Biology 11A Review for Chapters 7,8, and 9 Review these questions, as well as those questions at the end of the chapters. This will help you do well on the exam. Chapters 7, 8, 9 (These three chapters were only partially covered. Check on the powerpoint presentation to see what parts we covered) DNA and Meiosis 1. How many pairs of chromosomes do we humans have? 2. Name the parts of the DNA molecule. 3. What are the four nitrogenous bases of the DNA molecule? 4. What type of bond connects the complementary strands of DNA? 5. When would cells need to undergo mitosis? 6. Define binary fission, and the phases of mitosis and meiosis. 7. Which are three of the enzymes that participate in DNA replication? 8. What is a histone and a nucleosome? How are they helpful to the cell? 9. Distinguish between benign or a malignant cancer. What does metastasis mean? 10. What are endostatins and how do they fight against cancer? 11. What are autosomal chromosomes? What are sex chromosomes? Define diploid and haploid. 12. What is a homologous pair of chromosomes? What are sister chromatids? What are alleles? What does a duplicated chromosome look like? What does a non-‐ duplicated chromosome look like?