BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology Lecture Study Guide Denise Lim, Instructor

BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
Chapter 1: Introduction
1. Bacteria have two words in their name, for example: Escherichia coli. Which word refers to
the genus? Which word refers to the species? What is the convention for writing species
2. What is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote? Which class of
microorganisms are prokaryotes? Which are eukaryotes?
3. What are the seven types of microorganisms and what are their general characteristics?
4. What are the characteristics of life?
5. Why are viruses not considered living organisms? How do they differ from cells?
Chapter 2: Chemical Principles
1. It will be assumed that you are familiar with the following chemical concepts. These
concepts are a review from your previous chemistry course.
a. Atomic and molecular structure: element, atom, proton, neutron, electron, salt, ion,
cation, anion, molecule, compound.
b. Chemical bonds: ionic bonds, polar and nonpolar covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds.
What role do electrons play in each type of bond? Is each type of bond a strong bond or
a weak bond? How can each type of bond be broken?
c. Chemical reactions: reactant, product, equilibrium.
d. Solutions: polar (water) and nonpolar (fat) solvents, solutes.
e. Acid and base chemistry.
2. Define hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and amphipathic. What is the biological significance of
this chemical characteristic?
3. Describe the general chemical composition (you do not need to memorize specific chemical
structures), physical characteristics, and functions of the four groups of organic molecules:
a. Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, especially glucose & fructose; disaccharides;
b. Lipids: saturated & unsaturated fatty acids; triglycerides; phospholipids; cholesterol
c. Protein: amino acids; peptide bonds; primary structure; secondary structure; tertiary
structure; quaternary structure.
d. Nucleic acids: nucleotides, including the three structural components: base (A, T, C, G),
sugar (deoxyribose and ribose), and phosphate; DNA; RNA; ATP
Chapter 4: Cell Structure
1. Describe the following growth morphologies and arrangements: coccus, bacillus, spiral,
diplococci, streptococci, tetrads, sarcinae, staphylococci, diplobacilli, streptobacilli,
coccobacillus, vibrio, spirilla, and spirochetes.
2. Describe the following components of a bacterial cell wall: peptidoglycan (murein), techoic
acid, outer membrane, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Describe the differences between the cell
walls of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and acid-fast bacteria.
3. How does penicillin affect peptidoglycan? Does penicillin act better on growing or nongrowing cells? Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria?
4. Describe the following morphological structures and their functions: glycocalyx
(differentiate between capsule and slime layer), flagella, axial filaments, fimbria, pili (sex
pilus), plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleoid, plasmids, ribosomes, endospores.
Spring, 2016
page 1
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
Describe the following flagellar arrangements: monotrichous, amphitrichous, lophotrichous,
peritrichous, and endotrichous.
Describe chemotaxis and how bacteria find a chemical attractant or avoid a repellant by
running and tumbling.
What is the difference between diffusion (simple and facilitated), osmosis, active transport,
and group translocation? How are solutes transported by each of these mechanisms?
How do prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes differ? Why is this medically important?
What are endospores? What types of environmental hazards are endospores resistant to?
Name two bacterial genera that produce endospores and the diseases they produce.
Chapter 5: Metabolism
1. Define metabolism and describe the difference between anabolism and catabolism. What is
an endergonic reaction? What is an exergonic reaction? What role do they play in
2. What is an enzyme and describe its characteristics. Explain the role of enzymes in
metabolic pathways.
3. What is activation energy?
4. How do enzymes decrease activation energy? What is the Collision Theory?
5. Describe how the following factors that influence enzyme activity: temperature, pH,
substrate concentration, and competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors. What is allosteric
6. Describe feedback inhibition and how it can be used to regulate enzyme activity. Describe
how an allosteric interaction between a substrate and its enzyme can regulate a chemical
reaction and the amount of product made.
7. Define and describe the following terms and processes: glycolysis, fermentation, Krebs
cycle, anaerobic and aerobic respiration, redox reactions, electron transport, and
8. What are the important substrates and products of glycolysis, Krebs cycle, chemiosmosis,
and fermentation?
9. Define aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation in terms of final electron
acceptors. Be able to recognize examples of the final electron acceptor for each different
pathway. What is the function of the final electron acceptor?
10. What is the relationship between aerobic metabolism and fermentation? What is the
importance of pyruvate? How do they rank in terms of the amount of energy (ATP)
produced? What is the final electron acceptor in each pathway?
11. How are fermentation byproducts used to identify different species of bacteria? Recognize
examples of common fermentation products.
12. How is energy stored in a molecular bond? What are the different types of storage
molecules? How do these molecules rank in the amount of energy that can be stored in
each? How is energy transferred from compound to compound?
13. What are the roles of FADH2, NADH, and ATP?
Spring, 2016
page 2
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
Chapter 6: Microbial Growth
1. Describe how bacterial cells divide by fission. Define generation time. Be able to recognize
a bacterial growth curve and identify the different phases of growth. In which growth phase
are bacteria most metabolically active?
2. Describe the following methods used to determine the number of bacteria: plate count
methods including serial dilution, pour plates, and spread plates; filtration, direct
microscopic count, and turbidity. Which methods measure living cells only? Which
methods measure living and dead cells?
3. Explain how physical conditions such as temperature, pH, and oxygen conditions can affect
bacterial growth. How can these growth conditions be manipulated to control food
4. What is the range of growth temperatures for psychrophiles, psychrotrophs, mesophiles,
thermophiles and extreme thermophiles? What is the optimum temperature for each
category? How are these cardinal temperatures determined?
5. How do hypotonic and hypertonic environments affect bacterial growth? What is
plasmolysis? What are extreme and obligate halophiles?
6. What are the chemical requirements for bacterial growth?
7. How does oxygen availability affect the ability of different microorganisms to grow in
different environments? Define the O2 conditions for obligate aerobes, facultative
anaerobes, obligate anaerobes, aerotolerant anaerobes, microaerophiles, and capnophiles.
How can an anaerobic environment be created in a laboratory?
8. What is the difference between chemically defined media and complex media? What is the
purpose of agar in media? What is enriched media?
9. What is a chemical buffer and why are they included in many bacterial media?
10. A common minimal media for E. coli contains the following chemicals:
NH4PO4 (ammonium phosphate)
NaCl (sodium chloride)
MgSO4 (magnesium sulfate)
KH2PO4 and K2HPO4 (potassium phosphate salts)
a. What nutritional requirements are satisfied by each component?
b. Which components act as a buffer?
c. What are other carbon sources that can be substituted for glucose?
11. What are selective media? What are differential media? How are they generally used to
identify different species of bacteria?
Spring, 2016
page 3
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
Chapter 7: Microbial Control
1. Compare and contrast bacteriostatic and bactericidal, sterilization and disinfection,
disinfectants and antiseptics.
2. Describe how each of the following physical conditions can limit microbial growth: heat
(moist, dry, and pasteurization), filtration, desiccation, osmotic pressure, and radiation
(ionizing and nonionizing).
3. Describe when and how each of these methods would be used. Which of these methods
decrease the number of organisms and which sterilize? How are some of these conditions
used to prevent food spoilage?
4. Describe the actions of the following chemical methods of microbial control: phenol and
phenolics, halogens, alcohols, heavy metals, surfactants, organic acids, aldehydes,
chemosterilizers and oxidizing agents like H2O2. Describe when and how each of these
methods would be used.
Chapter 8: Microbial Genetics
1. Define the following terms: genetics, chromosome, gene, genetic code, genotype and
2. Describe the structure of DNA. Be able to distinguish the 3' and 5' ends of DNA and how
they affect assembly of a DNA polymer.
3. What is complimentary base pairing? What is a base sequence? How is information stored
in a molecule of DNA?
4. Describe the process of DNA replication, including the enzymes. What is meant by
semiconservative replication? What are the leading and lagging strands? Okazaki
fragments? Why does discontinuous replication occur?
5. Describe the pathway of information from DNA to protein (Central Dogma).
6. Describe the process of transcription. What enzymes are involved and what do they do?
Describe the process of translation. What cellular components are needed? How is
translation initiated and ended? Be able to transcribe and translate a sample of genetic code
into protein.
7. What is a codon? What is the genetic code?
8. What is the relationship between antibiotics and these cellular processes?
Spring, 2016
page 4
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
Chapter 10: Classification of Microorganisms
1. What is taxonomy? What is phylogeny? How are they related?
2. What are the three Domains and what type of organisms belong to each?
3. What are the taxonomic categories?
Chapter 11: The Bacteria
1. How are Archae different from typical prokaryotes? What are the three types of Achaea?
2. How are mycoplasma different from typical bacteria?
3. You are expected to know the genus names of the organisms listed below, as well defining
characteristics as described on pages 6 – 9 . This is mostly the disease associated with the
organism and its mode of transmission. The exception to this is Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus pyogenes. You will need to know the specific infections and diseases
associated with these species as listed in this handout.
I've included some genera because we have used them in lab, even though you are not required to
know them for the lecture exam. You should remember which phylum each genus belongs to,
but do not need to remember the class or order.
PHYLUM: Proteobacteria
Spring, 2016
PHYLUM: Firmicutes
Streptococcus (Enterococcus)
PHYLUM: Actinobacteria
PHYLUM: Chlamydiae
PHYLUM: Spirochetes
page 5
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
Chapter 11: The Bacteria (Continued)
I. PHYLUM: Proteobacteria (Gram Negative Bacteria)
A. Class: Alphaproteobacteria
1. These bacteria are classified as obligate intracellular parasites and were originally
believed to be viruses because of their small size and inability to reproduce outside a
host cell system. Culturing these bacteria require tissue culture (animal cells in a
dish), living animals, or embryonated chicken eggs. This explains why diagnostic
testing for this group is more time consuming and costly.
a. Genus: Rickettsia* - Transmission to humans is typically by insect vectors or
ticks. Human diseases caused by Rickettsia sp. include tick-borne typhus, Q
fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Rickettsial pox.
b. Genus: Wolbachia* infects insects and is transmitted through reproduction from
parent to offspring. Wolbachia infected mosquitoes have been released into the
wild to fight the spread dengue fever virus. Wolbachia interferes with DFV
replication in the mosquito host.
2. These organisms live symbiotically with plants and are agriculturally important. Both
of these organisms carry genes that can influence differentiation of plant tissues in
their hosts.
a. Genus: Rhizobium*infects leguminous plants like beans, peas, and clover and is
mutually beneficial, providing fixed nitrogen as a nutrient source for the plants.
b. Genus: Agrobacterium* is a parasite that can infect over 2000 varieties of plants,
including grapes, and causes crown gall tumors. Genes responsible for crown gall
development are located on a plasmid call the Ti plasmid (tumor inducing).
B. Class: Betaproteobacteria
1. Genus: Neisseria* - N. meningitidis causes meningitis, or inflammation of the
membranes surrounding the brain. N. gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted
disease gonorrhea. Theses organisms are referred to less formally as meningococcus
and gonococcus, respectively.
2. Genus: Bordetella* - B. pertusis is the causative agent of whooping cough (pertussis).
C. Class: Gammaproteobacteria
1. Many species of this group are psychrotrophs and are therefore a common cause of
food spoilage. These organisms are oxidase positive.
a. Genus: Pseudomonas* - P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of
infecting a variety of body systems and wounds, especially burns. Infection is
characterized by the production of blue-green pus due to the green pigment the
organism produces. P. fluorescens is nonpathogenic and produces soluble
pigment that fluoresces under UV light. We have used both of these organisms in
2. The enterics are a large group contains many normal inhabitants of the
gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and other animals and are informally known as
enteric bacteria. These organisms are oxidase negative. Important genera include:
Spring, 2016
page 6
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
a. Genus: Escherichia* - E. coli is probably the most commonly known fecal
bacteria and an important research organism. Although most strains are relatively
harmless, certain enteropathic varieties can cause "traveller's diarrhea" and
urinary tract infections (UTI). E. coli O157:H7 is a particularly pathogenic strain
that is enterohemorrhagic and can lead to fatalities. This strain produces Shiga
toxin and causes profuse bleeding in the large intestine. This organism can also
cause hemolytic uremic syndrome, which can lead to kidney damage and/or
kidney failure, especially in young children.
b. Genus: Salmonella* - this genus is unique in that almost all members are
potentially pathogenic. It contains the causative agent of typhoid fever and
Salmonellosis, a food-borne infection.
c. Genus: Shigella* - certain species of this genus cause baciterial dysentery or
shigellosis. Other species cause a less harmful form of "traveller's diarrhea".
d. Genus: Yersinia* pestis: this bacterium causes the bubonic plague.
3. Genus: Haemophilus* - H. influenzae is the most common cause of meningitis in
children and one cause of otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear). It also
causes respiratory tract infections in children, including epiglottitis, which can result
in death within a few hours. The HIB vaccine protects against these infections.
4. Genus: Vibrio* – these organisms are curved rods. Most vibrios are nonpathogenic
with the following exceptions:
a. V. cholerae: causes cholera, a disease that results such severe diarrhea, patients
can lose 12 to 20 liters of fluids in a day. Untreated, this disease has a 50%
mortality rate.
D. Class: Epsilonproteobacteria
1. Order: Campylobacterales;
a. Genus: Camplyobacter* - these are microaerophilic vibrios commonly found on
poultry and can cause food borne intestinal disease. Another species is responsible
for spontaneous abortion in domestic animals.
b. Genus: Helicobacter*: Helicobacter pylori is the most common cause of peptic
ulcers in humans and can be treated with antibiotics. These infections can lead to
stomach cancer if left untreated.
II. PHYLUM: Firmicutes (Low G + C, Gram Positive Bacteria); This phylum is not divided
into Classes.
A. Order: Clostridales
1. Genus: Clostridium* These organisms are spore-forming, obligate anaerobes.
a. Clostridium tetani: causative agent of tetanus
b. Clostridium perfringens: causative agent of gas gangrene
c. Clostridium botulinum: causative agent of botulism food poisoning
Spring, 2016
page 7
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
B. Order: Bacillales
1. Genus: Bacillus* – These organisms are spore forming.
a. Bacillus anthracis is pathogenic and causes anthrax in cattle.
b. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus are nonpathogenic species.
c. Bacillus thuringiensis has been used as a biological pesticide (BT) to curb the
spread of the gypsy moth, which can be very damaging to agriculture.
2. Genus: Staphylococcus* - These cocci display a random cell arrangement typically
described as grape-like (staphylo). They are catalase positive, facultative halophiles
that tolerate up to 10% NaCl. Many species are normal residents of the skin and
upper respiratory tract.
a. Pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus* are coagulase positive and may
infect any area of the human body. Staphylococcal skin infections are very
common. The Staphylococcal infections and diseases you are responsible for
knowing include: folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, abscesses, impetigo, scalded
skin syndrome, and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). [See also Ch. 21, pg. 591 – 593]
b. Staphylococcus epidermidis is common, nonpathogenic inhabitant of human skin.
Colonies show a porcelain white pigmentation on solid agar media.
c. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is generally nonpathogenic, but is one of the
leading causes of urinary tract infections.
C. Order: Lactobacillales
1. Genus: Streptococcus* - All members of this genus are catalase negative. Some are
halotolerant of 6.5% NaCl while others are not. This trait can be used to differentiate
different species of this genus. Two classification schemes are used for Streptococcal
species. The first system, Lancefield classification, divides Streptococci into groups
A through O based on cell wall structure (serology). The second system analyzes the
effect of each bacterium on blood agar growth media. Alpha (α)-hemolytic bacteria
partially breaks down red blood cells and produces a green pigment called biliverdin.
Beta (β)-hemolytic bacteria destroy red blood cells and therefore cause a clearing of
the agar. Gamma (γ)-hemolytic bacteria do not cause any visible change. The two
systems are often used together as shown below.
a. Streptococcus pyogenes* = Group A, β-hemolytic Streptococcus. The
Streptococcal infections and diseases you are responsible for knowing include:
meningitis, pneumonia, pharyngitis, otitis media, endocarditis (rheumatic fever),
puerperal fever (childbed fever), scarlet fever, and the skin infections erysipelas
and necrotizing fasciitis.
erysipelas, [See Ch. 21, pg. 594 – 5996 and Ch.22, pg. 641 – 642]
b. Streptococcus agalactiae = Group B, β-hemolytic Streptococcus
c. Enterococcus faecalis = Group D, γ-hemolytic Streptococcus
d. Streptococcus salivarius = Group K, α-hemolytic Streptococcus
Spring, 2016
page 8
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
D. Order: Mycoplasmatales
1. Genus: Mycoplasma* - Bacteria in are characterized by the following:
• Cells do not form a cell wall.
• Their plasma membrane possess sterol compounds, similar to cholesterol.
• Cells are pleiomorphic (no specific shape)
• Cells display fastidious growth requirements when grown on artificial media.
• Cellular growth is slow and colonies are small.
a. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, also called Eaton's agent or PPLO, is the cause of
primary atypical pneumonia.
III. PHYLUM: Actinobacteria (High G + C, Gram Positive bacteria). This phylum is not
divided into Classes.
A. Order: Actinomycetales
1. Genus: Mycobacterium* - These organisms are acid-fast. The cell walls contain a
peptidoglycan backbone with layers of relatively impermeable waxes and lipids. The
nature of the cell wall makes staining difficult and renders them acid fast. The Gram
stain is not truly applicable since the gram stain will not adhere to the waxy cell wall,
although these bacteria are classified as gram positive. Medically important members
a. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: causes tuberculosis
b. Mycobacterium leprae: causes leprosy
Other Phyla of Medical Importance
IV. PHYLUM: Chlamydiae – Like the Rickettsias, these organisms are also intracellular
parasites, but do not require insect vectors for transmission. Transmission usually occurs by
direct contact or via airborne routes.
A. Order: Chlamydiales
1. Genus: Chlamydia* - C. trachomatis causes what may be the most common sexually
transmitted disease (STD) in the United States. It is also the causative agent for the
leading cause of infectious blindness, an eye infection called trachoma. Chlamydia
psittaci is the causative agent of parrot fever, which is also referred to as psittocosis
and ornithosis, and can be transmitted to humans.
V. PHYLUM: Spirochetes – These gram-negative bacteria are helical in shape similar to a
metal spring. A classic rotating-corkscrew motion is caused by axial filaments rather than
A. Order: Spirochaetales – Medically important genera include:
1. Genus: Treponema* – T. pallidum causes syphilis
2. Genus: Borrelia* – B. burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, a tick borne disease that
initially causes a bull's-eye rash, but can eventually lead heartbeat irregularities,
arthritis, and neurological symptoms.
Spring, 2016
page 9
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
Chapter 13: Viruses
1. Define the terms virion, mature or infectious viral particle, virus, and viroid.
2. Why are viruses obligate intracellular parasites?
3. What is host range?
4. Describe the basic structure of a virus (nucleic acid, capsid and envelope). Define
capsomere. What is the function of spikes on a viral envelope?
5. Describe the three morphological types of virus: icosohedral, helical, and complex.
6. Describe the five steps of the viral life cycle for bacteriophage and DNA animal viruses:
attachment, penetration and uncoating, replication and biosynthesis, maturation, and release.
How do these steps differ for naked viruses vs. enveloped viruses?
7. How do bacteriophage produce new genetic recombinants through specialized transduction?
8. Describe the retroviral life cycle. Why can a protease inhibitor be used in anti-HIV drug
9. What is an acute, or lytic infection? What is a latent infection? What is a provirus? How
does a virus evade the immune system during a latent infection? What is a persistent or
chronic infection? What is the ultimate outcome of persistent infections?
10. What are the effects of viral transformation? What is an oncogene? Describe how
oncogenes can cause cancer. Explain how viruses are related to oncogenes and how viruses
are involved in causing cancer.
11. What are prions? How are they transmitted? How do they spread in the brain? What diseases
are caused by prions?
Chapter 14: Disease and Epidemiology
1. Define the following terms: host, pathogen, disease, infection, pathogenicity, virulence,
pathogenesis, etiology and epidemiology.
2. What are normal flora, or normal microbiota, and where do they exist in the body? What are
some general types? What is microbial antagonism?
3. Define the following terms in relation to disease: symbiosis, commensualism, mutualism,
parasitism, opportunistic pathogens.
4. What are Koch's four postulates? What is the significance of his postulates? What are some
exceptions to his postulates?
5. Define or describe the following terms: disease symptoms, communicable disease,
noncommunicable disease, herd immunity, sporadic disease, epidemic, endemic, pandemic,
disease reservoir, pathogen.
6. What is the difference between acute, chronic, and latent or inapparent disease?
7. Describe the difference between local and systemic infection. Define sepsis and septicemia,
bacteremia, toxemia, viremia, primary infection and secondary infection.
8. Describe the development of disease: incubation period, prodromal period, illness period,
decline period, convalescence.
9. Describe the three reservoirs for disease: human, animal, and nonliving. Define a human
carrier of disease and zoonoses.
10. Define the following modes of disease transmission: direct and indirect contact
transmission, fomite transmission, droplet transmission, vehicle transmission via water, food
and air; vector transmission and the difference between mechanical transmission and
biological transmission.
Spring, 2016
page 10
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
11. What is a nosocomial infection or HAI (Healthcare Associated Infection)? What factors
contribute to the spread of nosocomial infections? How can nosocomial infections be
prevented? What is the difference between an exogenous and endogenous nosocomial
12. What is an emerging infectious disease? What are some of the causes of the emergence of
these diseases? Understand the relationship between the emergence of a disease and the
following: new technology for identifying the cause of disease; human disruption of new
ecosystems and overlap of humans with new disease reservoirs; use of antibiotics producing
new resistant strains; failure to vaccinate.
13. What is epidemiology and what role does it play in public health?
Chapter 15: Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
1. Describe the following portals of entry into a host: mucous membranes, skin, parenteral
route, and the preferred portal of entry. What are typical portals of exit?
2. What is virulence? What are LD50 and ID50, and how do they relate to virulence?
3. Describe the various strategies for infection including adherence and penetration,
colonization and invasion by the following factors: adhesins, biofilms, capsules, M protein,
waxy cell wall, coagulase, collagenase, hyaluronidase, streptokinase, and invasin.
4. Describe how bacterial pathogens damage host tissues, either direct damage or through
5. What is the difference between an exotoxin and an endotoxin?
6. Describe the action of the following exotoxins: hemolysins, leukocidins, diphtheria toxin,
erythrogenic toxins, botulinum toxin, tetanus toxin, vibrio enterotoxin, and staphylococcal
7. What organisms produce endotoxins? What are the signs and symptoms produced by
endotoxins? How do bacterial toxins affect the host immune response? How is a fever
induced by endotoxin, including the role of LPS and IL-1. How do endotoxins induce septic
8. Describe the cytopathic effects of viral infection.
Chapter 16: Innate Immunity
1. What are the different types of mechanical and chemical defense mechanisms, including
skin, mucous membranes, tears, mucus, and other body fluids; sebum, perspiration, acid
mantle of skin, lysozyme, and gastric juice. How do they work?
2. What are the different five types of white blood cells and what are their general functions?
3. What is phagocytosis and how does it relate to nonspecific defense? Which cells are
responsible for phagocytosis? Describe the process of phagocytosis upon entry of a
pathogen into a host organism, from chemotaxis to action of the lysosome.
4. What are natural killer cells (NK cells) and how do they destroy target cells?
5. Describe the process of the inflammatory response and its characteristics, including
vasodilation, phagocytic migration, tissue repair, and fever. What is the function in the
process of inflammation of the following compounds: kinin, histamine, prostaglandins,
leukotrienes, and interleukin-1? Describe how Gram negative endotoxins are thought to
produce fever.
Spring, 2016
page 11
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
What is complement? What are the main characteristics of the three pathways of activation?
What are the results of complement activation? You do not need to remember the individual
complement proteins or the details of the activation pathways.
What are interferons and how do they help stop viral infections? How can they be used as
drug therapies?
Chapter 17: Adaptive Immunity
1. What is immunity? Describe the difference between these different types of immunity:
innate immunity, acquired immunity (both natural and artificial), active immunity, and
passive immunity. What are immune globulins, or gamma globulins?
2. What is the difference between B lyphocytes and T lymphocytes? What is humoral
immunity and cell-mediated immunity?
3. What is an antigen? What is an antigenic determinant, epitope, hapten? What types of
molecules can be antigens? What type of molecule makes the best antigens?
4. What is an antibody? Describe the physical characteristics of an antibody and how it
interacts with an antigen. What are the five classes of antibody and where is each class
found or used in the body?
5. What are the results of the formation of an antibody-antigen complex, including
agglutination, opsonization, neutralization, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity,
and inflammation.
6. Describe the process of B cell activation, including the primary and secondary (anamnestic)
immune response to an antigen. What is the difference between a plasma cell and a memory
B cell? What is clonal selection?
7. What are major histocompatibility antigens (MHC/HLA) and what role do they play in
8. What is antigen presentation? What type of cells can become antigen presenting cells
(APC)? How do they become APC? Describe the role of the APC in the immune response.
9. Describe the different types of T cells and their functions. How do these different cells
types interact with macrophages and/or B cells during the immune response?
10. Describe the cell-mediated immune response and all the players.
11. What are cytokines, especially IL-1, IL-2, and what role do they play in immunity?
12. What is apoptosis and what role does it play in immunity?
Spring, 2016
page 12
BIO6, Introduction to Microbiology
Denise Lim, Instructor
Lecture Study Guide
Chapter 22: Diseases of the Nervous System
1. Describe the general arrangement of the central and peripheral nervous system and the
structure of the meninges.
2. For each of the following diseases, know the causative agent, symptoms and/or
pathogenesis, mode of transmission and reservoir (if known), treatment and/or prevention,
and associated complications (if applicable):
a. Hansen's disease, or leprosy (both the tuberculoid form and the lepromatous form)
b. Poliomyelitis (polio virus)
c. Rabies (Rhabdovirus)
Chapter 23: Diseases of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems
1. Define the following terms: septicemia, lymphangitis, sepsis, septic shock, TORCH.
2. For each of the following diseases, know the causative agent, symptoms and/or
pathogenesis, mode of transmission and reservoir (if known), treatment and/or prevention,
and associated complications (if applicable):
a. Septicemia and Lymphangitis
b. Gas Gangrene (C. perfringens)
c. Mononucleosis, Burkitt's Lymphoma, Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (Epstein-Barr virus)
d. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
Chapter 24: Diseases of the Respiratory System
1. For each of the following diseases, know the causative agent, symptoms and/or
pathogenesis, mode of transmission and reservoir (if known), treatment and/or prevention,
and associated complications (if applicable):
a. Influenza (including H1N1 and avian)
b. Tuberculosis
c. Whooping Cough (Bordetella pertussis)
d. Diptheria
2. What is antigenic drift? What is antigenic shift? How does antigenic shift contribute to new
influenza pandemics?
Chapte 25: Gastrointestinal Diseases
1. For each of the following diseases, know the causative agent, symptoms and/or
pathogenesis, mode of transmission and reservoir (if known), treatment and/or prevention,
and associated complications (if applicable):
a. Hepatitis A, B, and C
b. Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)
c. Tapeworms (Taenia)
d. Ascariasis (Ascaris)
2. How do protozoans and helminths differ from bacteria and viruses? Describe the two types
of helminthes.
3. Describe the life cycles for Schistosoma, Taenia, and Ascaris. Be sure to understand the role
of both the human host and any biological vector involved.
Spring, 2016
page 13