COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
When laboratory relocations require crossing a public road (example: from 1300 York
Avenue to the S building at 515 East 71 Street), compressed gas cylinders (including
Liquid Nitrogen Cylinders) must be transferred by the supplying vendor. Contact the
appropriate vendor prior to relocating to arrange the move.
27.9 LIQUID NITROGEN-LINED FREEZERS
The vendors supplying liquid nitrogen recommend that liquid nitrogen-lined freezers be
drained to a minimum level (to sustain freezing of cells) prior to relocating. Liquid
nitrogen freezers are moved by the moving company and the vendor should be scheduled
to refill the freezers as soon as possible at the new location.
27.10 LABORATORY EQUIPMENT RELOCATION OR DISPOSAL
The following procedures must be completed before laboratory equipment will be
cleared.
 Remove all contents from laboratory equipment (e.g., chemicals, media, and
glassware).
 Remove all bench coat and disposable liners/covers from equipment and
dispose in red bag waste.
 Decontaminate all surfaces of contamination prone equipment, e.g.,
refrigerators, freezers, incubators, water baths, biological safety cabinets and
centrifuges with an appropriate disinfectant. Contact EHS for assistance.
 Freezers which have been used for the storage of biological materials must be
unplugged and defrosted.
 Incubators and water baths must be drained of all standing water, including
water inside the jacket.
27.11 ELECTRONICS RECYCLING
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All electronics (central processing units, monitors, keyboards, printers, televisions, and
scanners) must be separated from general trash and placed into a designated area for
collection by Facilities Engineering and Maintenance (212-746-2288 or
http://maintenanceexpress.med.cornell.edu). The designated area must be in an area
under the direct control of the generator (no hallway storage). All electronics must be
clearly labeled with a dated, removable sign “to be recycled.” EHS will pay for the
recycling cost. Departments must pay the Facilities Engineering and Maintenance charge
to move the equipment to the storage facility.
27.12 GENERAL LABORATORY CLEANUP
All laboratory areas must be thoroughly cleaned to assure removal of all hazardous
residues. All surfaces where hazardous chemicals have been used or stored must be
washed with detergent and water. This includes bench tops, cabinets, drawers, floors, etc.
For furniture and other items that are to be removed from the laboratory, thoroughly
decontaminate accessible surfaces to prevent harm to movers.
 Remove all bench coat and disposable liners/covers from work surfaces and
dispose in red bag waste.
 Empty and properly dispose of material from all drawers, cabinets, and fume
hoods.
 Properly clean laboratory bench tops, cabinets, drawers, floors and fume hood
surfaces (preferably with soap and water).
28.0
TRAINING
Laboratory personnel must receive annual training. Trainings are provided by EHS once a
month. It is the responsibility of the department that the training of their personnel is up to date.
To view the training records for the past year please visit our website:
Training Records and Certificates
The following is an outline for all initial and annual refresher trainings:
I. Introduction
II. Standards and Regulations
III. Chemical Hygiene Plan
 Standard Operating Procedures
 Procedures for toxics and other hazards
IV. Information on Chemicals
 Material Safety Data Sheets
 Other information sources
 Labels
V. Toxicology
 Routes of Exposure
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VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
29.0
Target Organs
Acute and Chronic Exposures
Medical Monitoring
Chemical Classification
Receiving and Storage
Preventing Exposure
 Substitution and Minimization
 Engineering Controls
 Personal Protective Equipment
SOPs and Laboratory Practices
Fire Department Regulations
 Codes
 Fire Extinguishers
Waste Disposal
 Satellite Accumulation Area
 Collecting Chemical Waste
 Other Waste Streams
Spills
 Small Spills
 Large Spills
RECORD RETENTION AND AVAILABILITY
EHS maintains records on file for the following:
 Exposure monitoring
 Spill incidents
 Inspections
 Accidents
 Waste manifests
Training records of all Chemical Safety and Waste Management training for the past year can be
found on the EHS website: Training records and Certificates. For previous years, call the EHS
office. Certificates of training are available to attendees by request. To request a certificate,
please email EHS at [email protected] with the date of training and the training title.
30.0
DEFINITIONS
Certificate of Fitness means a written statement issued by the FDNY certifying that the person
to whom it was issued has passed an examination as to their qualifications to perform such work
mentioned therein and that they have authority to perform such work during the term specified.
Combustible Liquid means a liquid mixture, substance or compound having a flashpoint at or
above 100ºF when tested in a Tagliabue closed cup tester.
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Explosive Material shall mean any quantity of Class A, Class B or Class C explosives as
classified by the Department of Transportation and any other chemical compounds or mixtures
thereof used as the propelling or exploding material in any cartridge or other explosive device.
The Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) and Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) values are the minimum
and maximum concentrations of a flammable gas or vapor between which ignition can occur.
Concentrations below the LEL are too lean to burn, while concentrations above the UEL are too
rich. All concentrations between LEL and UEL are in the flammable range, and special
precautions are needed to prevent ignition or explosion.
Flammable Gas means a gas which will form an explosive mixture upon concentration with air
or which will ignite in air. Utility gas piped into a laboratory shall not be considered as
flammable gas for purpose of classification under these regulations.
Flammable Liquid means any liquid mixture, substance or compound which will emit a
flammable vapor at a temperature below 100ºF when tested in a Tagliabue closed cup tester.
Flammable Solid means a solid substance other than one classified as an explosive, which is
liable to cause fire through friction, through absorption of moisture, through spontaneous
chemical changes, or as a result of retained heat from manufacturing or processing. Examples are
white phosphorous, nitrocellulose, metallic sodium and potassium, and zirconium powder.
Flash Point is the lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid gives off sufficient vapor to
form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface or within a vessel.
Hazardous chemical means any chemical which has a physical hazard or a health hazard.
Health hazard means any chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents,
reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins,
agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or
mucous membranes.
Laboratory is a generic term denoting a building, space, equipment or operation, wherein
testing, research or experimental work is conducted and shall include laboratories used for
instructional purposes.
Laboratory Unit means an enclosed, fire rated space used for testing, research, experimental or
educational purposes. Laboratory units may or may not include offices, lavatories, and other
contiguous rooms maintained for, or used by, laboratory personnel, and corridors within the
units. It may contain one or more separate laboratory work areas.
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Laboratory Work Area means a room or space within a laboratory unit for testing, analysis,
research, instruction, or similar activities which involve the use of chemicals or gases. A work
area may or may not be enclosed.
Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50): The concentration of a material in air which, on the basis of
laboratory tests, is expected to kill 50 percent of a group of test animals when administered as a
single exposure (usually 1 to 4 hours).
Lethal Dose 50 (LD50): A single dose of a material expected to kill 50 percent of a group of test
animals. The dose is expressed as the amount per unit of body weight, the most common
expression being milligrams of material per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg of body weight).
Usually refers to oral or skin exposure.
Oxidizing Material means a substance that yields oxygen readily to support combustion.
Examples are chlorates, permanganates, peroxides and nitrates.
Physical Hazard means a chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a
combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer,
pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive.
Reactive (Unstable) Chemical. - Reactive (unstable) chemical means a substance, other than
one classified as an explosive or blasting agent, which will vigorously and energetically react, is
potentially explosive, will polymerize or decompose instantaneously, undergo uncontrollable
auto-reaction or can be exploded by heat, shock, pressure or combinations thereof. Examples are
pyrophoric, water-reactive, and organic peroxides.
Reproductive Toxins are defined by the OSHA Laboratory Standard as substances that cause
chromosomal damage (mutagens) and substances with lethal or teratogenic effects on the
developing fetus.
Storage Cabinet means a cabinet for the storage of flammable liquid which is designed and
constructed in accordance with “OSHA General Industry Standards - Flammable and
Combustible Liquids.”
Storage Room means a room where chemicals or gases are stored and not otherwise used or
reacted.
Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) are guidelines prepared by the American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc (ACGIH) to assist industrial hygienists in making
decisions regarding safe levels of exposure to various hazards found in the workplace.
TLV-TWA: The allowable Time Weighted Average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday
(40-hour work week).
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TLV-STEL: The short-term exposure limit or maximum concentration for a continuous 15minute exposure period (maximum of four such periods per day, with at least 60 minutes
between exposure periods) and provided the TLV-TWA is not exceeded.
TLV-C: The ceiling exposure limit is the concentration that should never be exceeded, even
instantaneously.
31.0
REFERENCES
CDC-NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59 – Contact Lens Use in a Chemical Environment,
June 2005
FDNY Title 3, Chapter 10 – Chemical Laboratories
OSHA Code of Federal Regulations Title 29, Part 1910.1000 – Table Z-1 Limits for Air
Contaminants
OSHA Code of Federal Regulations Title 29, Part 1910.1450 – Occupational Exposure to
Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories
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APPENDIX A – HIGH HAZARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FORM
High Hazard Operating Procedure form available on EHS Website:
http://www.med.cornell.edu/ehs/static_local/pdfs/HighHazard.pdf
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APPENDIX B – EQUIPMENT DECONTAMINATION FORM
Equipment Decontamination Form available on EHS Website:
http://www.med.cornell.edu/ehs/static_local/pdfs/EquipDeconForm.pdf
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APPENDIX C – OSHA OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS
IN LABORATORIES STANDARD (OSHA CFR TITLE 29, PART 1910.1450)
http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10107
To assist employers in developing an appropriate laboratory Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), the following nonmandatory recommendations were based on the National Research Council's (NRC) 2011 edition of "Prudent
Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards." This reference, henceforth
referred to as "Prudent Practices," is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street NW.,
Washington DC 20001 (www.nap.edu). "Prudent Practices" is cited because of its wide distribution and
acceptance and because of its preparation by recognized authorities in the laboratory community through the
sponsorship of the NRC. However, these recommendations do not modify any requirements of the OSHA
Laboratory standard. This appendix presents pertinent recommendations from "Prudent Practices," organized
into a form convenient for quick reference during operation of a laboratory and during development and
application of a CHP. For a detailed explanation and justification for each recommendation, consult "Prudent
Practices."
"Prudent Practices" deals with both general laboratory safety and many types of chemical hazards, while the
Laboratory standard is concerned primarily with chemical health hazards as a result of chemical exposures. The
recommendations from "Prudent Practices" have been paraphrased, combined, or otherwise reorganized in
order to adapt them for this purpose. However, their sense has not been changed.
Section F contains information from the U.S. Chemical Safety Board's (CSB) Fiscal Year 2011 Annual
Performance and Accountability report and Section F contains recommendations extracted from the CSB's 2011
case study, "Texas Tech University Laboratory Explosion," available from: http://www.csb.gov/.
Culture of Safety
With the promulgation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Laboratory standard (29
CFR 1910.1450), a culture of safety consciousness, accountability, organization, and education has developed
in industrial, governmental, and academic laboratories. Safety and training programs have been implemented
to promote the safe handling of chemicals from ordering to disposal, and to train laboratory personnel in safe
practices. Laboratory personnel must realize that the welfare and safety of each individual depends on clearly
defined attitudes of teamwork and personal responsibility. Learning to participate in this culture of habitual risk
assessment, experiment planning, and consideration of worst-case possibilities—for oneself and one’s fellow
workers—is as much part of a scientific education as learning the theoretical background of experiments or the
step-by-step protocols for doing them in a professional manner. A crucial component of chemical education for
all personnel is to nurture basic attitudes and habits of prudent behavior so that safety is a valued and
inseparable part of all laboratory activities throughout their career.
Over the years, special techniques have been developed for handling chemicals safely. Local, state, and federal
regulations hold institutions that sponsor chemical laboratories accountable for providing safe working
environments. Beyond regulation, employers and scientists also hold themselves personally responsible for
their own safety, the safety of their colleagues and the safety of the general public. A sound safety
organization that is respected by all requires the participation and support of laboratory administrators,
workers, and students. A successful health and safety program requires a daily commitment from everyone in
the organization. To be most effective, safety and health must be balanced with, and incorporated into,
laboratory processes. A strong safety and health culture is the result of positive workplace attitudes—from the
chief executive officer to the newest hire; involvement and buy-in of all members of the workforce; mutual,
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meaningful, and measurable safety and health improvement goals; and policies and procedures that serve as
reference tools, rather than obscure rules.
In order to perform their work in a prudent manner, laboratory personnel must consider the health, physical,
and environmental hazards of the chemicals they plan to use in an experiment. However, the ability to
accurately identify and assess laboratory hazards must be taught and encouraged through training and
ongoing organizational support. This training must be at the core of every good health and safety program. For
management to lead, personnel to assess worksite hazards, and hazards to be eliminated or controlled,
everyone involved must be trained.
A. General Principles
1. Minimize All Chemical Exposures and Risks
Because few laboratory chemicals are without hazards, general precautions for handling all laboratory
chemicals should be adopted. In addition to these general guidelines, specific guidelines for chemicals that
are used frequently or are particularly hazardous should be adopted.
Laboratory personnel should conduct their work under conditions that minimize the risks from both known
and unknown hazardous substances. Before beginning any laboratory work, the hazards and risks
associated with an experiment or activity should be determined and the necessary safety precautions
implemented. Every laboratory should develop facility-specific policies and procedures for the highest-risk
materials and procedures used in their laboratory. To identify these, consideration should be given to past
accidents, process conditions, chemicals used in large volumes, and particularly hazardous chemicals.
Perform Risk Assessments for Hazardous Chemicals and Procedures Prior to Laboratory Work:
(a) Identify chemicals to be used, amounts required, and circumstances of use in the experiment.
Consider any special employee or laboratory conditions that could create or increase a hazard. Consult
sources of safety and health information and experienced scientists to ensure that those conducting the
risk assessment have sufficient expertise.
(b) Evaluate the hazards posed by the chemicals and the experimental conditions. The evaluation
should cover toxic, physical, reactive, flammable, explosive, radiation, and biological hazards, as well as
any other potential hazards posed by the chemicals.
(c) For a variety of physical and chemical reasons, reaction scale-ups pose special risks, which merit
additional prior review and precautions.
(d) Select appropriate controls to minimize risk, including use of engineering controls, administrative
controls, and personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect workers from hazards. The controls must
ensure that OSHA’s Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) are not exceeded. Prepare for contingencies and
be aware of the institutional procedures in the event of emergencies and accidents.
One sample approach to risk assessment is to answer these five questions:
(a) What are the hazards?
(b) What is the worst thing that could happen?
(c) What can be done to prevent this from happening?
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(d) What can be done to protect from these hazards?
(e) What should be done if something goes wrong?
2. Avoid Underestimation of Risk
Even for substances of no known significant hazard, exposure should be minimized; when working with
substances that present special hazards, special precautions should be taken. Reference should be made to
the safety data sheet (SDS) that is provided for each chemical. Unless otherwise known, one should
assume that any mixture will be more toxic than its most toxic component and that all substances of
unknown toxicity are toxic.
Determine the physical and health hazards associated with chemicals before working with them. This
determination may involve consulting literature references, laboratory chemical safety summaries (LCSSs),
SDSs, or other reference materials. Consider how the chemicals will be processed and determine whether
the changing states or forms will change the nature of the hazard. Review your plan, operating limits,
chemical evaluations and detailed risk assessment with other chemists, especially those with experience
with similar materials and protocols.
Before working with chemicals, know your facility’s policies and procedures for how to handle an accidental
spill or fire. Emergency telephone numbers should be posted in a prominent area. Know the location of all
safety equipment and the nearest fire alarm and telephone.
3. Adhere to the Hierarchy of Controls
The hierarchy of controls prioritizes intervention strategies based on the premise that the best way to
control a hazard is to systematically remove it from the workplace, rather than relying on employees to
reduce their exposure. The types of measures that may be used to protect employees (listed from most
effective to least effective) are: engineering controls, administrative controls, work practices, and PPE.
Engineering controls, such as chemical hoods, physically separate the employee from the hazard.
Administrative controls, such as employee scheduling, are established by management to help minimize the
employees’ exposure time to hazardous chemicals. Work practice controls are tasks that are performed in a
designated way to minimize or eliminate hazards. Personal protective equipment and apparel are additional
protection provided under special circumstances and when exposure is unavoidable.
Face and eye protection is necessary to prevent ingestion and skin absorption of hazardous chemicals. At a
minimum, safety glasses, with side shields, should be used for all laboratory work. Chemical splash goggles
are more appropriate than regular safety glasses to protect against hazards such as projectiles, as well as
when working with glassware under reduced or elevated pressures (e.g., sealed tube reactions), when
handling potentially explosive compounds (particularly during distillations), and when using glassware in
high-temperature operations. Do not allow laboratory chemicals to come in contact with skin. Select gloves
carefully to ensure that they are impervious to the chemicals being used and are of correct thickness to
allow reasonable dexterity while also ensuring adequate barrier protection.
Lab coats and gloves should be worn when working with hazardous materials in a laboratory. Wear closedtoe shoes and long pants or other clothing that covers the legs when in a laboratory where hazardous
chemicals are used. Additional protective clothing should be used when there is significant potential for
skin-contact exposure to chemicals. The protective characteristics of this clothing must be matched to the
hazard. Never wear gloves or laboratory coats outside the laboratory or into areas where food is stored and
consumed.
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4. Provide Laboratory Ventilation
The best way to prevent exposure to airborne substances is to prevent their escape into the working
atmosphere by the use of hoods and other ventilation devices. To determine the best choice for laboratory
ventilation using engineering controls for personal protection, employers are referred to Table 9.3 of the
2011 edition of ‘‘Prudent Practices.’’ Laboratory chemical hoods are the most important components used to
protect laboratory personnel from exposure to hazardous chemicals.
(a) Toxic or corrosive chemicals that require vented storage should be stored in vented cabinets instead
of in a chemical hood.
(b) Chemical waste should not be disposed of by evaporation in a chemical hood.
(c) Keep chemical hood areas clean and free of debris at all times.
(d) Solid objects and materials, such as paper, should be prevented from entering the exhaust ducts as
they can reduce the air flow.
(e) Chemical hoods should be maintained, monitored and routinely tested for proper performance.
A laboratory ventilation system should include the following characteristics and practices:
(a) Heating and cooling should be adequate for the comfort of workers and operation of equipment.
Before modification of any building HVAC, the impact on laboratory or hood ventilation should be
considered, as well as how laboratory ventilation changes may affect the building HVAC.
(b) A negative pressure differential should exist between the amount of air exhausted from the
laboratory and the amount supplied to the laboratory to prevent uncontrolled chemical vapors from
leaving the laboratory.
(c) Local exhaust ventilation devices should be appropriate to the materials and operations in the
laboratory.
(d) The air in chemical laboratories should be continuously replaced so that concentrations of
odoriferous or toxic substances do not increase during the workday.
(e) Laboratory air should not be recirculated but exhausted directly outdoors.
(f) Air pressure should be negative with respect to the rest of the building. Local capture equipment and
systems should be designed only by an experienced engineer or industrial hygienist.
(g) Ventilation systems should be inspected and maintained on a regular basis. There should be no
areas where air remains static or areas that have unusually high airflow velocities.
Before work begins, laboratory workers should be provided with proper training that includes how to use
the ventilation equipment, how to ensure that it is functioning properly, the consequences of improper use,
what to do in the event of a system failure or power outage, special considerations, and the importance of
signage and postings.
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5. Institute a Chemical Hygiene Program
A comprehensive chemical hygiene program is required. It should be designed to minimize exposures,
injuries, illnesses and incidents. There should be a regular, continuing effort that includes program
oversight, safe facilities, chemical hygiene planning, training, emergency preparedness and chemical
security. The chemical hygiene program must be reviewed annually and updated as necessary whenever
new processes, chemicals, or equipment is implemented. Its recommendations should be followed in all
laboratories.
6. Observe the PELs and TLVs
OSHA’s Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) must not be exceeded. The American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists’ Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) should also not be exceeded.
B. Responsibilities
Persons responsible for chemical hygiene include, but are not limited to, the following:
1. Chemical Hygiene Officer
(a) Establishes, maintains, and revises the chemical hygiene plan (CHP).
(b) Creates and revises safety rules and regulations.
(c) Monitors procurement, use, storage, and disposal of chemicals.
(d) Conducts regular inspections of the laboratories, preparations rooms, and chemical storage rooms,
and submits detailed laboratory inspection reports to administration.
(e) Maintains inspection, personnel training, and inventory records.
(f) Assists laboratory supervisors in developing and maintaining adequate facilities.
(g) Seeks ways to improve the chemical hygiene program.
2. Department Chairperson or Director
(a) Assumes responsibility for personnel engaged in the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals.
(b) Provides the chemical hygiene officer (CHO) with the support necessary to implement and maintain
the CHP.
(c) After receipt of laboratory inspection report from the CHO, meets with laboratory supervisors to
discuss cited violations and to ensure timely actions to protect trained laboratory personnel and facilities
and to ensure that the department remains in compliance with all applicable federal, state, university,
local and departmental codes and regulations.
(d) Provides budgetary arrangements to ensure the health and safety of the departmental personnel,
visitors, and students.
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3. Departmental Safety Committee reviews accident reports and makes appropriate recommendations to
the department chairperson regarding proposed changes in the laboratory procedures.
4. Laboratory Supervisor or Principal Investigator has overall responsibility for chemical hygiene in the
laboratory, including responsibility to:
(a) Ensure that laboratory personnel comply with the departmental CHP and do not operate equipment
or handle hazardous chemicals without proper training and authorization.
(b) Always wear personal protective equipment (PPE) that is compatible to the degree of hazard of the
chemical.
(c) Follow all pertinent safety rules when working in the laboratory to set an example.
(d) Review laboratory procedures for potential safety problems before assigning to other laboratory
personnel.
(e) Ensure that visitors follow the laboratory rules and assumes responsibility for laboratory visitors.
(f) Ensure that PPE is available and properly used by each laboratory employee and visitor.
(g) Maintain and implement safe laboratory practices.
(h) Provide regular, formal chemical hygiene and housekeeping inspections, including routine
inspections of emergency equipment;
(i) Monitor the facilities and the chemical fume hoods to ensure that they are maintained and function
properly. Contact the appropriate person, as designated by the department chairperson, to report
problems with the facilities or the chemical fume hoods.
5. Laboratory Personnel
(a) Read, understand, and follow all safety rules and regulations that apply to the work area;
(b) Plan and conduct each operation in accordance with the institutional chemical hygiene procedures;
(c) Promote good housekeeping practices in the laboratory or work area.
(d) Notify the supervisor of any hazardous conditions or unsafe work practices in the work area.
(e) Use PPE as appropriate for each procedure that involves hazardous chemicals.
C. The Laboratory Facility
General Laboratory Design Considerations Wet chemical spaces and those with a higher degree of hazard
should be separated from other spaces by a wall or protective barrier wherever possible. If the areas cannot be
separated, then workers in lower hazard spaces may require additional protection from the hazards in
connected spaces.
1. Laboratory Layout and Furnishing
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(a) Work surfaces should be chemically resistant, smooth, and easy to clean.
(b) Hand washing sinks for hazardous materials may require elbow, foot, or electronic controls for safe
operation.
(c) Wet laboratory areas should have chemically resistant, impermeable, slipresistant flooring.
(d) Walls should be finished with a material that is easy to clean and maintain.
(e) Doors should have view panels to prevent accidents and should open in the direction of egress.
(f) Operable windows should not be present in laboratories, particularly if there are chemical hoods or
other local ventilation systems present.
2. Safety Equipment and Utilities
(a) An adequate number and placement of safety showers, eyewash units, and fire extinguishers should
be provided for the laboratory.
(b) Use of water sprinkler systems is resisted by some laboratories because of the presence of electrical
equipment or waterreactive materials, but it is still generally safer to have sprinkler systems installed. A
fire large enough to trigger the sprinkler system would have the potential to cause far more destruction
than the local water damage.
D. Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)
The OSHA Laboratory standard defines a CHP as ‘‘a written program developed and implemented by the
employer which sets forth procedures, equipment, personal protective equipment and work practices that are
capable of protecting employees from the health hazards presented by hazardous chemicals used in that
particular workplace.’’ (29 CFR 1910.1450(b)). The Laboratory Standard requires a CHP: ‘‘Where hazardous
chemicals as defined by this standard are used in the workplace, the employer shall develop and carry out the
provisions of a written Chemical Hygiene Plan.’’ (29 CFR 1910.1450(e)(1)). The CHP is the foundation of the
laboratory safety program and must be reviewed and updated, as needed, and at least on an annual basis to
reflect changes in policies and personnel. A CHP should be facility specific and can assist in promoting a culture
of safety to protect workers from exposure to hazardous materials.
1. The Laboratory’s CHP must be readily available to workers and capable of protecting workers from
health hazards and minimizing exposure. Include the following topics in the CHP:
(a) Individual chemical hygiene responsibilities;
(b) Standard operating procedures;
(c) Personal protective equipment, engineering controls and apparel;
(d) Laboratory equipment;
(e) Safety equipment;
(f) Chemical management;
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(g) Housekeeping;
(h) Emergency procedures for accidents and spills;
(i) Chemical waste;
(j) Training;
(k) Safety rules and regulations;
(l) Laboratory design and ventilation;
(m) Exposure monitoring;
(n) Compressed gas safety;
(o) Medical consultation and examination.
It should be noted that the nature of laboratory work may necessitate addressing biological safety,
radiation safety and security issues.
2. Chemical Procurement, Distribution, and Storage
Prudent chemical management includes the following processes:
Chemical Procurement:
(a) Information on proper handling, storage, and disposal should be known to those who will be
involved before a substance is received.
(b) Only containers with adequate identifying labels should be accepted.
(c) Ideally, a central location should be used for receiving all chemical shipments.
(d) Shipments with breakage or leakage should be refused or opened in a chemical hood.
(e) Only the minimum amount of the chemical needed to perform the planned work should be ordered.
(f) Purchases of high risk chemicals should be reviewed and approved by the CHO.
(g) Proper protective equipment and handling and storage procedures should be in place before
receiving a shipment.
Chemical Storage:
(a) Chemicals should be separated and stored according to hazard category and compatibility.
(b) SDS and label information should be followed for storage requirements.
(c) Maintain existing labels on incoming containers of chemicals and other materials.
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(d) Labels on containers used for storing hazardous chemicals must include the chemical identification
and appropriate hazard warnings.
(e) The contents of all other chemical containers and transfer vessels, including, but not limited to,
beakers, flasks, reaction vessels, and process equipment, should be properly identified.
(f) Chemical shipments should be dated upon receipt and stock rotated.
(g) Peroxide formers should be dated upon receipt, again dated upon opening, and stored away from
heat and light with tightfitting, nonmetal lids.
(h) Open shelves used for chemical storage should be secured to the wall and contain 3/4-inch lips.
Secondary containment devices should be used as necessary.
(i) Consult the SDS and keep incompatibles separate during transport, storage, use, and disposal.
(j) Oxidizers, reducing agents, and fuels should be stored separately to prevent contact in the event of
an accident.
(k) Chemicals should not be stored in the chemical hood, on the floor, in areas of egress, on the
benchtop, or in areas near heat or in direct sunlight.
(l) Laboratory-grade, flammable-rated refrigerators and freezers should be used to store sealed
chemical containers of flammable liquids that require cool storage. Do not store food or beverages in
the laboratory refrigerator.
(m) Highly hazardous chemicals should be stored in a well-ventilated and secure area designated for
that purpose.
(n) Flammable chemicals should be stored in a spark-free environment and in approved flammableliquid containers and storage cabinets. Grounding and bonding should be used to prevent static charge
buildups when dispensing solvents.
(o) Chemical storage and handling rooms should be controlled-access areas. They should have proper
ventilation, appropriate signage, diked floors, and fire suppression systems.
Chemical Handling:
(a) As described above, a risk assessment should be conducted prior to beginning work with any
hazardous chemical for the first time.
(b) All SDS and label information should be read before using a chemical for the first time.
(c) Trained laboratory workers should ensure that proper engineering controls (ventilation) and PPE are
in place.
Chemical Inventory:
(a) Prudent management of chemicals in any laboratory is greatly facilitated by keeping an accurate
inventory of the chemicals stored.
(b) Unneeded items should be discarded or returned to the storeroom.
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Transporting Chemicals:
(a) Secondary containment devices should be used when transporting chemicals.
(b) When transporting chemicals outside of the laboratory or between stockrooms and laboratories, the
transport container should be break-resistant.
(c) High-traffic areas should be avoided.
Transferring Chemicals:
(a) Use adequate ventilation (such as a fume hood) when transferring even a small amount of a
particularly hazardous substance (PHS).
(b) While drum storage is not appropriate for laboratories, chemical stockrooms may purchase drum
quantities of solvents used in high volumes. Ground and bond the drum and receiving vessel when
transferring flammable liquids from a drum to prevent static charge buildup.
(c) If chemicals from commercial sources are repackaged into transfer vessels, the new containers
should be labeled with all essential information on the original container.
Shipping Chemicals: Outgoing chemical shipments must meet all applicable Department of Transportation
(DOT) regulations and should be authorized and handled by the institutional shipper.
3. Waste Management
A waste management plan should be in place before work begins on any laboratory activity. The plan
should utilize the following hierarchy of practices:
(a) Reduce waste sources. The best approach to minimize waste generation is by reducing the scale of
operations, reducing its formation during operations, and, if possible, substituting less hazardous
chemicals for a particular operation.
(b) Reuse surplus materials. Only the amount of material necessary for an experiment should be
purchased, and, if possible, materials should be reused.
(c) Recycle waste. If waste cannot be prevented or minimized, the organization should consider
recycling chemicals that can be safely recovered or used as fuel.
(d) Dispose of waste properly. Sink disposal may not be appropriate. Proper waste disposal methods
include incineration, treatment, and land disposal. The organization’s environmental health and safety
(EHS) office should be consulted in determining which methods are appropriate for different types of
waste.
Collection and Storage of Waste:
(a) Chemical waste should be accumulated at or near the point of generation, under the control of
laboratory workers.
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(b) Each waste type should be stored in a compatible container pending transfer or disposal. Waste
containers should be clearly labeled and kept sealed when not in use.
(c) Incompatible waste types should be kept separate to ensure that heat generation, gas evolution, or
another reaction does not occur.
(d) Waste containers should be segregated by how they will be managed. Waste containers should be
stored in a designated location that does not interfere with normal laboratory operations. Ventilated
storage and secondary containment may be appropriate for certain waste types.
(e) Waste containers should be clearly labeled and kept sealed when not in use. Labels should include
the accumulation start date and hazard warnings as appropriate.
(f) Non-explosive electrical systems, grounding and bonding between floors and containers, and nonsparking conductive floors and containers should be used in the central waste accumulation area to
minimize fire and explosion hazards. Fire suppression systems, specialized ventilation systems, and
dikes should be installed in the central waste accumulation area. Waste management workers should be
trained in proper waste handling procedures as well as contingency planning and emergency response.
Trained laboratory workers most familiar with the waste should be actively involved in waste
management decisions to ensure that the waste is managed safely and efficiently. Engineering controls
should be implemented as necessary, and personal protective equipment should be worn by workers
involved in waste management.
4. Inspection Program
Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of the aboratory safety
program. Management should participate in the design of a laboratory inspection program to ensure that
the facility is safe and healthy, workers are adequately trained, and proper procedures are being followed.
Types of inspections: The program should include an appropriate combination of routine inspections, selfaudits, program audits, peer inspections, EHS inspections, and inspections by external entities.
Elements of an inspection:
(a) Inspectors should bring a checklist to ensure that all issues are covered and a camera to document
issues that require correction.
(b) Conversations with workers should occur during the inspection, as they can provide valuable
information and allow inspectors an opportunity to show workers how to fix problems.
(c) Issues resolved during the inspection should be noted.
(d) An inspection report containing all findings and recommendations should be prepared for
management and other appropriate workers.
(e) Management should follow-up on the inspection to ensure that all corrections are implemented.
5. Medical Consultation and Examination
The employer must provide all employees who work with hazardous chemicals an opportunity to receive
medical attention, including any follow-up examinations that the examining physician determines to be
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necessary, whenever an employee develops signs or symptoms associated with a hazardous chemical to
which the employee may have been exposed in the laboratory. If an employee encounters a spill, leak,
explosion or other occurrence resulting in the likelihood of a hazardous exposure, the affected employee
must be provided an opportunity for a medical consultation by a licensed physician. All medical
examinations and consultations must be performed by or under the direct supervision of a licensed
physician and must be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay and at a reasonable time
and place. The identity of the hazardous chemical, a description of the incident, and any signs and
symptoms that the employee may experience must be relayed to the physician.
6. Records
All accident, fatality, illness, injury, and medical records and exposure monitoring records must be retained
by the institution in accordance with the requirements of state and federal regulations (see 29 CFR part
1904 and § 1910.1450(j)). Any exposure monitoring results must be provided to affected laboratory staff
within 15 working days after receipt of the results (29 CFR 1910.1450(d)(4)).
7. Signs
Prominent signs of the following types should be posted:
(a) Emergency telephone numbers of emergency personnel/facilities, supervisors, and laboratory
workers;
(b) Location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid equipment, and exits;
and
(c) Warnings at areas or equipment where special or unusual hazards exist.
8. Spills and Accidents
Before beginning an experiment, know your facility’s policies and procedures for how to handle an
accidental release of a hazardous substance, a spill or a fire. Emergency response planning and training are
especially important when working with highly toxic compounds. Emergency telephone numbers should be
posted in a prominent area. Know the location of all safety equipment and the nearest fire alarm and
telephone. Know who to notify in the event of an emergency. Be prepared to provide basic emergency
treatment. Keep your co-workers informed of your activities so they can respond appropriately. Safety
equipment, including spill control kits, safety shields, fire safety equipment, PPE, safety showers and
eyewash units, and emergency equipment should be available in wellmarked highly visible locations in all
chemical laboratories. The laboratory supervisor or CHO is responsible for ensuring that all personnel are
aware of the locations of fire extinguishers and are trained in their use. After an extinguisher has been
used, designated personnel must promptly recharge or replace it (29 CFR 1910.157(c)(4)). The laboratory
supervisor or CHO is also responsible for ensuring proper training and providing supplementary equipment
as needed.
Special care must be used when handling solutions of chemicals in syringes with needles. Do not recap
needles, especially when they have been in contact with chemicals. Remove the needle and discard it
immediately after use in the appropriate sharps containers. Blunt-tip needles are available from a number
of commercial sources and should be used unless a sharp needle is required to puncture rubber septa or
for subcutaneous injection.
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For unattended operations, laboratory lights should be left on, and signs should be posted to identify the
nature of the experiment and the hazardous substances in use. Arrangements should be made, if possible, for
other workers to periodically inspect the operation. Information should be clearly posted indicating who to
contact in the event of an emergency. Depending on the nature of the hazard, special rules, precautions, and
alert systems may be necessary.
9. Training and Information
Personnel training at all levels within the organization, is essential. Responsibility and accountability throughout
the organization are key elements in a strong safety and health program. The employer is required to provide
employees with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals present
in their work area (29 CFR 1910.1450(f)). This information must be provided at the time of an employee’s
initial assignment to a work area where hazardous chemicals are present and prior to assignments involving
new exposure situations. The frequency of refresher information and training should be determined by the
employer. At a minimum, laboratory personnel should be trained on their facility’s specific CHP, methods and
observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical (such as monitoring
conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals
when being released), the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the work area and means to protect
themselves from these hazards. Trained laboratory personnel must know shut-off procedures in case of an
emergency. All SDSs must be made available to the employees.
E. General Procedures for Working With Chemicals
The risk of laboratory injuries can be reduced through adequate training, improved engineering, good
housekeeping, safe work practice and personal behavior.
1. General Rules for Laboratory Work With Chemicals
(a) Assigned work schedules should be followed unless a deviation is authorized by the laboratory
supervisor.
(b) Unauthorized experiments should not be performed.
(c) Plan safety procedures before beginning any operation.
(d) Follow standard operating procedures at all times.
(e) Always read the SDS and label before using a chemical.
(f) Wear appropriate PPE at all times.
(g) To protect your skin from splashes, spills and drips, always wear long pants and closed-toe shoes.
(h) Use appropriate ventilation when working with hazardous chemicals.
(i) Pipetting should never be done by mouth.
(j) Hands should be washed with soap and water immediately after working with any laboratory
chemicals, even if gloves have been worn.
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(k) Eating, drinking, smoking, gum chewing, applying cosmetics, and taking medicine in laboratories where
hazardous chemicals are used or stored should be strictly prohibited.
(l) Food, beverages, cups, and other drinking and eating utensils should not be stored in areas where
hazardous chemicals are handled or stored.
(m) Laboratory refrigerators, ice chests, cold rooms, and ovens should not be used for food storage or
preparation.
(n) Contact the laboratory supervisor, Principal Investigator, CHO or EHS office with all safety questions
or concerns.
(o) Know the location and proper use of safety equipment.
(p) Maintain situational awareness.
(q) Make others aware of special hazards associated with your work.
(r) Notify supervisors of chemical sensitivities or allergies.
(s) Report all injuries, accidents, incidents, and near misses.
(t) Unauthorized persons should not be allowed in the laboratory.
(u) Report unsafe conditions to the laboratory supervisor or CHO.
(v) Properly dispose of chemical wastes.
Working Alone in the Laboratory
Working alone in a laboratory is dangerous and should be strictly avoided. There have been many tragic
accidents that illustrate this danger. Accidents are unexpected by definition, which is why coworkers should
always be present. Workers should coordinate schedules to avoid working alone.
Housekeeping
Housekeeping can help reduce or eliminate a number of laboratory hazards. Proper housekeeping includes
appropriate labeling and storage of chemicals, safe and regular cleaning of the facility, and proper
arrangement of laboratory equipment.
2. Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials
Nanoparticles and nanomaterials have different reactivities and interactions with biological systems than
bulk materials, and understanding and exploiting these differences is an active area of research. However,
these differences also mean that the risks and hazards associated with exposure to engineered
nanomaterials are not well known. Because this is an area of ongoing research, consult trusted sources for
the most up to date information available. Note that the higher reactivity of many nanoscale materials
suggests that they should be treated as potential sources of ignition, accelerants, and fuel that could result
in fire or explosion. Easily dispersed dry nanomaterials may pose the greatest health hazard because of the
risk of inhalation. Operations involving these nanomaterials deserve more attention and more stringent
controls than those where the nanomaterials are embedded in solid or suspended in liquid matrixes.
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Consideration should be given to all possible routes of exposure to nanomaterials including inhalation,
ingestion, injection, and dermal contact (including eye and mucous membranes). Avoid handling
nanomaterials in the open air in a freeparticle state. Whenever possible, handle and store dispersible
nanomaterials, whether suspended in liquids or in a dry particle form, in closed (tightly-sealed) containers.
Unless cutting or grinding occurs, nanomaterials that are not in a free form (encapsulated in a solid or a
nanocomposite) typically will not require engineering controls. If a synthesis is being performed to create
nanomaterials, it is not enough to only consider the final material in the risk assessment, but consider the
hazardous properties of the precursor materials as well.
To minimize laboratory personnel exposure, conduct any work that could generate engineered
nanoparticles in an enclosure that operates at a negative pressure differential compared to the laboratory
personnel breathing zone. Limited data exist regarding the efficacy of PPE and ventilation systems against
exposure to nanoparticles. However, until further information is available, it is prudent to follow standard
chemical hygiene practices. Conduct a hazard evaluation to determine PPE appropriate for the level of
hazard according to the requirements set forth in OSHA’s Personal Protective Equipment standard (29 CFR
1910.132).
3. Highly Toxic and Explosive/Reactive Chemicals/Materials
The use of highly toxic and explosive/ reactive chemicals and materials has been an area of growing
concern. The frequency of academic laboratory incidents in the U.S. is an area of significant concern for the
Chemical Safety Board (CSB). The CSB issued a case study on an explosion at Texas Tech University in
Lubbock, Texas, which severely injured a graduate student handling a high-energy metal compound. Since
2001, the CSB has gathered preliminary information on 120 different university laboratory incidents that
resulted in 87 evacuations, 96 injuries, and three deaths.
It is recommended that each facility keep a detailed inventory of highly toxic chemicals and
explosive/reactive materials. There should be a record of the date of receipt, amount, location, and
responsible individual for all acquisitions, syntheses, and disposal of these chemicals. A physical inventory
should be performed annually to verify active inventory records. There should be a procedure in place to
report security breaches, inventory discrepancies, losses, diversions, or suspected thefts.
Procedures for disposal of highly toxic materials should be established before any experiments begin,
possibly even before the chemicals are ordered. The procedures should address methods for
decontamination of any laboratory equipment that comes into contact with highly toxic chemicals. All waste
should be accumulated in clearly labeled impervious containers that are stored in unbreakable secondary
containment.
Highly reactive and explosive materials that may be used in the laboratory require appropriate procedures
and training. An explosion can occur when a material undergoes a rapid reaction that results in a violent
release of energy. Such reactions can happen spontaneously and can produce pressures, gases, and fumes
that are hazardous. Some reagents pose a risk on contact with the atmosphere. It is prudent laboratory
practice to use a safer alternative whenever possible.
If at all possible, substitutes for highly acute, chronic, explosive, or reactive chemicals should be considered
prior to beginning work and used whenever possible.
4. Compressed Gas
Compressed gases expose laboratory personnel to both chemical and physical hazards. It is essential that
these are monitored for leaks and have the proper labeling. By monitoring compressed gas inventories and
disposing of or returning gases for which there is no immediate need, the laboratory can substantially
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reduce these risks. Leaking gas cylinders can cause serious hazards that may require an immediate
evacuation of the area and activation of the emergency response system. Only appropriately trained
hazmat responders may respond to stop a leaking gas cylinder under this situation.
F. Safety Recommendations—Physical Hazards
Physical hazards in the laboratory include combustible liquids, compressed gases, reactives, explosives and
flammable chemicals, as well as high pressure/energy procedures, sharp objects and moving equipment.
Injuries can result from bodily contact with rotating or moving objects, including mechanical equipment, parts,
and devices. Personnel should not wear loosefitting clothing, jewelry, or unrestrained long hair around
machinery with moving parts.
The Chemical Safety Board has identified the following key lessons for laboratories that address both physical
and other hazards:
(1) Ensure that research-specific hazards are evaluated and then controlled by developing specific written
protocols and training.
(2) Expand existing laboratory safety plans to ensure that all safety hazards, including physical hazards of
chemicals, are addressed.
(3) Ensure that the organization’s EHS office reports directly to an identified individual/office with
organizational authority to implement safety improvements.
(4) Develop a verification program that ensures that the safety provisions of the CHP are communicated,
followed, and enforced at all levels within the organization.
(5) Document and communicate all laboratory near-misses and previous incidents to track safety, provide
opportunities for education and improvement to drive safety changes at the university.
(6) Manage the hazards unique to laboratory chemical research in the academic environment. Utilize
available practice guidance that identifies and describes methodologies to assess and control hazards.
(7) Written safety protocols and training are necessary to manage laboratory risk.
G. Emergency Planning
In addition to laboratory safety issues, laboratory personnel should be familiar with established facility policies
and procedures regarding emergency situations. Topics may include, but are not limited to:
(1) Evacuation procedures—when it is appropriate and alternate routes;
(2) Emergency shutdown procedures—equipment shutdown and materials that should be stored safely;
(3) Communications during an emergency—what to expect, how to report, where to call or look for
information;
(4) How and when to use a fire extinguisher;
(5) Security issues—preventing tailgating and unauthorized access;
(6) Protocol for absences due to travel restrictions or illness;
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(7) Safe practices for power outage;
(8) Shelter in place—when it is appropriate;
(9) Handling suspicious mail or phone calls;
(10) Laboratory-specific protocols relating to emergency planning and response;
(11) Handling violent behavior in the workplace; and
(12) First-aid and CPR training, including automated external defibrillator training if available.
It is prudent that laboratory personnel are also trained in how to respond to short-term, long-term and largescale emergencies. Laboratory security can play a role in reducing the likelihood of some emergencies and
assisting in preparation and response for others. Every institution, department, and individual laboratory should
consider having an emergency preparedness plan. The level of detail of the plan will vary depending on the
function of the group and institutional planning efforts already in place.
Emergency planning is a dynamic process. As personnel, operations, and events change, plans will need to be
updated and modified. To determine the type and level of emergency planning needed, laboratory personnel
need to perform a vulnerability assessment. Periodic drills to assist in training and evaluation of the emergency
plan are recommended as part of the training program.
H. Emergency Procedures
(1) Fire alarm policy. Most organizations use fire alarms whenever a building needs to be evacuated—for
any reason. When a fire alarm sounds in the facility, evacuate immediately after extinguishing all
equipment flames. Check on and assist others who may require help evacuating.
(2) Emergency safety equipment. The following safety elements should be met:
a. A written emergency action plan has been provided to workers;
b. Fire extinguishers, eyewash units, and safety showers are available and tested on a regular basis;
and
c. Fire blankets, first-aid equipment, fire alarms, and telephones are available and accessible.
(3) Chemical spills. Workers should contact the CHO or EHS office for instructions before cleaning up a
chemical spill. All SDS and label instructions should be followed, and appropriate PPE should be worn
during spill cleanup.
(4) Accident procedures. In the event of an accident, immediately notify appropriate personnel and local
emergency responders. Provide an SDS of any chemical involved to the attending physician. Complete an
accident report and submit it to the appropriate office or individual within 24 hours.
(5) Employee safety training program. New workers should attend safety training before they begin any
activities. Additional training should be provided when they advance in their duties or are required to
perform a task for the first time. Training documents should be recorded and maintained. Training should
include hands-on instruction of how to use safety equipment appropriately.
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(6) Conduct drills. Practice building evacuations, including the use of alternate routes. Practice shelter-inplace, including plans for extended stays. Walk the fastest route from your work area to the nearest fire
alarm, emergency eye wash and emergency shower. Learn how each is activated. In the excitement of an
actual emergency, people rely on what they learned from drills, practice and training.
(7) Contingency plans. All laboratories should have long-term contingency plans in place (e.g., for
pandemics). Scheduling, workload, utilities and alternate work sites may need to be considered.
I. Laboratory Security
Laboratory security has evolved in the past decade, reducing the likelihood of some emergencies and assisting
in preparation and response for others. Most security measures are based on the laboratory’s vulnerability.
Risks to laboratory security include, but are not limited to:
(1) Theft or diversion of chemicals, biologicals, and radioactive or proprietary materials, mission-critical or
high-value equipment;
(2) Threats from activist groups;
(3) Intentional release of, or exposure to, hazardous materials;
(4) Sabotage or vandalism of chemicals or high-value equipment;
(5) Loss or release of sensitive information; and
(6) Rogue work or unauthorized laboratory experimentation. Security systems in the laboratory are used to
detect and respond to a security breach, or a potential security breach, as well as to delay criminal activity
by imposing multiple layered barriers of increasing stringency. A good laboratory security system will
increase overall safety for laboratory personnel and the public, improve emergency preparedness by
assisting with preplanning, and lower the organization’s liability by incorporating more rigorous planning,
staffing, training, and command systems and implementing emergency communications protocols, drills,
background checks, card access systems, video surveillance, and other measures. The security plan should
clearly delineate response to security issues, including the coordination of institution and laboratory
personnel with both internal and external responders.
[76 FR 33609, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 17888, March 26, 2012; 78 FR 4325, Jan. 22, 2013]
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APPENDIX D – OSHA STANDARDS – TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES –
LIMITS FOR AIR CONTAMINANTS (CFR TITLE 29, PART 1910.1000)
http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_id=9991&p_table=STANDARDS
An employee's exposure to any substance listed in Tables Z-1, Z-2, or Z-3 of this section shall be limited in
accordance with the requirements of the following paragraphs of this section.
1910.1000(a)
Table Z-1 --.
1910.1000(a)(1)
Substances with limits preceded by "C" - Ceiling Values. An employee's exposure to any substance in
Table Z-1, the exposure limit of which is preceded by a "C", shall at no time exceed the exposure limit given
for that substance. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, then the ceiling shall be assessed as a 15minute time weighted average exposure which shall not be exceeded at any time during the working day.
1910.1000(a)(2)
Other substances -- 8-hour Time Weighted Averages. An employee's exposure to any substance in
Table Z-1, the exposure limit of which is not preceded by a "C", shall not exceed the 8-hour Time Weighted
Average given for that substance any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week.
1910.1000(b)
Table Z-2. An employee's exposure to any substance listed in Table Z-2 shall not exceed the exposure limits
specified as follows:
1910.1000(b)(1)
8-hour time weighted averages. An employee's exposure to any substance listed in Table Z-2, in any 8-
hour work shift of a 40-hour work week, shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average limit given for that
substance in Table Z-2.
1910.1000(b)(2)
Acceptable ceiling concentrations. An employee's exposure to a substance listed in Table Z-2 shall not
exceed at any time during an 8-hour shift the acceptable ceiling concentration limit given for the substance in
the table, except for a time period, and up to a concentration not exceeding the maximum duration and
concentration allowed in the column under "acceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling
concentration for an 8-hour shift".
1910.1000(b)(3)
Example. During an 8-hour work shift, an employee may be exposed to a concentration of Substance A (with
a 10 ppm TWA, 25 ppm ceiling and 50 ppm peak) above 25 ppm (but never above 50 ppm) only for a
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Supersedes
All Programs Prior to the
Date Issued
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Program Title
Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1.6
Classification
Chemical Safety
maximum period of 10 minutes. Such exposure must be compensated by exposures to concentrations less than
10 ppm so that the cumulative exposure for the entire 8-hour work shift does not exceed a weighted average
of 10 ppm.
1910.1000(c)
Table Z-3. An employee's exposure to any substance listed in Table Z-3, in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour
work week, shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average limit given for that substance in the table.
1910.1000(d)
Computation formulae. The computation formula which shall apply to employee exposure to more than one
substance for which 8-hour time weighted averages are listed in subpart Z of 29 CFR Part 1910 in order to
determine whether an employee is exposed over the regulatory limit is as follows:
1910.1000(d)(1)(i)
The cumulative exposure for an 8-hour work shift shall be computed as follows:
E = (Ca Ta+Cb Tb+. . .Cn Tn)÷8
Where:
E is the equivalent exposure for the working shift.
C is the concentration during any period of time T where the concentration remains constant.
T is the duration in hours of the exposure at the concentration C.
The value of E shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average specified in Subpart Z or 29 CFR Part 1910
for the substance involved.
1910.1000(d)(1)(ii)
To illustrate the formula prescribed in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, assume that Substance A has an 8hour time weighted average limit of 100 ppm noted in Table Z-1. Assume that an employee is subject to the
following exposure:
Two hours exposure at 150 ppm
Two hours exposure at 75 ppm
Four hours exposure at 50 ppm
Substituting this information in the formula, we have
(2×150 + 2×75 + 4×50)÷8 = 81.25 ppm
Since 81.25 ppm is less than 100 ppm, the 8-hour time weighted average limit, the exposure is acceptable.
1910.1000(d)(2)(i)
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
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Program Title
Laboratory Chemical
Hygiene Plan
Program No.
4.1.6
Classification
Chemical Safety
in case of a mixture of air contaminants an employer shall compute the equivalent exposure as follows:
Em=(C1÷L1+C2÷L2)+. . .(Cn÷Ln)
Where:
Em is the equivalent exposure for the mixture.
C is the concentration of a particular contaminant.
L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in Subpart Z of 29 CFR Part 1910.
The value of Em shall not exceed unity (1).
1910.1000(d)(2)(ii)
To illustrate the formula prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, consider the following exposures:
Substance
Actual concentration
of 8-hour exposure 8-hour TWA PEL
(ppm)
(ppm)
B .....................................................................
500
1,000
C .....................................................................
45
200
D .....................................................................
40
200
Substituting in the formula, we have:
Em=500÷1,000+45÷200+40÷200
Em=0.500+0.225+0.200
Em=0.925
Since Em is less than unity (1), the exposure combination is within acceptable limits.
1910.1000(e)
To achieve compliance with paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, administrative or engineering controls
must first be determined and implemented whenever feasible. When such controls are not feasible to achieve
full compliance, protective equipment or any other protective measures shall be used to keep the exposure of
employees to air contaminants within the limits prescribed in this section. Any equipment and/or technical
measures used for this purpose must be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygienist
or other technically qualified person. Whenever respirators are used, their use shall comply with 1910.134.
[71 FR 16673, April 3, 2006]
Date Issued
March 25, 2013
Supersedes
All Programs Prior to the
Date Issued
Page
81 of 81
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